Features and Effectiveness of National Language Policy
DESCRIBING NATIONAL LANGUAGE POLICY AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS
Since the dawn of civilization, language, both in written and verbal form, has been the carrier and propagator of culture. Considering the multitude of languages practices in a country, national governments formulate language policies for favouring the use of a specific or a set of languages. Government body of every individual country has their own language policy to protect their usage. This essay premised on a language policy and its effectiveness for obtaining an idea about how these policies help languages to sustain for a longer period of time. In this essay, national language policy of Australia is considered to discuss all those factors in this essay. This policy helps to develop language planning so that the purpose of this language can be solved. The aim of this essay is to provide a concrete concept about how native language policy help in development country and all languages which falls under this policy. This essay also incorporates features; effectiveness of this policy along with this essay includes few recommendations for improvement of this policy for future prospect.
This section elaborates various aspect of this National Language Policy to provide relevant information which is helpful for further studies.
Development of the Policy
This national language policy helps to protect different types of language used in Australia. A language is a most effective communication medium for every human being. Government body of Australian introduced this National Language Policy with the help of common people (Govtilr.org, 2002). In this case, this policy ensures that how this language has been used and its skills along with development area, modification. According to Wright (2016), Australia has many language and few of them become absolute in past years. In this way, this policy helps to sustain those languages in present days because every language contains tradition of a specific country.
Every language policy is determined on the basis of language planning. This planning finds issues, constraints, development area of a specific language. On the other hand, this policy emphasizes on separates potion of each and every language. In this way, all those language planning can figure out different problems which can affect a language. In opinion of Carty (2014), a language may become extinct if all those identified problems cannot be resolved. Hence, this policies help to save all those backdated languages from extinction. According to Albury (2017), the purpose of a language policy is to measure choice of nation about language identified problems in a comprehensive, balanced and rational way. This policy also incorporate various principles to protect every language based on individual requirement and overcome all those issues which affect that language directly or indirectly.
Australia is a first country which has started to campaign for protection of every language (Govtilr.org, 2002). In order to promote all those language, Australia took few steps which are incorporated in National Language Policy. One of this is to select few languages as an official language (Riley, 2017). On the other hand, Australian government introduced few languages in courses of school and universities. In this case, student has to learn those languages from their school days so that they become familiar with those languages. In this way, those languages would not go extinct. In opinion of Tollefson & Milans (2018), every language can be adopted more easily if that language has easy terminologies along with pronunciations, otherwise that language would become extinct.
Characteristics of the Policy
This Australian language policy has started for easy communication between every civilians of this country so that communication platform would be easier to express their opinion, expression and feelings. This policy has few characteristic which are discussed in next paragraphs-
This language policy is capable of helping a wide range which is existed in this country for long time. All that language belongs to different parts of this country and used by people of urban as well as rural area (Shen, 2016). Since different language has its own problems, hence the language planning policy could few modifications to them so that they can update with respect to environmental changes. In this case, people can use that language very easily as a communication medium. On the other hand, few languages have different issues regarding speech and pronunciation. According to Diallo & Lidicoat (2014), every language is bound to adopt with time and incorporate changing scenario. They adopt few changes in pronunciation and writing to make it easier as per environmental effects.
This policy also provides few changes in terms of social and political impact. In opinion of Zhou & Zou (2017), this national language policy also includes multiculturalism to retain a language for longer period of time. This feature helps to develop a language with respect to environmental changes because maximum language has history and they have individual communication style which obsoletes in present days. However, many languages change their perspective and modify their communication style to make it easier. In this case, this policy helps to add new features in those language and this policy also maintain their culture based on their history so that people can easily exchange their thoughts with their own language.
Australian government introduced new features in National Language Policy to protect all those language. In order to make it easier, government body of Australia announce few language as an official language on the basis of popularity. As per Zhou & Zou (2017), English is one of the most voted languages which are used by 80% people in this country with respect to other language. Australian government also starts little language in their education system so that student is familiar with that language. All those factors are incorporated in this policy to resist a language from being extinct. This policy protects each and every language via law, court and legislation which is generated by Australian government.
Scope of this Policy
National Language Policy has different aspect for developing a language to sustain with environment. This policy makes every language separate of other language with respect to maintain their individuality. In this way, Australia has different types of language based on separate area of this country. This orientation makes people familiar with their language and knows their features separately. According to Hao (2018), this policy adds some quality to allow that language to every person so that they can accept it in an effective manner. On the other hand, government body of Australia include all different language to protect them so that they can sustain in long run. Every person has a right to speak with their mother tongue for expressing their feelings and opinion so that this policy helps to maintain this with their principles with the help of common people (Legislation.gov.au, 1986).
Majority of Australian citizen use English as their primary language to communicate with others and its count almost is 83% of entire population in Australia. Most of the country has used this language as their official language. In opinion of Hult (2018), this language is a majorly used language in world however; every country has used this language in different way in terms of vocabulary and spellings. This English language is used as official and co-official language in many countries with comparison of other languages. This language also is accepted by various people and they make few changes when they adopt this language with consideration of environmental effects. All those changes are done on the basis of specific requirements and demands of people. This change is operated by National Language Policy of individual country. Every language policy makes modification based on country specification (Velázquez & Ponce, 2018).
There are few languages which are discussed in aforementioned segments present in every country. Those languages are spoken in fewer area of this country. In this case, that language become obsolete and the language are called Aboriginal Languages (Tan, 2017). Australian government found that less than ten people in all over world used 114 languages in 1971. On the other hand, only one hundred people used forty five languages and all those languages became entirely outdated. In order to overcome those issues identified from several observations, government has started to accept little modification can improve this situation (Xu, 2016). In this case, government body of this country try to figure out all those issues and determine a plan to resolve these problems so that they has made modification as per requirement. In most case, one thing found that they change in presentation of that language. According to Jung & Brown (2016), this presentation contains spelling, grammar. After such modification, government can identify that people accept those language in an efficient manner.
Most of the Community Languages is used in this country other than English in Australia. Australian government found that 15% to 17% of people used this community language in daily basis. According to Liddicoat (2014), many school students use community language as their primary language other than English as per school report. In this case, this policy helps to adopt few outdated languages. In opinion of Bianco (2014), government body provide liberty to all of its civilians that they can use their language of choice as their primary language. On the other hand, Australian government make English as a first or primary language because this language adopts so many changes and this language is easier for communication. However, government body of Australia provide a chance to take other community language as their second language. In this away, different types of community language were privileged by this decision of Australian government (Zhou & Zou, 2017).
This national language policy can take huge steps to protect all outdated language and save them for extinction. This policy takes various steps to make all those language more useful. This policy incorporates little modification in that language in an effective manner (Tonkin, 2015). The government body also started promoting that language so that people use their own language rather than English because every individual language has their own history which denotes people culture, living style. In opinion of Phipps & Fassetta (2015), government apply those steps via legislation, court and law.
Now that the National Language Policy has been critically evaluated, it is necessary to recommend strategies for addressing the gaps. Firstly, Government promote this national language policy so that people of rural area aware of this and use their community language in everywhere as their primary language (Velázquez & Ponce, 2018). Secondly, Government can start different survey to know status of different language so that they can take required steps to protect them after knowing proper issues (Xu, 2016). Thirdly, Government body can introduce free campaign where teaching session is provided about those outdated language. This process helps also to save from extinction (Zhou & Zou, 2017).
This essay was based on the topic of describing that language which was controlled by various policies to save it from extinction. This essay considered National Language Policy of Australia in which government body controlled all language which used in daily basis. Government body of this country took several steps to protect all language which used in rural and community based language via court, law and legislation. In this way, they recovered many outdated language. This essay observed that many community based language and Aboriginal Languages used in school as a second language whereas English used there as primary or first language.
Government body tried to figure out status of every language in current days. Hence, they took necessary steps to resolve all identified problems and those outdated language sustained for longer period of time. On the other hand, Australian government added little modification as per requirement of present environment in respective language so that all those language was acceptable by all civilians of this country. The purpose of this essay was to promote awareness to people so that they knew about this language policy and language planning mechanism taken by government for providing extra protection regarding to save language from extinction. In this way, the essay have successfully presented a holistic overview on the National Language Policy of Australia and evaluated in detail the effectiveness of this policy.