3003PSY Investigating Associations Between Gender And Body Mass Assessment Answer

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Question :

3003PSY Assignment 2021

Investigating the associations between personality, gender, and body mass with repetitive eating

Study Overview

You may have noticed that when you are spending a lot of time at home, or studying, that you may be eating more than you usually do, even when you aren’t hungry. You may have even have heard the phrase “COVID Kilos” - a term that refers to the weight gain some people experienced after working and studying at home more over the past year . Some researchers have termed this constant unplanned repetitive eating of small amounts of food and/or eating in the absence of actual hunger as “repetitive eating” or “grazing” (Conceição et al., 2014). This type of eating is commonly found in those undertaking bariatric surgery and those with binge-type eating disorders, but also frequently occurs in non-clinical populations. Indeed, there appears to be a higher proportion in non-clinical samples than in eating-disorder samples (Conason, 2014). While it appears that grazing is a somewhat a normative behaviour, grazing has been linked to weight increase, and lower quality of life (Heriseanu et al. 2019).

Psychological researchers note though, that some people graze far more than others. Recent research has found grazing to be more common in women, in those with a higher body mass, and there have been some findings that suggest that certain personality traits like being more impulsive and being more sensitive to the rewarding properties of food may be linked to greater grazing behaviour (Bonder et al., 2018; Wilson et al., 2021). Impulsiveness is typically defined as acting rashly and without considering future consequences. Reward responsiveness can be conceptualized as having two separate facets: i) Reward Interest, which is defined as the tendency to notice and seek out rewarding situations or activities and ii) Reward Reactivity, which is defined as the tendency to respond positively to obtained rewards. While these factors (gender, body mass, impulsiveness, reward interest, and reward reactivity) have been associated with eating behaviour, previous studies have only looked the association with grazing independently of each other (e.g., have only looked at the association between being overweight, or impulsive, etc) but not in a single study. This is important as often impulsiveness and reward responsiveness are also correlated with each other (e.g., Dawe et al., 2004). By examining these personality traits, together with gender and body mass, in their association with grazing in a single study we can test the unique associations between each factor and the outcome variable, in addition to the overall association between the predictor variables and grazing.

The current study

To that end a researcher ran a study collecting data from a sample of adults in the community by asking them to complete an online survey. The survey consisted of asking participants their height and weight, their identified gender, and three survey questionnaires measuring 1) grazing (repetitive eating), 2) impulsiveness, and 3) the two facets of reward responsiveness: reward interest, and reward reactivity. Grazing behaviour was measured using the Repetitive Eating Questionnaire (Conceição, et al., 2014). Impulsiveness was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Brief; Sternberg, Sharp, Stanford, & Tharp, 2013) while reward interest and reward reactivity were measured using items from the Short Version of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Personality Questionnaire (Vecchione & Corr, 2020).

In this assignment you will be tasked with testing the following research question:

What are the associations between gender, body mass index (BMI), impulsiveness, reward interest, and reward reactivity on self-reported grazing?

To do this you will work with a dataset to test this research question using procedures and analyses as taught in this course in order to answer a series of questions that that you would work through when running a research study.

Notes.

  • You do not need to do any research in this area. The references to the questionnaires used have been added to the reading lists in the library for those so interested.
  • The assignment does not require a literature review.
  • The assignment does not require an abstract or reference list.
  • You have a maximum word limit of 2000 words but you may not need this many words.
  • You will need to use the skills developed in the tutorials (weeks 3 to 8) to run the analyses.
  • Also consult with the online resources provided for conceptual understanding of the analyses.

The Assignment Dataset

The assignment dataset contains the data as entered from the survey administered by the study’s participants.

You will need to use the skills taught in the tutorial program to:

  • Recode the relevant variables into a meaningful format to use in the subsequent analysis
  • Compute the relevant scale scores to use in the subsequent analysis
  • Answer the questions below

This assignment is a modified version of a subset of real survey data. The assignment data file is in SPSS format and is called 3003PSY Assignment Data 2021.sav. It is available on Learning@GU in the Assessment folder. The variables are explained below. The dataset concerns adult participants who took part in a study examining predictors of grazing behaviour.

The variables in the datafile are: (SPSS variable names shown in bold): Gender “What gender do you identify with ?” 1 = Female; 2 = Male; 3 = Other Height “Please enter your height (in cm)

Weight “Please enter your weight (in kgs)

req# Items from the Repetitive Eating Questionnaire (# = question number)

BARRATT# Items from the Brief Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (# = question number)

RSTPQ# Items from the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Personality Questionnaire Short Version (# = question number)

See copies of questionnaires at the end of this document

Use the information provided to compute the relevant scales and demographics

Note that some questionnaires have multiple scales. Make sure to use the correct scale.

Things you will need to calculate prior testing your assumptions and running your analyses:

  • Calculate Body Mass Index. You will need to use this formula and your compute skills to create this index from participants’ reported height and weight. The formula for is: BMI = kg/m2 where kg is a person's weight in kilograms and m2 is their height in metres squared.

weight(kgs)/(height(metres)2)

Note this formula requires a conversion from height in cms to height in metres. Also ensure to square height first, then divide

  • Create a dummy variable for gender

  • Create a composite score for grazing from the Repetitive Eating Questionnaire (see the items at the end of this document)
  • Create a composite score for Impulsiveness from the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Brief (see the items at the end of this document)
  • Create a composite score for Reward Interest from the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Personality Scale - Short (see the items at the end of this document)
  • Create a composite score for Reward Reactivity from the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Personality Scale - Short (see the items at the end of this document)
  • Follow the processes from the online materials, synchronous lecture, and tutorials to answer the questions below

For this assignment, you are expected to select and run the appropriate analyses and procedures, and to report the outcomes of these analyses as required by each question. Some questions require you to present formal write-ups that are similar to parts of methods and results sections. Be sure to read the questions carefully. Your analyses should all be selected from those covered in 3003PSY in 2021.

There will be one set of data for the whole classHowever, you must write up and submit independent assignments. The normal University procedures for plagiarism, including the use of checking software, apply to the present assessment item.

  • The total marks for this Assignment are 80 and equal 40% of the course grade.
  • Do not provide an abstract.
  • You have a maximum word limit of 2000 words
  • Use APA format (APA 7th) where appropriate, including tables
  • You may use dot points except where otherwise indicated (e.g., when asked to write in sentence/paragraph format)
  • Do not submit your syntax
  • Maximum marks for each section are noted below
  • Submit your final analysis output as an Appendix

RESEARCH QUESTION

What are the associations between gender, body mass index (BMI), impulsiveness, reward interest, and reward reactivity on self-reported grazing?ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS AND ASSOCIATED MARKS

Answer the following questions:

In your assignment use the question (in bold) and question number as subheadings when answering each question (these subheadings are not part of the word count).

Content
Marks1
1.What are the constructs of interest in the RQ?
1.5 Marks
2.How are each construct operationalised?
1.5 Marks
Based on the information provided on page 1 state the hypothesised associations ?
  • Write a sentence or two stating hypotheses as you would at the end of an introduction of a research report. Use the information in the Study Overview section to make your hypotheses. You are not to review the literature.

2 Marks
What are the internal reliabilities (Cronbach alphas) of the scale scores?
  • You will need to calculate these as per the tutorial exercise

4 Marks
Do the scales have acceptable reliability?
  • What criteria have you based your decision on?

2 Marks
Write a brief statement describing each of the measures used
  • This is effectively a measures section of a psychological research report and is to be presented in sentence/paragraph format as you would in a report.

6 Marks


Report each variable in your dataset and how they are measured by stating:
  • the measure (with reference),
  • scoring details,
  • Cronbach’s alpha (from this dataset as calculated above), and
  • possible min and max scores.


Report the following information in the appropriate table:
  • Mean and SD of the continuous variables
  • The correlations between all predictor variables, and the grazing scale
  • Make sure to follow APA 7 formatting

5 Marks
Perform the appropriate checks of the relevant assumptions and address the following:

Report on the distribution of the residuals
  • Would they suggest any problems? why or why not?
  • What criteria did you use to determine if there were any problems?

3 Marks
Are there any obvious data entry errors?
  • Provide details of any data entry errors (e.g., which variables have errors and how many)
  • What criteria did you use to determine data entry errors?

1 mark
Are there any univariate outliers (only look for these on continuous level data - ignore frequency data)?
  • Provide details of any univariate outliers (e.g., which variables have outliers and how many)
  • What criteria did you use to determine univariate outliers?

4 marks
Are there any multivariate outliers ?
  • Were there any multivariate outliers?
  • What criteria did you use to determine multivariate outliers?

2 Marks
Are any of the scales considered significantly skewed?
  • Report the skewness for all continuous variables in the dataset (including direction; use the computed scale scores not the raw scores)
  • What criteria did you use to determine skew?

5 Marks


Perform the appropriate transformations on relevant variables
  • Which variables require transformations?
  • Which transformations did you use?
  • What was the effect of the transformation/s (e.g., did the transformation help with skew?)

8 Marks
Write a paragraph outlining your testing of assumptions and how you addressed any violations
  • Write this section as taught in the tutorials and is to be in sentence/paragraph format
  • You need to report information regarding outliers and skew even if you consider the residuals to be okay.

7 Marks
10.Perform the appropriate analysis to answer the RQ and answer the following:

How many participants were in the final analysis?
  • Did you need to remove any influential datapoints?
  • What was your justification for your decision for removing (or keeping) datapoints?

4 Marks
Did you use the transformed or non-transformed data in the final analysis?
  • State and justify your decision for each variable

3 Marks
Report the results from your analysis
  • Write a paragraph reporting your results addressing the RQ.
  • Use the example covered in the tutorials to guide your write-up
  • Use the appropriate table to report the results
  • Again use the example covered in the tutorials
  • Make sure you use the data after you have checked your assumptions and made your decisions as to whether you decided to delete (or not) outliers, and whether you decided to use the raw or transformed data.
  • You will need to perform your analysis several times to make these decisions !
  • Only report the final analysis (i.e., having you have decided on removing/keeping data; using raw or transformed data)

7 Marks
12. How much of the variance in the outcome variable was explained by the predictor variables?
  • report the overall variance explained
4 Marks
  • report the unique variance for each variable in the analysis
  • report the shared variance
  • Show your calculations for shared and unique variance


Make a conclusion of your results
  • Write a paragraph interpreting your results in the context of the RQ
  • Were the hypotheses supported?
  • Note the variance accounted incl unique and shared - what does this mean?
  • Discussion any limitations as to the data? Of the analyses?
  • What can the researcher conclude?

7 Marks
14. Adherence to APA formatting (where relevant, e.g., Tables, reporting of measures, results)
2 Marks
15. Output from final analysis attached as Appendix
1 Mark


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