603 Spark New Zealand Services And HRM Assessment 2 Answer

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Question :

Explain Spark New Zealand Services and HRM of the company.

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Answer :

New Zealand Diploma in Business 

(Leadership and Management)

Level 6

Human Resource Management – NZDB 603

Assessment 2 – (12 Credits)

Executive Summary

This provides information regarding Spark New Zealand and has also tried to elaborate on the services which are offered by them. In order to manage the performance, it is indeed essential to maintain a healthy relationship among a group of employees. The study has tried to shed light upon the different HR principles which are associated with the Treaty of Waitangi and have also tried to provide information regarding the Health and Safety Work Act (2015). 

Apart from that, this report covered a detailed career development plan which includes Training assessment needs, Training readiness, Training plan Training program implementation, Training results evaluation, and Training duration. Three different training programs are going to be discussed in this study for developing three essentials skills of the employees, for example, Problem Solving Skill, Technical Skill, and Communication Skill in Spark New Zealand. Lastly, this study will focus on Health and Safety Strategies for increasing self-confidence of the employees.

Apart from the above-mentioned points the implementation of health as well as safety policies and practices in spark New Zealand follows the legislation of health and safety at the workplace which had been introduced in the year of 2015 along with its obligations. This had helped spark in practicing certain strategies for implementing the law, this includes showing culture and leadership identification of risk, assessment of risk, management of risks, management of workplace and readiness in terms of emergency, and some more. Some of the improvements that must be brought about within the organization include providing training as well as opportunities for professional development for the managers inorder to help them for maintaining relationships within the workplace with various unions. 

The recommendation is Spark needs to support, provide guidance and professional development to managers by organizing meetings, guiding and sharing expertise to help them maintain effective working relationships with the unions.

It is recommended that graduates who have completed cross-training with Spark NZ be qualified to develop social skills, as well as core affective skills through the Manaiakalani Education Trust. To increase self-confidence as well as customer and employee relationship skills before resuming their careers as managers. 

1. Introduction

1.1 Overview of the Organization

Spark New Zealand is a famous telecommunication industry, which is generally known as Spark to the local people, and the organization was established in 1st April 1987. The organization is headquartered in Auckland. The organization emerged in 1987 when postal and telecommunication industry was deregulated, and the selling price was considerably low which provided a chance to the founders of Spark New Zealand to purchase few of the operating share of telecom New Zealand, and later after developing the business operations of the telecommunication industry, they renamed it to be Sparks New Zealand. The organization served its operation in entire New Zealand, and it is reported that the number of employees of the organization is approximately 4565 people(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 

1.2 Product and Services Offerings Made by the Organization

Spark New Zealand mainly operates its business operations in the telecommunication industry, and the services that Spark New Zealand offers to its customers are mobile services, landline services, spark sports, and Broadband services. The brand was successful in developing the first 3G services in New Zealand and offered it to their customers, and the brand name of their 3G service was known as T3G. In the year 2005, the organization was successful in acquiring some of the business operating shares of Spark, and in the same year, they were successful in developing new mobile phone customers. In 2005, the mobile phone customers that were developed by Sparkwas 27000, whereas the customer who was developed by Spark New Zealand was 72000(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 

2Managing Employment Relationship

In Spark New Zealand, the employment relationship starts from the hiring process in which day employees as well as the employers are introduced for the first time. This particular process requires effective management for the purpose of bringing out the expected outcomes within this relationship. Considering the employment relationship there had been various requirements that contribute to making a good relationship among the professionals, this includes good creation of faith between the employers as well as employees and the The concept of good faith within the employment relationship needs them to imply various strategies of mutual understanding along with maintaining a product as well as a constructive relationship. The employment relationship that is followed in Spark New Zealand will be analyzed in this stage(Employment New Zealand, 2020). 

2.1 Employment Relationship Management in Spark NZ

Employment relationship

Employment relationships could be stated as a particular legal link that exists between various employees as well as employers. This relationship exists when an individual performs services for work under several conditions and receives remuneration in return. With the help of employment relationships, the individuals are provided with the access to various rights as well as benefits that environment-based employment in the aspects of social security and Labour law provisions that would be addressed to the employees(Employment Law in the Public Sector, 2008). 

Good faith in employment relationships

Good faith includes three elements namely parties must be communicative and responsive, parties should not act in a deceptive or a misleading manner and before undertaking a particular decision that might cause employees in losing their post in the organization, the employer should provide employees with enough data in order to understand their proposal and hence provide them effective opportunities for commenting(Employment Law in the Public Sector, 2008). Good faith involves the following letter from the law. Apart from this it also involves treating employees with the use of common sense and fairly. Good faith needs the employees and employers as well as unions to raise certain issues in a timely as well as fair manner, work positively as well as constructively and act openly honestly without any hidden motives(New Zealand Legislation, 2020). Table 1 provides analysis of good faith obligations employer, employees, and unions.

Table 1 Analysis of good faith obligations on employers, employees and unions

Parties   Analysis of good faith obligation 
Employer -It is simply known as an association, entity, government agents who under official terms of contract appoint works to a particular employee.

Misconduct inquiries: The alleged misconduct carried out by a particular employee should meet the good faith obligations in every stage carried out for inquiry. Employers' good faith responsibilities include, but are not limited to, cases in which misconduct enquiries develop, employee performance issues, company restructurings, redundancies and individual bargaining. The employment relationship might lie on good faith to deliver a wider form of scope as compared to mutual obligations of confidence and trust. The duty of good faith requires parties in the employment relationship to become constructive in establishing responsive and communicative areas. The good faith in employment relationship might bargain for a collective agreement having an interest in doing types of work. The good faith makes access to workplace having a representative on unions. It is essential for the employers to keep a track of the misconducts of the employees as well as the team members. Different steps need to be incorporated to ensure that the misconducts are identified. This would provide support to the employees who may have been the victim of the misconduct. Once a complaint is made to make any formal allegations for the misconduct then the person must be significantly treated like any other witness in the proceedings(Employment New Zealand, 2020).
Employee performance concerns:The employer needs to take appropriate decisions to improve the performance of the employee without punishing them in a disappointing way.The investigation in the performance of employees and issues identified in it might encounter some practical challenges such as misconduct inquiries. Employee performance concerns relate to any concerns that employees have and may require that employers investigate at some stage.Based on the good faith, the employee can appeal the decision if the employer 's decision is incorrect and considered to be unreasonable.The concept of good faith becomes important to those having involved in negotiating and advising on behalf of working in public sectors. The Employment Relations Act 2000 and amendments between unions and employers become the collective agreement. The public sectors deliver better areas on high density in the country of New Zealand. This helps in addressing to focus on identifying occasions that become practitioners on good faith(Employment New Zealand, 2020).
Business restructurings: The concept of business restructuring and the necessity for the knowledge of employees along with their involvement had been considered as a vexed question for several years. It is the human nature due to which employees learn regarding the restructuring of the business of employers which then tends to become defensive, fearful antagonistic, and risk adverse. Business restructuring is critical for the efficiency of operations for businesses and employees. According to the human nature, employees learning to restructure the employer can lead to a sense of fear, defensive and risk averse. The good faith in this concern discusses that, in order to make the decision, the sharing of information must take place as of the time of the proposal under the Employment Relations Act 2000. According to this section, the employer must not refuse access to information easily because of the information contained in document having confidential information(Employment New Zealand, 2020).
Redundancies: The time in which the good faith obligations had been engaged might be uncertain in nature when the concept of restructuring is proven to be contemplated, in this case, the employer might determine that various redundancies are essential. This act requires the implementation of good faith. This involves providing the employees with access to the beta that would be relevant to the continuation of employment, an opportunity for commenting on the data before any sort of decision is taken. It is essential for the employers for following fair procedure when they have to cut down jobs for addressing the increasing issue of costs. Redundancies do not imply cutting down of the jobs just for the sake of personal issues. However, the managers of the organisations need to arrange meetings and create transparency among the employees about the redundancies. The management needs to consider the redeployment and the alternative options before cutting down the jobs(Employment New Zealand, 2020).
Individual bargaining: Apart from collective bargaining and its engagement of various employees with the unions is also essential in the good faith. This must be widespread along with bargaining for the employment agreements which would include various alterations in them.The employer focuses on employees' collective bargaining power so employees can negotiate their salaries over the duration of their work. In this context, the organisation gives its employee some legal agreement so that the employee can bargaining from the organisation their desired amount.Employers need to consult employees to get their feedback on their agreements and provide them with opportunities to express their ideas and opinions to them(Employment Law in the Public Sector, 2008).
Spark NZ Employers are expected to be involved and constructive in raising their complaints to staff, and if an investigation of misconduct arises, they must proactively investigate the matter. Employers are expected to provide the employee with sufficient details and ability to comment while being expected to act on an employee's received comments with a objective mind. They must maintain good relationship with their employees and deals with them properlyand set out their standards about client management, ethics and code of conduct policies(Spark New Zealand, 2017).
Employees- They are generally understood as a group of people working for a specific company or organisation under a specified form of contract

Misconduct investigations: In case aemployee had been subjected to inquiry for misconduct by an employer, is not common that employee would stay silent all contribute minimum to the inquiry of the employer. Misconduct investigations are necessary when workplace enquiries are made into misconduct. Investigation into the actions of other employees is needed when investigations of misconduct are launched, and witnesses are identified to employees who have entered the investigations.Employees can go for any misconduct to the investigations. The employer needs to investigate the information and facts against an alleged employee in this regard, in order to have an investigation which is fair. Details of the documents need to be provided to the employees involved in the incident, interviews with the employees concerned regarding the alleged information.
Investigations into other employees’ conduct: Asituation relevant to the scenario includes an employee colleague who could be considered as a particular in the inquiry of the misconduct. In this case, the witness would feel divided the loyalty and might be unwilling to participate in the inquiry.Regarding the misconduct issues, anyworkers can investigate misconduct made by another co- workers. Similarly, employee who are investigating regarding a misconduct issues made by other employees, can be the relevant witness of that misconduct issue.Itis very important for an employee to provide fair information about the misconduct made by other co- workers to maintain good faith in employee relationship(Employment Law in the Public Sector, 2008).
Long term sickness or injury: The level up to which anindividual who is injured or sick should disclose data to their employer regarding their injury as well as prognosis in order to re-join the organization had been a tough thing to decide. However, the applications of the good face might result in having a greater number of publications the employees call making certain disclosures to two employers. In case of injury an employee wants a long-term leave. The duty of good faith places obligations upon the employee to report properly to the employer. If such information is processed and continues to be revised, Spark NZ employees can secure their jobs in the case of a long-term work gap.
Employee conflicts of interest. Employee conflict of interest is required to be declared to ensure employees do not violate the company's obligations. In the case of any conflict of interest, workers must inform the employer about it in order to declare the conflicting interests and be clear. Finally, employees with actual or potential conflicts of interest may now be required to disclose these both sooner and with greater openness than may have been the case before(Employment Law in the Public Sector, 2008).
Spark NZ Employees are obliged to raise any complaints they have at work as soon as possible, so that the organisation may work together and fix the problems until it becomes a big issue. If an employee fails to address issues on time the organisation will be unaware of the problems. If the employees raise an issue at Spark and, in the fact that the company does not follow the rules of good faith, the employee is obliged to raise a personal grievance through the grievance.The Blue Heart programme of Spark was introduced to encourage everyone at Spark to be more inclusive in what they do, to celebrate the diversity within the company, to ensure that everyone has a voice, and to lead 'from the heart' diversity and inclusion(Spark New Zealand, 2020).
Unions- Play an important role in the business as a representative of a group of people in order to raise their voices to the management board

Representation of employees: in cases where the unions are responsible for presenting the employees in a certain dispute with the employers, they would have managers and the obligations of good faith would be imposed by the government on the employees. They would also impose independently their individual applications of good faith in form of unions. The Unions are concerned with the roles of making with the obligations of both the workers and the company along with the rules and regulations and promoting good faith behaviours in order to discourage unethical activities in the workplace.
News media comments during disputes: various public comments that are oral or written regarding the relations of employment with the employers at the time of dispute had also been considered as a certain area where some of the unions have not been successful in considering the obligations of good faith.
Conflicting interests of union members are various challenges that are faced by union in the process of complying with the obligations of good faith which might also rise when they a represent a particular member whose interests might conflict with the ones of other employees. Negative messages are commonly spread, and information is circulated through news media, and these could also be managed by the Unions through negotiation and collective bargaining. However, there are certain situations where the Unions might face complexities when a member of the Union conflicts with another member 's interests(Employment New Zealand, 2020).
Collective bargaining: various unions are bound by the obligations of good faith while they began for the agreement of employment along with the statutory requirements which are arguably contrary to the traditional style of dispute along with being complex.The collective bargaining represents the terms and conditions of work agreements and how the members of the Union ensure that they meet the obligations in good faith to resolve any conflicts subsequently(Employment Law in the Public Sector, 2008).
Spark NZ Consider the needs of the employee and allow collective bargaining to efficiently meet the demands of the trade unions. It also provides its employees with good working conditions which help to get the support of the trade unions. For an example, Spark to give around 1900 employees five days to sign a new employment contract or leave the company has been labelled "very tough" by a trade union leader. Union Leader said they didn’t support to Spark the way of managing change(Smith, 2018).

In conclusion, good faith is important in avoiding problems with employment relationships where an employer does not follow the rules of good faith that an employee should take up a personal grievance. If the Employment Relations Authority or the Employment Court finds that the employer has not followed the rules of good faith, then they may impose a penalty for a breach of good faith. The next section analyses the processes available to employers and workers while working by solving problems related to jobs. The analysis includes administrative acts, threats, disciplinary action, personal complaints, mediation, and settlement reports but is not limited to them.

2.2 Resolving Employment Relationship Problems

Issues in employment relationships is known to exist in various businesses which might result in certain consequences on the operations of the business. These issues are mostly craved the concept of employment relationships that is present in the organization that has been discussed in previous sections. The net revenue of the organization plays a vital role in the employment relationship problems. Mentioning the reason for the issues, there are various factors which are partially attributed to the business ' financial results(Employment New Zealand, 2020). 

According to a case study of spark NZ, it could be stated that the annual revenue of the organization had dropped from 70 million dollars to 50 million dollars in the year of 2018. This had resulted in concentrating more on improving the business processes of the organization and neglect the concept of employment related issues that already existed within the organization. There are several types of problems that may occur, and if such problems need to be addressed, employers and workers will follow steps. Steps for solving these problems need to be defined very clearly in the employment agreement. This is crucial that other relevant legislation on employment agreements are carefully reviewed if there is an employment problem and observe closely any procedures written down on it. There are protocols to follow when working with issues related to the job relationship. Employers and staff must use these to try to address issues in a positive manner. The reduction in the net revenue of the organization might be due to the traditional practices that are followed by them in order to perform their operations(Spark New Zealand, 2018). 

Table 2Processes available for employers and employees to solve employment relationship problems

ProcessesAnalysis in the context of the selected organization 
Informal actions

Ministry of Business Innovation recommends 6 steps to follow when resolving problems in an informal meeting. These include controlling emotions, explaining the problem, listening to the employer, seeking solutions, deciding how to go ahead and ending the discussion.  Employment law states that it should be addressed as soon as possible whether an employer or employee has an problem to prevent further misunderstanding or dispute. The relationship will be protected, and the result will be good. This will help them to make changes in their behaviour and activities and it will also help them in their business perspective. Most of the cases, if the company achieve their success with the practices of the employees then its not only the achievement of the company but also the achievement of the employees(Employment New Zealand, 2020). In some cases, the employees of Spark NZ would prefer using certain issues with the employer, some of them include in the employees want to check how the holidays and leaves are entitled and worked out effectively when they are not sure regarding if they are provided wages properly. Spark NZ follows, where necessary, informal acts and allows their workers to obtain feedback from their human resources representatives matters(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 

Warnings need to be very specific so that the employee understands the occurrence of the same, because if their performance shows little change, then their job in the employer is in risk. Generally, a warning gives the employee about their unsatisfactory actions or performance and a risk of dismissal if such performance or action repeated itself. If any employee does not perform properly and as a result, the company is facing losses then they give warning to the employees and tell them that they should ensure their activities and watch out their steps. Later, if the company finds anything unethical regarding the employees then they will take initial action(Employment New Zealand, 2020).Spark New Zealand provides warning to its employees in order to understand the fact that their performance is not acceptable or satisfactory for the organization and there might be for dismissal in case the performance or activities are repeated. Spark NZ warnings are provided to employee who are underperform their work responsibilities(Spark New Zealand, 2017).
Disciplinary actions

There are several steps for managers to take in implementing disciplinary measures before taking final decisions on which discipline should be made. Common types include warnings and dismissal in which serious. It should not be done as a punishment, including counselling, termination, loss of rights, the ability of workers to attend training, or change of position, worksiteand responsibilities or even, demotion.The right form of disciplinary actions delivers a suitable form of process that helps the employer to carry out work on issues and deal it before impacts arise in the organizations. The disciplinary process might take on a suitable form of actions based on corrective measures at aiming to reduce misconduct. The disciplinary actions lie in two types of aspects that lie on an employer having a good reason to undertake disciplinary actions and employer having a fair process for making decisions(Employment New Zealand, 2020).Spark NZ undertakes various disciplinary actions in order to ensure that effective measures have been undertaken against any sort of misconduct. Some of the actions that are undertaken by the organization include warnings coma dismissal and some more. In some cases, the employees are demoted as well. Management of Spark NZ can identify the weal areas of the performance and identifies the training(Spark New Zealand, 2017). 
Personal grievances

Personal grievances are considered as a serious issue that is raised by an employee against an employer. Increase and employee raises an allegation of personal grievance against an employer, the organization tries to sort out the issue by communicating effectively with the employer as well as the employee. Generally, an employee raises a personal grievance if they find their boss to have acted unfairly or unreasonably against them. Section 103 of the Employment Relations Act 2000 provides for this.The personal grievances lie as a type of complaint that employee might bring against an employer. The employee is faced triangular situation on employment at the time of raising complaint on unjustified areas or bullied and racially harassed areas. There are various situations where personal grievances between employer and employee rise(Employment New Zealand, 2020).Spark NZ In addition to providing employees with regular feedback to be trained for better outcomes, the company has specific steps in respect of personal grievances once the concerns are raised. Concerns raised by the employees will be kept from the employer for the decision. After making the decision, Spark NZ will contact the person to ensure that the information needed is collected (Spark New Zealand, 2017). 

In a semi-formal and confidential environment, mediation is where an independent person or known as a mediator helps to solve the problems. MBIE has a free programme called Employment Mediation Program for workers or employers with a problem with their work relationship(Employment New Zealand, 2020).A mediator is invited by Spark NZ in case of certain issues that could not be resolved bythe professionals of the organization. In this case the organization comes into aagreement. Spark NZ can take advantage of MBIE 's Employment Mediation Service as a suggestion for the problems and employment relations of the company(Spark New Zealand, 2017). 
Records of settlement

The records of settlement tense to reach to anagreement. This ensures that the agreement has been enforced and the record of settlement is noted down. This is been provided to the employees for checking and providing their approval. Settlement records show good method of contact between each party in maintaining all cases for any possible solutions.With this settlement, they must keep strong communication with those people with whom they made the agreement and as a result, it should be for the benefit of their business. If the main this agreement for a long time, then they can easily develop s good relationship with them and input their efforts into the business for the future days. The most effective is that they must be careful and segmented when they share their business information to the market and introduce their innovation to them(Employment New Zealand, 2020). Spark NZ also has a policy of keeping all settlement documents until the agreement is reached confidentially and signed at the conclusion of the process by the Employment Mediation Service(Spark New Zealand, 2017). 

2.3 Work Environment in the organization

Labor Union is considered as an organization which tends to support employees. Trade unions could be referred to as a voice for or the employees as well as families. A set of non-unionized workers are those who are not members of a union and do not have union representation at the workplace.Unions negotiate collective employment contracts with employers and assist employees with counselling and work-related issues. To be a member of the union the employee must pay a fee. Labor union is a platform for working people and families, under the values of democracy and policy activism, to increase equity of benefits for both gender at work and others(NZ Council of Trade Unions, 2010). 

Spark NZ includes unionized as well as non-unionized working environment. This aspect is demonstrated with the help of collective agreement. For example, Unite Union represents hundreds of its workers. Unionization in Spark NZ is demonstrated on the union website through a collective agreement between union employees. If the organisation is unionized, one aspect must be worked through is that each employee is voluntary to join a union. Moreover, the advantages of forming a union in a company are much more than not being unionized as the workers and employers involved in the union may have the right to strike, the right to collective bargaining with the employer or the right to productive jobs, social security and justice, human rights and equal opportunities. Participating in unionization offers both advantages and disadvantages to the company and its workers. Advantages can include the opportunity to strike on any significant problems or complaints relevant to workplace equality, the disadvantages might be additional payments needed for staff, conflicts of interest emerged between different groups that already existed within the organisation(Spark New Zealand, 2017). 

2.4 Responsibility of the management, HRM specialists and employees

The managers of Spark’s ensure that all the employees of the organization should follow the instructions which are provided by the experts for reducing the chances of accidents within the business. The position has the different tasks and responsibilities for the range of tasks, so Spark NZ needs to include the employees in the strategic decision process. They must deliver the mission and the company vision to the employees. Sparks has also focused on developing policies and procedures which are necessary for enduring health and safety conditions of the employees, and they have also provided the employees with insurance activities as a provision of their employee welfare(Spark New Zealand, 2018). 

2.4.1 Unionized Environment

A unionized work environment gives the employees more control. Employees can negotiate work agreements through their union that include specifics about employee work expectations, wages, work schedules, promotion details and discipline etc. Another advantage of working in a union environment is job security, as the union will protect employees if unjustified workers are dismissed cause. For example, it is expected that all union members must pay union tasks that can cost up to a few hundred dollars a year. There's also the fact you 're part of a community as a union leader, and you lose some of your control. You are bound by the employment contract they sign, regardless of whether you agree with union decisions(Anderson, 2018). 

Table 3: Unionized Environment

Parties to the employment relationshipResponsibility in the selected organizationProposed strategies to manage the employment relationship and performance in the organization
Management The responsibility of the management includes enforcing as well as monitoring various provisions belonging to the burgeoning agreement.Managing employment relationships This is the management's responsibility to monitor and enforce the collective bargaining agreement provisions. Management also ensures that all workplace, state, and local legislation and regulations are complied with. Besides, when there is a need to file grievances on the member's behalf.
Union representatives also discuss workplace issues directly with management for smooth shop floor operations as well as distributing information about the union to its members(Emloyment New Zealand, 2020).Spark NZ Heather Polglase is Human Resources Director on the spark leadership squad. Spark NZ Resource Director is responsible for leading the HR team and collecting information from unionised employees(Scoop Media, 2019).
The major strategies used by the management include monitoring the performance of the employees as well as various teams operating within the organization. Spark managers must monitor the provisions of the collective bargaining agreement and enforce them. Managers must ensure that all legal, legislative and regulatory requirements are met. Mangers will also address issues at the workplace directly with management and communicate information about the union to its members. Spark NZ to develop the business once the HR team works efficiently, the entire company can run smoothly afterwards.If the company also looks at the activities of the management and provide them the rights so that they can perform their role effectively and for this reason, they follow a strategy that is the communication strategy. If the management communicates with the higher authority properly and provides their regular work details, then there is a possibility that they can provide give more effort to the company and work for the growth of the business. Communication is a very important strategy and if they can successfully implement it in their business then they can develop their business at a higher level(Spark New Zealand, 2018).
HRM SpecialistsThe specialists of Human resource management are responsible for reducing the cost involved in transactions and hence help in implementing certain changes in an effective manner. Those roles and responsibilities can be considered as concentrating on the HR department's overall business priorities, minimising transition costs and helping to implement changes as quickly as possible.In a unionised environment a healthy relationship is considered vital from the point of view of HRM professionals in order to avoid and settle conflicts in the workplace. The HRM department supports, advises and trains managers by organising meetings, advising and sharing knowledge to help them establish successful working relationships with the unions(Emloyment New Zealand, 2020).
In regards of Spark NZ can secure a large amount of budget not for external source recruitments. In doing so, HRM experts can also clearly understand the dynamics and problems of the business(Spark New Zealand, 2018).
The major strategies used by the HRM specialist include collecting relevant data and, hence processing the negotiation. A strong relationship is essential to prevent and resolve workplace disputes HRM Specialists in Spark need to support managers, provide guidance and professional development to help them maintain effective working relationships with unions through the organisation of meetings, guidance, and sharing of knowledge. At the same time, HR must support managers in preparing for the negotiations by collecting relevant data and helping to plan the strategy for collective bargaining(Spark New Zealand, 2018). Another strategy is that if the company serves the customers prosper and fulfil their demands then they will give a positive review to the company which is good for the company. Customer satisfaction is a must and for the customers, they introduce new products and invent new services so that it becomes easy for them to understand their customers easily. In this case, the specialists of HRM are at the root of this service and they look at the services of the customers and their products and target some customers and based on them they manufacture some specific products. If the HRM follows the company’s ethics and maintains it by providing the benefits to the employees and their customers, then they indulge them in the growth of the company(Spark New Zealand, 2018). 
EmployeesEmployee responsibilities in a unionised environment include, above all, insisting that the employer fulfils its obligation to design workplace requirements and standards so that they do not discriminate from the outset. In addition, employee needs follow-up to assess whether it is working and to help address any related issues that may arise; and to ensure that the collective agreement does not discriminate during the collective bargaining process and during the life of the collective agreement.
The major roles and responsibilities of the employees of Spark NZ include ensuring that the practices are following the rules and responsibilities of the organization and the instructions are followed by them(Spark New Zealand, 2015).
The employees contribute by collaborating with the employers and workers and hence ensuring that various projects undertaken by the organization are completed successfully along with obtaining expected results. They need to work with the worker and the employer to accommodate the worker for follow-up after the accommodation has been implemented in order to assess whether it works and to help address any related issues that may arise. At the same time, ensure that the collective agreement does not discriminate during the collective bargaining process and after the collective bargaining period(Spark New Zealand, 2015). Train the employees for understanding the services of the company and indulge them in different activities of the company. With the strategy of training the company to provide the information to the employees so that they can perform their role efficiently in the organization(Spark New Zealand, 2015). 

The table specifies that the human resource manager is responsible for monitoring the performance of the entire team. They also support the employees to perform their activities effectively. This helps Spark NZ in ensuring the fact that compliance within the workplace is maintained.While, the key function of employees is to comply with the rules and obligations of the company which are clearly specified in the group's Absolute Rules. 

2.4.2 Non-Unionized Environment

In a non-unionized industry worker, there are no union members and there is no union representation at the workplace. Everyone negotiates their own wage hours and working conditions in non-unionized workplaces subject to minimum and floor conditions set out in the employment standards act. Business owners operating non-unionized workplaces enjoy significantly greater freedom in the dismissal process.Generally, companies employing union workers must endure an often long and lengthy procedure to terminate an employee, even for good cause. Non-union workplaces avoid lengthy redundancy proceedings and can dismiss employees for contract breaches, decide not to renew contracts or simply terminate employment without any specific reason in the workplace.How pay rates are calculated is one major difference between unionized workers and non-union workers. The salaries of union employees are set all the way through agreements between union leaders and HR departments of a corporation. The employer holds most of the leverage at a non-union workplace. It ensures that the employer sets job standards, pay, determines work schedules and retains control over training, promotions and other aspects of work culture. Once a non-union employee is hired, there is a discussion about the pay or wage rate and in some situations the employee might want to negotiate the offer(Mayhew, 2019)(Anderson, 2018). 

Table 4: Non-Unionized Environment

Parties to the employment relationshipResponsibility in the selected organizationProposed strategies to manage the employment relationship and performance in the organization
Management The responsibility of the management is to help employees in order to gain access to various facilities and health monitor the payment of the salary. In a non-unionized environment, HR managers will assume responsibility for assisting employees in accessing the workplace, monitoring salary payments in accordance with contract and employment rights in NZ.Business owners running non-unionized workplaces enjoy significantly greater flexibility in the dismissal process. Generally, corporations recruiting union employees must undergo an often long and lengthy procedure to terminate an employee, even for good cause.Employers must ensure that their employees have safe working conditions, including vacation, paid holidays and other types of holidays, with the salary and benefits they have agreed to(Anderson, 2018). The management is responsible for or undertaking certain strategies that would help in maintaining a suitable working in management, tools, and many more. Employers must compensate their employees for the wage and benefits agreed upon in compliance with the agreement including statutory leaves and other negotiated terms. The most important thing is to build a healthy work environment too. In some cases, employers must provide written notice to their employees that their contract is terminated or that they are laid off. Employers should be respectful of their staff. They will ensure they do not threaten or discriminate against their employees.The management of the company also prepares the budget of the company that is the most important part of the company and through the budget, they point out the specific matter where they did not look before. They keep the record of all the financial transactions of the company so that they can include it in the financial report at the end of the year. The owners and managers may decide to promote an employee based on skill and capacity in non-unionized workplaces, rather than time in the company. Promotions based on merit can prove very successful in moving talent to a role that benefits the company(Mayhew, 2019). 
HRM SpecialistsHRM specialists are responsible forproviding assistance to the employees and helping them to perform their activities. HRM should work closely with workers in a non-unionized environment individually to have the best solution for workers.In terms of management, they have responsibilities in departmentalizing and formulating job analysis and job descriptions, and they also have responsibilities for delegating and staffing. In terms of collective bargaining and negotiation they manage issues related to the payment of employees based on their job relevant and positions(Mayhew, 2019).The HRM specialists are responsible for undertaking strategies in order to maintain regular communication with employees, employers, and unions. This may apply to the regulations that will form the organisation 's responsibilities and laws. HRM experts are the individuals who can go further into the technological implementation for a organisation. Another approach is that they should provide thorough guidance materials for new workers through a very extensive orientation programme that provides a good foundation for them to understand organisational culture, standards, conflict resolution and other matters. It will help workers obey the internal processes and create trust(Mayhew, 2019). In Spark NZ Hr specialist can prepare training materials and guidance documents for new employees in non-unionized workplace culture, expectations, dispute handling and other matters. They can also advise line managers, benefit packages, and service packages including options for health care and pay plan and pensions.Spark NZ HR specialist can develop performance assessment methods and keep records of appraisals. Finally, Spark NZ HR specialist can advise managers on how to deal with grievances.
EmployeesThe major responsibilities of employees include performed their roles for which they had been hired.Employees in a non-unionized setting will reduce the fees that they become members of a unionised organisation. Employees are also expected to follow directions from their employer. Employees are expected to remain loyal, and work with integrity. In case of dispute, the employees shall communicate the issues professionally with the employer early.The employees of spark New Zealand are known to implement strategies for maintaining a comfortable working environment for everyone.Applying legislation seriously is the best approach Spark NZ may need to implement. This is currently now being applied through the company by explicitly stating that all workers who refuse to comply with the Absolute Rules will face the disciplinary measures. The strategy which non-unionized company applies to their business is to reduce the salaries for employees. The company also has the laws and duties to protect and help its workers(Anderson, 2018). The employees should follow the ethical terms of the company and use it properly for their business. Interestingly, the employees must be careful that they are involving themselves in the activities of the company and share their ideas and make a statement for aactivity because they have the right of it. With the strategy of market segmentation, the employees must collect the information on the market and use it in their business and make some changes according to the details.

3. Treaty of Waitangi

In the year 1840, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed between English (British Crown) and Maori to influence different guidelines to conduct business in the land of South Island. According to this treaty, every business venture of South Island needs to provide employment opportunities to local people. On the other hand, this treaty also ensures the rights of Maori people for giving them equal job opportunities and job security as Pakeha (white people). Maori are equivalent and protected under the Waitangi Treaty. Furthermore, Maori is given land ownership and equality to be economically effective. Maori appreciate land ownership and economic equality under the Waitangi Treaty. The organization must be created in compliance with the treaty when land is used and legally bought or leased. According to the bi-cultural partnership as embedded in the treaty of Waitangi the company will follow all rules like minimum wages, employee rights and many other rules and regulations.It has become a document of central importance to the history, to the political constitution of the state, and to the national mythos of New Zealand, and has played a major role in framing the political relations between New Zealand's government and the Māori population, especially from the late-20th century(Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2017). 

The Treaty was written at a time when British colonists and the New Zealand Company (acting on behalf of large numbers of settlers and would-be settlers) were pressuring the British Crown to establish a colony in New Zealand, and when some Māori leaders had petitioned the British for protection against French incursions. It was drafted with the intention of establishing a British Governor of New Zealand, recognizing Māori ownership of their lands, forests and other possessions, and giving Māori the rights of British subjects. It was intended by the British Crown to ensure that when Lieutenant Governor William Hobson subsequently made the declaration of British sovereignty over New Zealand in May 1840, the Māori people would not feel that their rights had been ignored(Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2017). 

3.1 Analysis of HR Policies in relations to the principles

As the organization is associated with the Maori culture, they have provided an emphasis on the values of Maori, and Spark has also focused on considering the HR principles, which are illustrated in the Maori culture. Moreover, it has also been illustrated by the Government representative of New Zealand that the Treaty of Waitangi is essential for all the people as it ensures that there is an equal distribution of rights between the Pakeha and the Maori people. HR policies of Maori are also necessary for understanding the culture of the Maori tribes, and for entitling each and every people with their individual rights, which also controls the resources that are owned by them. The HR policies of the treaty are also making the government work responsibly for maintaining the faith of the Maori people, for reducing their individual grievances and for ensuring that equal treatment is provided to all the New Zealanders under the law(Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2017). The HR principles which are stated under the Treaty of Waitangi are protection, participation and partnership, which are illustrated below: 

3.1.1 Participation

Participation as an HR principle has been illustrated under the Treaty of Waitangi which has also been considered by Spark as it illustrates the positive engagements of the Maoris at different levels starting from their education to their work-related achievements, and it was mainly initiated by The Reo Maori and the three important benefits which are necessary for the employees, stated under the aspect of participation are:

Equity is necessary for Maori. The Maoris work themselves on their aspirations and develop their own work activities planning. The participation of the Maoris is the essential aspect as it illustrates the biculturalism that exists among them(Clements, 2016).The participation of the Maoris is essential for making effective decisions for the business operating activities of Spark. The principles of Maori are mainly undertaken as they illustrate the ways which are necessary to strengthen the relationship of the employees with the managers and the other executives of Spark.  

The participation of Spark NZ emphasizes that the Maori community's beneficial engagement with all levels of education. Maori community should be involved in health and education that reflects Aotearoa's biculturalism and Maori Whanau's aspiration to improve achievement and participation in college planning(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 

3.1.2 Protection

Protection is the other principle that is associated with the different HR principles, and it is necessary for protecting the knowledge, values, and interests of the Maori. It also helps in understanding the culture and language with which the business conducts its operations, and it also provides the employees with the understanding of the organizational culture within which the employees are serving their work activities. It's about protecting people's resources and resources from others. 

The illustration of protection in the culture of Maori is illustrated below: 

  • The protection ensures, validating, valuing, and upholding the local knowledge of the different areas which are served by the people.
  • Protection is necessary for normalizing the values of TeReo Maori.  
  • The essential factor of protection in the HR principles is that it provides emphasis on training activities of the employees, which is necessary for developing the individual skills of the employees(Clements, 2016). 

Spark NZ realizes that The Maoris and non-Maoris have equal rights to safeguard the community’s customs, values, and morality. It's about protecting people's resources and resources from others. The Maoris and non-Maoris have equal rights to safeguard the communities ' customs, values, and morality(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 

3.1.3 Partnership

The third aspects under the principle of Maori are a partnership, and it is associated with collaborative teamwork and group activities within the business, and it is most significant for developing business strategies that primarily focus on the background of the Maoris. The partnership is also necessary for involving Maori within different sectors of the business, and at Sparks, it is mainly necessary for developing the standards of their operations as they have the capability of producing better decisions, developing effective curriculum activities, and planning the events of the business. Partnership in Maori culture is necessary for having genuine relations with the employees, and it is also necessary for opening up different opportunities for the business. This requires working with community individuals like Kiwi, Maori, and Whanau to create Maori people's education plans. Maintaining a healthy connection is very important for the Maori community and its participation in fields such as curriculum creation, planning, decision-making, and execution(Clements, 2016). 

The partnership has helped Spark in developing their connections with the Maori community. The partnership has focused on understanding the learning activities of the employees who belong from different communities.Sparks has provided an emphasis on developing the trustees and the boards of the business, on the basis of the Maori culture, as they have effective decision-making capabilities, and they also have knowledge regarding the different communities existing in New Zealand(Studocu, 2020). The most significant work collaboration activities of Maori are that they have effective communication and collaboration among different groups, which is regarded as their power-sharing activities, and it is also essential for earning equity for the business activities.  

3.2 Recommendations Made on Strategies to improve HRM

The recommendations which are made to Spark New Zealand based on their business strategies are as follows: 

Sparks should provide emphasis on training activities of the employees, which will provide the employees with a scope to develop their individual skills, which is necessary for obtaining individual career growth. Sparks should increase their involvement with the Maori culture, as it will help them in making quick decisions, and will also provide the employees with a clear idea of their individual work responsibilities(Worksafebc, 2020). Sparks should focus on developing the work culture of the business, it is necessary for them to understand the individual requirements of the different customers, and it is also necessary for the business, to collaborate with the other employees of the organization, and it is necessary to obtain their individual viewpoints. Sparks need to conduct campaigns which will increase their involvement in the societal activities, and will also help them to promote their business in the society, and will make the people aware of their contributions which they make for promoting equality within the work environment(Compensation Committee Charter, 2019). 

Table 5: Recommendation made on strategies to improve HRM

Policies Strategies to improve HR Policies in the context of Treaty of Waitangi
Create a network for the Maori women- With strategic partnerships and digital channels, Spark establishes a relationship with the Māori community to transform and become a driver of cultural, economic and social development.
Spark New Zealand will be responsible for outlining various methods belonging to the concept of engagement along with an approach in order to build a relationship. The organization but for the diversify various ethnic groups in order to encourage the people. It would encourage the Maori for participating in various proposed strategies for improving the approach to business. Spark 's board knows how to lead by having strong women's representation and continues to promote women in Spark leadership. Initiatives like EmpowerED, a platform to unleash the ability of aspiring women at Spark, promote the visibility of women in senior roles. Spark introduced revised flexible working and parental leave policies in 2018 to help support women at Spark, and also established a new remuneration system to promote fair gender parity(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 
Providing guidelines to the candidates belonging to Maori- Spark’s vision for Māori business strategy is kanohi kitea. Provide recognition and respect to Maori language due to the cultural practices.
Spark NZ had realized the difference in the individuals belonging to Maori in terms of their language, their culture, their ethnicity and some more aspects. The organization would provide equal opportunities of employment for everyone and hence acknowledge their differences. Treaty of Waitangi requires every effort to ensure that Māori have equal prospects for employment as all other groups do. In this context, Spark promotes fair opportunities for jobs and non-discriminatory treatment for all people, and respects cultural differences.Spark is one of three corporate organisations identified as an ‘exemplar’ for use of Māori language. Internal Tuia te ao Māori Culture and Language mobile application launched for Spark employees to incorporate Māori customs into work life. In doing so, correct guidelines must be followed with due regard for tradition, language and practise(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 
Establishment of strategies for engagement-Provide opportunities to work and engage with Māori to support Māori in achieving its aspirations.
The organization would implement strategies for engaging and working together with the individuals belonging to Maori. The organization had undertaken strategies for being a part of the aspirations of Maori along with delivery in various digital services.Spark acknowledges and respects Treaty of Waitangi and will work with them to form strong relationships to achieve equally beneficial results. That can provide Spark New Zealand with a strategic direction on how to engage and work with the Māori. To be one of the leaders in the digital infrastructure and communication firms in New Zealand. Spark NZ has a vital role to play in finding for opportunities to work with Maori communities to be part of Māori aspirations while providing digital services and connectivity. Spark NZ Sponsorship of the first Māori Business Accelerator Programme Kōkiri, in partnership with Te Wananga o Aotearoa(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 


4. Career Development and Training Programmes

Career development and training programs prove as a major motivational factor for employees. Spark NZ has a huge range of training programs in various fields in order to help the employees to gain knowledge in various areas. Development is a process that continues. Managers can provide support and invaluable feedback, along with learning opportunities or the resources needed. Having formal training can result in new information being acquired, but it is important to practise a skill employee to understand.This is where a manager can promote the development of his workers by focusing on his career development activities inside the organisation and helping from outside the organisation(Employment New Zealand, 2020). Career development and training programme for Spark NZ is recommended in the section below. 

4.1 Employee group and career development goals and training need

Training involves providing knowledge to the employees regarding their business operations and their individual activities within the organization. Spark brings many job-specific and general training opportunities. For example, communication skills training courses can enhance the self-confidence of an employee as well as the skills of customer and employee relationships. It acknowledged the historic efforts of individuals and organisations within the Rainbow Community which means that younger generations will now grow up in a more accepting, caring and respectful world(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 

Table 6: Employee group career development goals and training needs

Employee groupCareer development goalsTraining needs
Sales Executive

Goal 1: Provide the required services to the customers in a proper way so that the customers have faith in them.  
The company must give training to their employees so that they can treat the customers as they deserve and inspire them for their future. The company also informs them that the customers are the focus of the company and if they lost the trust of their customers then it will directly affect the business of the company.
Goal 2: Persuade the customers and provide them accurate service
The sales executives should be effectively responsible for pursuing the customers so that they avail their service and ensure they provide accurate services by resolving their queries.
For achieving the first goal the company must appoint a good trainer who will give the proper training to the employees and inform them about all the activities and factors of the company. The employees must be very efficient, attentive and show their keen interest to learn more things.

For the second goal, the company must take some initiation through which they can involve the employees in better understanding the customers. The sales executives should be effectively treated so that they would be able to solve the queries of the customers. (Spark New Zealand, 2018).

4.2 Career development goals and training program

Table 7: Career development goals and training program

Career Development Goal Assign the training program the staff will undertake How the goal and the training program is linked to strategic objectives 
Goal 1: Provide best services to the customers and try to fulfil their demands and requirementsIn this case, workshops can be organised for the sales executives so that they can effectively develop the skills for dealing with the customers more efficiently (Wyzowl, 2020).The organization had been involved in developing various training programs and, hence retaining talented employees. The company’s main target is to achieve its goals and for achieving those goals this training is required and with the customer satisfaction the company can gain profit ad increase its revenue(Spark New Zealand, 2019). 
Goal 2: Persuade the customers and provide them accurate service

On job training is the best for providing the required training to the sales executives so that they can effectively persuade the customers and focus on selling their service. They can observe their seniors in dealing with complaints so that they can effectively develop their skill of providing the accurate services to the customers (Wyzowl, 2020). Cross-training is responsible for providing with our knowledge as well as better competencies to the employees. If the employees are involving in all decisions and actions then they feel wanted, the company and as a result, they give their full effort to the company to achieve their goals.  This would help to expand their knowledge and provide accurate information to customers and also solve their queries thereby improving the performance of the organisation(Spark New Zealand, 2019).

Table 8: Essential management Programme

Training assessment needs Training readiness Training plan Training program implementationTraining results evaluationTraining duration
Training program 1 
Organizational requirement- Service training to the employees where the company will train them how they should treat their customers and offer their services and products to them. If the employees get the training, then they easily get involve with the customers and try to fulfil their demands and needs. The name of the training would be ‘Rendering Customer Service Skill Training’
Personal Analysis-The employees are trainees and the company is the trainer who will provide appropriate training to the employees.
Employee readiness characteristics-The employees need to have some skills of being attentive, efficient, and hard-working and need to have patience.
Working environment-
Some employees are working in the organization for a long time and on the other hand, some new employees are appointed in the company. The existing employees are habituated with the environment of the company, but the new employees do not know the environment of the company. Now, it is the responsibility of the company to provide training to the employees about their services and how they should serve the customers.
Program objectives-
The training program aims to provide the proper training to the employees so that they can treat the customers in their best way possible and try to influence them to buy their products.
The Sales executives of Spark follow some strategies through which they can achieve the objectives of the company and with this regard; this training is considered as a strategy. The manager organizes this training for the employees and trains them according to the services of the company and influences them for the future. Thus, it needs to say that for the satisfaction of the customer’s this training is required for the employees.
Learning principle-
The principle of this training is to identify the capability of the employees how they can serve the company and work hard for the growth of the company.
Training transfer-The training transfer into the development of the company through their website. They inform their employees about the training through their website and the detail of the transfer of the training will also provide through the website.

Methods evaluation-The employees will get all the information about the training from the website and the outcome of the result of training is also known from the website. Through the outcome, the employees can understand how much they improve themselves for their future.

Dates- 30/03/2020 and Ending date: 30/04/2020
This training will be held for 8 hours with face to face conversation and the trainers give the proper training to the employees about the services and through tests, they understand how much they learn.
Venue: Spark NZ (Christchurch)

Training program 1 
Organizational requirement- With the help of the problem-solving skills-related training, the employees will be capable of handling pressure at work. The training program name will be “Development of problem-solving knowledge and ability."
Personal Analysis-The employees, who are involved in managing the network availability will be the trainees for this particular training program
Employee readiness characteristics-The employees should have cognitive skills, learning skills along with the ability of self-motivation in developing a career path
Working environment-
The possible constraints during the training program can be related to the time and monetary shortfall. Though, maintenance of social support will be one of the key responsibilities of both trainees and trainers. The appraisal will be followed by the trainer to keep trainees engaged and motivated throughout the training program. Moreover, using a positive behavioural approach will be the major responsibility of both the parties (trainer and trainees)
Program objectives-
The training program aims to develop the manager of network availability so that they can handle customer conflicts efficiently
In-house or contracted out?
The HR manager of Spark will be responsible for proposing the training program to the board of directors. It means, the trainer will be appointed internally
The training methods choice-E-learning method will be used to train the employees. Moreover, the method of virtual reality will be practiced for this training program
Learning principle-
The learning principle lies in the capability of employees in identifying potential solutions for operational difficulties
Training transfer-The way of training transfer will be in terms of the company’s official website, in which, there will be an additional area of having training lessons regarding problem-solving skills

Methods evaluation-The official website will help the employees to recall the learning outcomes at any time. The tolerance ability of network availability managers will be improved so that the current scenario of customer service can be enhanced.

Dates- 30/03/2020 and Ending date: 30/04/2020
Every week 8 hours All training will be on field and face to face mode. Training material will be provided during the training session.
Venue: Spark NZ (Christchurch)

Training program 2 
Organizational requirement-
Through technical skills-related training, the employees will be efficient in offering service of networking to the target market of Spark. The training program name will be “Development Of Communication Technology And Its Use”
Personal Analysis-The employees, who are involved in managing the network service activities will be the trainees in this program
Employee readiness characteristics-The managers of network service providers must have skills in basic learning. Additionally, their cognitive ability will be essential to analyse the criteria for training. Apart from that, self-motivation ability is crucial to complete the training course  
Working environment-In terms of time and monetary lack, situational difficulties can be there in the training program. However, both trainers and trainees will be liable to maintain social support. For instance, the information-sharing approach will be adopted by the trainer to encourage trainees for better learning through several praising words. Following a positive attitude will be the responsibility of the trainees and trainers.
Program objectives-
The training program aims to develop the manager of the network service providers that they canensure good customer service
In-house or contracted out?
A contractual deal will be there between the HR manager and the external trainer to ensure professional service. The HR manager will be responsible for proposing the idea to the board of directors of Spark
Training methods choice-The classroom environment will be the basis of this training program. This is due to the need for practical knowledge regarding communication technologies for employees. Based on this specific area, it is to specify that the training will be including principles of situational training, on-job training, adventure learning, experimental programs, cross-training, team learning, action learning, and coordination training
Learning principle-
The learning principle lies in the staff ability to ensure quality service regarding minimum disruption network to customers
Training transfer-Training transfer will take place before one and a half hours of the official ending time. Employees will be reporting in the organizational training room for following the rules of on-job training.

Methods evaluation-The official website will help the employees to recall the learning outcomes at any time. For instance, videos regarding the usage of communication technologies will be distributed on the official website's section of the employee forum. The training program will be helpful in tackling both on-job activities and practical tests. The key concern of training is to ensure secure usage of communication technologies in the workplace. By the means of this training, the managers of network disruption checking will be more advanced at work. As a result of it, higher customer satisfaction will help to generate higher sales volume Starting date: 31/03/2020 and Ending date: 31/06/2020
Training program 3 
Organizational requirement- The Communication skills-related training will help employees in answering customers for every single disruption in the network. The training program name will be “Development Of Verbal and Non-verbal Language”
Personal Analysis-The employees, who are involved in managing customer service will be the trainees for this training program
Employee readiness characteristics-The employees must have cognitive skills, learning skills including the ability of self-motivation to develop a career path
Working environment-The possible constraints during the training program can be related to the time and monetary shortfall. However, the maintenance of social support will be one of the key responsibilities of both trainees and trainers. The appraisal will be followed by the trainer to keep trainees engaged and motivated throughout the training program. Moreover, using a positive behavioural approach will be the major responsibility of both the trainer and trainees
Program objectives-The training program aims to develop the manager of the customer services that they cancommunicate with customerswith confidence
In-house or contracted out?
The HR manager of Spark will be responsible for proposing the training program to the board of directors, and an internal trainer will be given the responsibility
Training methods choice-E-learning method will be utilized for training employees. It means the method of virtual reality will be followed in the program of employee development
Learning principle-The learning principle lies in the capability of employees in smartly and confidently answering the queries of customers
Training transfer-The way of training transfer will be in terms of the company’s official website, just like the knowledge sharing strategy of training related to problem-solving skills
Methods evaluation-The training materials will be distributed with the help of the company’s official website so that employees will be able to study anytime as per their convenience. This training program will help staff members interacting with customers in a friendly manner. The positive outcome will be related to higher sales generation Starting date: 01/04/2020 and Ending date: 01/05/2020

Source: (Spark New Zealand, 2020).

It can be reviewed that employee goals include higher customer satisfaction and maximum network availability. Additionally, the strategic objective of Spark indicates the increment of sales and revenue generation. By each training program, the alignment is made below: 

Training Programme-1

Better problem-solving skills will help staff members tackling customer conflicts with the best possible solutions. This ability will help to keep potential customers associated with the business for a long time and sales generation will be improved as a result(Spark New Zealand, 2019).

Training Programme-2

Enhanced technical skills will support workers in reducing faults in network provision service. Improved service will ensure maximum network availability and sales volume will be boosted along with revenue generation.  

Training Programme-3

Better communication skills will help employees to interact friendly with customers and answer their queries. This will automatically accelerate improved customer satisfaction, and sales will be generated as well (Spark New Zealand, 2019).

5. Workplace Health and Safety Programme

5.1 Health and Safety Work Act 2015 and Health and Safety Program

The Health and safety of the workplace is the essential priority of all the employees as well as of the employers. Under the different principles, the safety of the workplace is the most significant necessity. It is necessary for Sparks to include some of the measures which will ensure the safety of the workplace, for example, they can include an insurance plan for the health benefits of the employees. Training activities should be provided to the employees for conducting their operational activities without any errors. It is also necessary for Sparks to frequently investigate the different operational areas of the organization, in order to ensure that there are no chances of occurring any accidents(Health and Safety at Work Act, 2018). 

The measure that has been signified by the government of New Zealand is the Health and Safety at Work Act 2015, which came into action from 4th April 2016. The main activities which are targeted by the act are ensuring proper operations of the health and safety measures which are reliable, and it is also associated with leadership, participation, accountability which is developed for supporting the activities of the employees who are serving operations under the government, any business, and also for the working section(Work safe, 2017). 

The act has also developed principles, rights and duties which are necessary for providing support to the employees in matters of emergency. The changes that are observed in the working activities of the different organizations after the health and safety act is that the primary focus of the organizations' shifts towards obtaining information about the risks which are associated with the different operations of their business. The program has also imposed certain responsibilities upon the workers regarding their individual health safety activities. In Sparks, the workers are responsible for their own health and safety measures, and they themselves monitor the activities so that any activities cannot cast adverse effects upon the working condition and in the healthcondition of the persons(Worksafebc, 2020). 

Table 9: Strategies and discussion on how the organisation has addressed

Strategies  Discussion on how the organization has addressed this
Showing leadership and cultureSpark NZ contributes to addressing various concerns of the public regarding the health effects due to their operationssuch as the harmful substances that are emitted from the utilization of cell phones. The organization also provides support to the professionals after their career break such as female employees.EmpowerED – a platform to support women in leadership and unleash the potential of aspirational women at Spark. 3,000 Spark employees, including all members of the Board and the Leadership Squad, have made a pledge to uphold the values of diversity and inclusion with their own personal commitment(Spark New Zealand, 2020). 
Worker participationSome of the worker participation includes effective practices of the health and safety of the employees. Promoting various safety programs with the help of hazard identification, risk assessment, and many more.They are allowed to participate in health and safety issues and decisions and are free to raise any questions regarding health and safety problems at work. Active participation of our people and suppliers andStrengthening them in developing our H&S systems and processes. Spark recognise that a health and safety workplace is one in which employees and suppliers are accountable and empowered to work together to protect and promote the health and safety wellbeing of all workers(Spark New Zealand, 2018). 
Risk identification, risk assessment, and risk managementThe operations of the organization participate in the management of risks with the help of reporting various hazards regarding the issues within time. The employees can attend various discussions on risks, reviewing the documents, and many more activities. Strong governance is a key factor in Spark's long-term growth process with Areas of focus including constructive risk control strategies and a range of Board of Trustees. Spark NZ have a good proactive risk management policy. Introduced and implemented a 12-month period Strategy / roadmap, with a set of standards which Spark will see established clearly defined structure on H&S; strong managing hazards and risks(Spark New Zealand, 2018). 
Workplace management and emergency readiness The organization had implemented help in terms of medical within the workplace for employees as well as customers. The employees are also provided training on evacuation and job induction. The plans must cover an effective response to an emergency, evacuation procedures or effective communication with other employees at the workplace between the authorised person.Spark NZ creating mentally healthy workplace. Spark calls on the Supplier Provide feedback and suggestions on how Spark can improve this document to make it possible achieve Spark 's goals of identifying and managing workplace risks and protecting employees(Spark New Zealand, 2017). 
Management of injury and illnessInjury and disease management needs to report all notifiable work-related incidents, injuries or illnesses. These are categorised as serious work-related diseases or injuries, including all incidents hospitalised for immediate treatment. Spark NZ has implemented various practices for or managing injury as well as an illness that is relevant to work. Focusing not only on healthcare providers on improving the quality of accident and illness control, but also with workers, workers may have sick leave insurance to cover the time and compensation when they are ill while working(Spark New Zealand, 2017). 
Worker health and wellbeing programsOrganizations implements strategies for ensuring that the employees are safe and secured while they worked for the organization. Spark NZ health and safety wellbeing risk managementis the basis for proactively ensuring that their employees are healthy and safe at work, and it is therefore important that all their senior managers, employees or contractors at work are aware of their role in managing Health and safety wellbeing risk. Spark NZ, they offer their employees to fully life insurance and health insurance with family through Southern Cross insurance. They also offer regular care package that cover the employee and their family(Spark New Zealand, 2017). 
Training and professional developmentThe employees are provided training after they have been hired by the organization in order to ensure that they are able to perform their activities effectively. Spark NZ, they provide average hours of training per employees relating to the department which they are working on it to improve knowledge and skills. They also have a various leadership training or graduate programme allow employees to access training I the suitable period of time and learn about new technologies. Spark NZ has a main responsibility for employees to monitoring risks(Spark New Zealand, 2017).

The table above provides an idea on the strategies and it discusses on how Spark NZ implements them effectively. It has also discussed in above section providing a range of tactics including worker participation, risk management, injury and disease management, or professional development, the Spark NZ Health and Safety Program emphasizes improvement of staff. From this the business can demonstrate the leadership and culture of caring for people, identifying, addressing and eliminating the risks and injuries associated with the work.

5.2 Strategies toPreventing Work-related Injuries and Accidents

Different strategies which work effectively for preventing the injuries and accidents of the workplace are as follows:

Table 10: Strategies and analysis according to laws and policies

StrategiesAnalysis according to laws and policies
Identifying and communicating job hazards 
It is essential to communicate various job hazards in order to mitigate them within time. Risks can be physical and non-physical types itis depending on the industries.
Promotion of safety inspections
Practice health as well as safety management approaches within the working environment
Identification of hazards and hence perform risk management
Risk assessments are necessary for identifying the hazards of the workplace, and it also involves identifying necessary measures that will work effectively for eliminating the risks of the health conditions of the employees(Brisk, 2016). Risk assessment is necessary to be performed by Spark’s as it ensures monitoring of the activities which are performed by the employees, developing an action plan for carrying out the activities of the business which is also one form of legal requirements of the organization, and ensures a high level of safety (Spark New Zealand, 2017).
Reinforcing safe practices
Reinforcement of safe practices is vital for retaining employees.
The organization has various technical teams that are responsible for maintaining internet settings. The organization implements certain strategies for special care of these professionals.
Individual PPE is necessary for the employees for ensuring the employees safe from workplace hazards, and it also ensures that suitable task is provided to the employees, after analyzing their individual skills, and the employees are also provided with measures for controlling any accidents of the workplace. Spark NZ not only the office teams they also solve technical problem during the internet lines fault. This teams extra care when they are working on outside and solve the problems. Spark NZ should actively engage with employees and participation in their health and safety activities and improve their performance(Spark New Zealand, 2017).
Promoting safety throughout the organization 
promotion of safety within the organization helps in maintaining a better workplace environment.
The organization promotes health as well as safety within its operations. The organization also carries out performance audits(Martinelli, 2018).
For preventing accidents and work-related injuries it is necessary to make the employees and the workers of the Sparks New Zealand aware of the different hazards by displaying different warning signals, and it is also necessary for the employees to understand the meanings of the different signals ad they can take their individual precautions. One of the most important health and safety practises is the practise of an Emergency Evacuation Plan. These are, in fact, the plans and practises required for all organisations to ensure workplace health and safety(Spark New Zealand, 2017).


Based on the above information it can be concluded that this study has provided information regarding the different strategies which are necessary for managing employment relationship and that it also creates shared responsibility and focuses on dividing the operational activities of the business between the management, human resource specialists and the employees. Human resource management plays a significant role in ensuring that the work is carried out efficiently within the organisation. Spark NZ is a major New Zealand telecommunications company with more than a thousand employees in the organisation.

The study has also provided information principles of HR policies which are stated IN the Treaty of Waitangi. The study has provided information regarding career development and training programs. This particular report has illustrated the health and safety program, and the health and has also elaborated on the Health and Safety Work Act of 2015 and has also discussed the strategies which are necessary for preventing work-related injuries.

It also states that health and safety program that has been conducted by the different organizations has illustrated many responsibilities upon the board, and the management of the organizations that their primary responsibility is to ensure health and safety activities of the employees, and the organizations also has the responsibility of maintaining the diligence which is necessary for upholding the operating the standards of the business.

The recommendation is Spark needs to support, provide guidance and professional development to managers by organizing meetings, guiding and sharing expertise to help them maintain effective working relationships with the unions.

It is recommended that graduates who have completed cross-training with Spark NZ be qualified to develop social skills, as well as core affective skills through the Manaiakalani Education Trust. To increase self-confidence as well as customer and employee relationship skills before resuming their careers as managers. 

Spark NZ is advised when it comes to avoiding accidents and work-related injuries Establish professional criteria for key risk management positions, and actively pursue ways to improve employee involvement and participation in health and safety programmes and performance-enhancing activities.