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7706MED Health Project: Technology and Procurement Strategies Assessment Answer

7706 MED Health Project

I-Brief Template

Instructions for Using the I-Brief Template

This short outline is designed to guide students in completing their final report.  

A separate iBrief template is available to help structure your iBrief work.  This outline helps in the development of your iBrief and the use of that template.

The I-Brief (Intelligence Brief) is designed to both guide you on content and approach to your ‘research’ project as well as how it can be formatted or presented. 

The headings/sub-headings can be adapted to suit the type of project, evidence based review or research study completed.

The template is organized by sections with guidance for students as to how to complete the section and the relevant information and analysis to be included. Instructions should be deleted and your own words inserted. Ensure that your report is written in plain English and supported by academic sources.  

Do contact your supervisor if you have any questions.

Title

Give the project a meaningful name that captures the subject in a short title.  Use words that succinctly convey what the project was about and captures the attention of the intended audience.

Author/s

Include the name of the individuals who have written the report.

Word Limits and Report Length

Estimated word limits for each section have been included and should be been used as a guide.Total length or the report excluding appendices and references 8,000 words +/ 10% (800).

Update Table of Contents

Click on the header row (blue ‘Table of Contents’ bar immediately below) of the table of contents to update.  Choose update page numbers or entire table.Executive Summary

This is the abstract for the report.  

This section should be written last.

The Executive Summary recaps what is contained in the body of the report. A structured Executive Summary is recommended. Sub-headings can be used in this section.  

This section will be very good if you briefly describe:

  • Question/s:A succinct statement of the issues or problem being addressed.
  • Objectives:Clearly state the main objectives to be delivered by the project, research study or evidence-based review.
  • Methods:  Describe how the project, research study or literature review was conducted.   Explain the approaches used to conduct the project, literature review or research study.
  • Results:  Provides the results of the project, literature review or research study
  • Conclusions:   Explains the practical implications from the project or study.
  • Recommendations: Identify the best courses of action and where we need to go from here

Words40

List in alphabetical order five or six words that explain the main concepts, questions, discoveries or themes from the project, evidence review or research study.

Words 5

Set the scene for the reader – explain what the report will do.

Draft this section first however you may need to refine and rework during the writing process.

The introduction is one of the most important sections of your report and captures the attention of the reader.  This section will be very good if you have clearly stated:

  • the intention and purpose of the report
  • the main work completed and the methods used
  • when it was completed
  • who was involved or consultations that have been conducted

Words 300

Why is it important to investigate this topic?

Write this section once you have written the introduction.

This section will summarise the context for the project.  Include descriptive content and the background as to why the project has been conducted.

This section will be very good if you have:

  • Explained for the reader why this study topic is important.
  • Outlined the case for change, or the need for the evidence-based review, project or research project.

Words 400

Question

What is the problem or issue being addressed?

Write this section after the background.

State how and why this issue has come to attention, the size of the problem or issue and identify for the reader any underlying factors.  Questions should be stated in plain English with a clear focus on the core issues being investigated. Examples of questions that might be asked:

  • What are the appropriate models of care for residents of aged care facilities?
  • How can patient flow be improved to reduce delays to patient journeys in emergency departments?
  • Is the workforce in rural health care organizations equipped to implement innovation in the workplace?

This section will be very good if you:

  • State the study question/s clearly and succinctly

Words 200

States the inclusions and exclusions

After you have written the research or project question write the scope.

Scopewill be defined at the outset of the project and beactively managed throughout the life of the project.  State what was able to be achieved and what wasn’t for the project, literature review or study.  In this section where appropriate, say for a workplace based project you can also address:

  • Timeframe and Milestones
  • Tasks completed according to the project plan
  • Risks and how they were managed
  • Costs/Budget for the project

This section will be very good if the reader understands:

  • What the project attempted to cover and what was not able to be addressed

Words 300

State the specific deliverables for the project.

The objectives for your project or study will have been defined at the outset of the project and this section can be written after scope.

A project objective is written so that it can be evaluated at the completion of a project to see whether it was achieved or delivered.

This section will be very good if the project/study deliverables

  • Are written using the SMART framework and be specific, measurable, achievable/attainable/agreed upon, realistic and time based.

Words 300

How did you complete this project?

At the time you are writing up the final report you are extremely conversant with the methods used for the project. Some students like to write this section first as it is an easy way to get started.

Describe the design of the study or the project management methodologies and approaches utilized.  Explain limitations of the study procedures and methods. In particular:

Evidence review: Describe the framework for analysis.  Outline the search strategies utilised.  Explain the inclusion/exclusion criteria that was used to evaluate the materials.

Project:  Describe the project tools and methodologies used.  Explain how risks were identified and managed.

Research study: How was the study designed?  How was data collected?  What tools were used and how were they designed?

This section will be very good if you:

  • Clearly explain how the project or study was carried out
  • State the rationale for selection of research methods or project management approaches

Words 1,000

What is known on the topic being investigated?

You will have completed the work for this section as part of your project tasks.  Your job now is to present this in an easy to understand and interpret format.  Write this section after writing the objectives.

Explain the evidence that was reviewed, quality of the evidence and synthesise this into main themes.  The evidence that you identify in your search strategy should be read a number of times, the key themes identified as well as their impact/implication on the study topic. Clearly set out the criteria that you used to include and exclude materials and describe this in the methods section of this report.

Look critically at the literature you identify and assess the quality of the evidence.  Peer reviewed journal articles, texts and reliable web-sites such as government, education and some organizational sites are acceptable.  These are designated by .gov,.edu or .org.  Evidence from ‘grey literature’ can also be important sources if used with discretion.  Examples include conference papers/presentations, reviews andgovernment/consultants reports.  Consider each on a case by case basis and assess the validity of the authors and the content.  In an academic report some sources - such as this commercial web-sites (.com) and some organizational (.org sites) do not constitute a valid resource.

List the kinds of publications reviewed.  For example 30 evidence-based journal articles, 1 Cochrane review, 2 reports, 5 systematic reviews, 3 newspaper articles.

Evidence can be appraised in terms of the quality of evidence, generalisability, feasibility and sustainability.  Significant or sentinel sources should be referred to but generally attempt to identify recent resources related to the study question.  Depending on some topics or to contextualize you may need to refer to older sources.

The literature review findings may be summarized and included in an appendix using tables, figures or text.  Headings in a table might include:

  • Author
  • Details and type of source
  • Key Learnings/Recommendations from the source

This section will be very good if you:

  • Explain the current state of knowledge in the area that is being investigated is identified for the reader
  • Use high quality academic sources
  • Describe the major themes on what is known on the topic, the gaps identified in the research, issues, trends and applicability.
  • Assess the strength/weaknesses of the evidence

Words 1,500

State the principal findings from your project.

This section should be written after the methods section.

Clearly state what the project or study has found.   This should be done using text explanations and interpretations. Tables, charts and figures should be used throughout this section but must be referred to and labeled sequentially and appropriately.This will assist the reader to digest large volumes of data. Tables and graphs are exempt from the word limits.

This section will be very good if you:

  • Label figures and tables sequentially and refer to them in the body of this section
  • The reader is able to understand the findings made by your project and their relevance or significance

Words 1,000

What did you find out about the topic being investigated or by completing this project?

The discussion should be written once the result section has been finalised.

This section should explain what has been learnt from conducting this project.  Open with a clear statement in relation to the study question that was posed at the beginning. 

This section should outline the strengths and weaknesses of the study and might identify what aspects might remain unanswered or new questions that have arisen. Explain the reasons for the inferences that you have made.  

This section will be very good if you:

  • Clearly explain the results of the project or study
  • Examine if the questions raised have been answered
  • Outline areas for further work or research

Words 1,000

What do your findings mean?

Finally, the conclusions and recommendations will be one of the last sections that you write to complete this report.

You should draw together for the reader the main findings identified by the project.  State why and how the intended audience needs to be motivated into action.

Quantify or identify the opportunities or threats for health service policy, systems, funding or the study organisation and the response required.

A strong conclusion will:

  • Draw together for the reader the main issues and demonstrate your ability to critically analyse, synthesise and impart the key messages.
  • Will leave the reader with an understanding of the key findings from the project and their impact

Words 800

Where do we go from here?

This section guides the reader and conveys what is needed in order to move forward and progress the findings of the project, evidence review or research study.Outline the action/s to be taken. This should be based on what you have learnt by completing this project and reflect your ability to critically analyse the work performed and identify the practical implications for health service management.

Depending on the nature or summative point of your iBrief, then it might be appropriate or necessary to have a ‘Recommendations’ section in your iBrief – you could put material and issues about future action and directions into your ‘Conclusion’ section.  Don’t develop recommendations because you think you must for this section – develop them if your work calls for making recommendations.

A coherent set of recommendations will:

  • Identify for the reader the main implications for policy, delivery of services or clinical practice. 
  • Describe how the findings are applicable to the organization or agency.

Words 800

List here the organizations or individuals who assisted with, were consulted with, funded or partnered to complete the project.  If you had no help etc – then this section can be deleted.

List all the information sources that you have used to prepare your report.  

This includes journal articles, books, appropriate web-sites, reports and other sources.  APA 6th should be used and see further guidelines on correct technique from the Griffith website should be referred to.

https://www.griffith.edu.au/library/study/referencing

Students may use an appendix to include information that supports the analysis in the report, validates your conclusions or recommendations but is too lengthy.  Excerpts from this supporting information such as a data set should be presented in the body of the report but the complete data set maybe too detailed.  Examples include questionnaires, complex tables, transcripts of interviews, ethics approvals or complicated diagrams. 

Each appendix should be lettered or numbered for example Appendix 1, Appendix 2 and the order they are presented should be the order they are mentioned in the body of the report.  The appendix should only include related information gathered through your research and relate to the purpose of the report or your research.  

A Checklist to be used before submitting the Final Report

  • You have used the right template and followed its instructions  
  • The report is impartial and balanced
  • Clear reasons and evidence support your recommendations. The actions you recommend are appropriate and achievable
  • You have used plain English expression, including short, simple and active sentences
  • Write in third person tense so that the report is objective and authoritative
  • Quotes, paraphrasing and publications are correctly referenced using the approved referencing technique
  • Instructions and guidance is deleted from the template (including remove word count guides; add date in footer; modify any headings etc to suit your work) etc etc
  • The content is accurate and free from errors

Answer

7706MED Health Project

Title

Technology and Procurement Strategies

Executive Summary

Health technologies are essential in today’s world and functioning of the health care system and modern device procurement is also needed for improved the treatment of the patient as well as diagnosis the illness in a better way and prevent the illness. It is recognised that the importance on medical procurement and technology, world health organization and many countries have come up and pushed hard to develop the technology in the medical field such that every people can take its advantage and from worldwide. As a result of which, the cost of medical treatment will come down (Whyles, et al., 2015).

Drug discovery and development are a very complex and expensive project undertaken by a scientist, pharma companies and governments. This study thus examines the high tech medical equipment technology and its acquisition within a nominal value such that people can avail its benefits. The strategy should be well defined by its value buyer and supplier around the industry. The strategy allows the hospitals to evaluate the importance of equipment and how its benefits will work for the patient and other population (Diaconu, et al., 2017). It has also lightened on the issues how it can be set up in hospitals in an easy way and if the equipment proves to be beneficial then in which way it can be set up for the buyer-supplier relationship in a pragmatic and less leveraged way. In this respect, it can be taken into consideration that the installation is needed to be done in an effective way and most importantly to focus on the cost margin.

This study deals with other basic economics requirements in medical science where the main focus is given on today’s research on various types of diseases. It not only covers the ordering and procurement but also the process of storage, stock control, and maintenance, the process of cleaning and sterilising together with the waste management system. In today’s world, science and technology are found to run at its peak. Every day there are some more new things are coming out, such as artificial organs to smart inhalers, 3d printing, Crisper or a precision medicine.

As a new horizon has come, the biomedical science has also geared up for entering into new exciting phase. The medical practices have gone through the phase of uncertainty within both developed and also underdeveloped countries. In many developed countries, it cannot find any route to success regarding eradicates disease and it thus gives a low cost medical to the people (Delello & McWhorter, 2017). People use to travel abroad for a better cure in the world. The global health tourism has increased rapidly in today’s world where people want low-cost treatment. For the means of procurement, the medical equipment along with the purchasing and maintenance cost comes in a red line zone.

Keywords

Technology, medical science, procurement, demand and supply, low costing

Introduction

The importance of technology and procurement of medical equipment at low cost are the most important issues in most of the countries. Every government is looking for balancing the health care system and the age factor of the population. It is also observed that demand for the health care system is increased day by day in the world. Scientists are pressing accelerators hard in the case of innovation of the composition of medicine in order to eradicate the dreadful diseases from the world. A few centuries back it has been seen that people have died from so-called diseases be it polio, be it chicken pox and many other diseases. Gradually, many times are passed by and now the mortal rate of the world population has increased a lot. In past, the ratio of mortality was around 35 to 45 years. Now it becomes 70 to 80 years because of innovation and drastic improvement in medical science (Carvalho, et al., 2016).

Now in 21st century, the population is increasing every day and all new diseases also are increasing in the same way. The problem of global warming and pollution are at its peak. So there is a tough fight which is going on in inventing new medicines and to curb the diseases be it cancer or HIV or any kind of diseases. But the question arises how it will serve the nations in servicing them in low-cost method (Cresswell, et al., 2015).

This study provides a literature review and a secondary research methodology is followed to make a clear understanding of the impact of the technology in health services.

Background

From the ancient to medieval period, it has been found that the longevity, diseases and death all are entangled with each other. From ancient times to renaissance the idea of diseases and its treatment has changed a lot, the basic idea and its applicability of medicine and technology have changed the game. Advance in science and technology from is as per Newton to Robert Boyle to William Harvey exercise its method in air, water and fire and circulation of blood (Gobbi & Hsuan, 2015). The invention of the microscope and the x-ray machine and modern scientific equipment has changed the medical dynamic in 360 degrees (Espín, et al., 21).

At the dawn of 19 Th centuries, it has been seen that Charles Darwin change the course of the medical field with his theory and has shown that there is a new way of thinking after that Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch have been founded the modern microbiology. Claude Bernard and his followers have emphasised on the internal environment of our body. With due passing times, it has been noted that science and technology have evolved and changed medical perception widely. There is a change in the technique of microscope and X rays game wholly. And in this respect, the development of anaesthesia, stethoscope, the culture of blood has been changed fully in medical treatment processing (Edler & Yeow, 2016).

The significant advances in the medical field and public health have occurred in parts of Europe and America. People also understand that the vision of public health is improved with improvement in roads, sanitation and domestic water supply system. On the other hand, in the 19th century, there is great stress when communicable diseases are found to destroy the health of mankind and its workforce (Merriam & Grenier, 2019). For this reason, the enhancement of the technology and science of the medical equipment in procurement have been found to be enhanced with the advancement of technology. It gets benefitted to humanity so that the poor people can get the treatment at low cost (Poder, 2017).

After the phase of the Second World War, there is an emphatic change in the medical field. It has occurred and many people thereby can believe the optimum jibe on the medical field (Ginter, et al., 2018).

Another achievement of technology advancement in biomedical science which gets affected for the invention of the modern equipment and lost cost medical treatment. It has been better known that people mainly focus on the value generation of the medical items along with the ongoing operating cost. It is affected the staff training along with the disposal costs (Skinner & Staiger, 2015).

Question

It is a serious problem for developed and developing countries to face a serious problem in maintaining medical devices. There is a great opportunity for this study to check over the issues and thereby some questions are raised in this perspective.

Therefore, the questions which are needed to check in this study are as follows:

Who are the stakeholders in the procurement of medical devices?

What technology is used and how they are equivalent in particular countries socio-economic affairs.

What methods are involved in the procurement of medical planning?

What factors are considered in planning?

What factors affect the successful deployment of medical equipment’s?

What specific algorithms used in procurement of medical items?

What are the current suggestions for improving procurement?

Scope

Medical equipment planning is considered as the specialized process as it needs proper knowledge of medical and ultimate budgeting. It is needed to take a proper strategy where the equipment can make the proper diagnosis and medical care, safety to the patients and thereby it can make the marginal improvements in the costing. Proper design and proper development also impact the design criteria.

Consultants of hospitals play a vital role in the case of planning and in the procurement of medical equipment. The consultants ensure that all the equipment are found to be fit to use and they are all at the low cost. It can give maximum utilization and all under projected budget should be imply through the promoter of hospitals (Delello & McWhorter, 2017). There are some roles played by the consultants so that they can follow a similar process.

Therefore, the scope of the study can be defined as follows:

1. It is needed to do a thorough literature review which will meet the objectives of the study.

2. A secondary and qualitative research methodology is carried out so that it will check that in which way the modern medical science gets affected by technological advancement.

3. The scope of the study also is to critically analyse the issues and problems faced by technological advancement in medical science.

4. It is also needed to define the scope within the limitation of the research where only the advancement of technology on biomedical science has been considered. 

5. It needs to go for good medical equipment planning required ample knowledge of the ever-growing medical technology and fulfil all medical needs of the users.

Objectives

The objectives of the studies are based on the SMART techniques which are specified as follows:

1.  Specific:

  • It is needed to perform a literature review on the basis of the impact of technology in medical science.
  • It is needed to perform a qualitative methodology for acknowledging the importance of technology in biomedical science. 
  • It is required to critically analyze the issues faced in modern medical science so that there is a need for the establishment of low cost medical and health services. 

2. Measurable:

  • It is needed to take care of measuring the research strategy to compare the health care systems in the management. 
  • It is required to analyze the best document files for this research.

3. Achievable

  • It is needed to analyze the overall system in maintaining the cases for which the procurement system and management decision can be taken care of in the health system.
  • It is required to achieve the main strategy by discussing the process as related to optimal management in the health care system.

4. Realistic

  • It is needed to be realistic research so that the significant part in the cost analysis in health economics in the health management system.
  • It is required to achieve as a result of the research that all the issues in health services and management have been discussed within this research.
  • As per the research objective, it is needed to be a realistic one so that there would be a clear understanding of major capital technology in health services.

5. Time-based:

  • It is needed to maintain all the time lines in the process of the research so that there would not any fault in any section during this process.
  • The research standard should be maintained and all the databases are needed to be updated so that the searching of all the stuff would maintain the exact timelines.

Methods

This study has been carried out based on secondary research mainly depending on the literature review.

The process of literature search

The development of this search strategy is mainly biased and can be raised by a number of factors. It includes that the predilection of the journals in publishing the research is being depended on the significant findings. In this research method, the selection of the appropriate sources is most important. It is also needed to check with the iterative process is needed to balance the expertise as well as for the neutrality in the case of librarian along with the development of the knowledge as per the experience of those researchers. Thus the key principle of selecting the resources is needed to be inclusive as per the time scales and resources. Also, it is needed to open as per the development of the search strategy. It is needed to continually traded sensitivities or recalling against the process of specificity or precision.

Almost 30 resources are identified so that it would cover the relevant material on behalf of this review. In this database, it is thus needed to explore the series of discussions within the researchers and the librarian. A potential search term is also applied across all the databases which further enable the explorer to go through a suitable and functional search process. It also signifies the output of the review.

Development of the search strategy

In this tandem, it is needed to explore that the cyclic and the iterative approach for identifying the appropriate search terms should be undertaken in this process. All types of search terms are identified within the discussion as per the research terms and it includes the faculty librarian in order to scan the background of the material. The search strategy is as per table 1 given as follows:

search strategy

Table 1

Source (Ward, et al., 2008)

All the search terms have been developed as per the use which is considered as the richest sources as per the medical data within this review, as such, AMED, PSYCINFO, BNI, SPORTIDISCUS, EMBASE or MEDLINE etc which are the core databases in healthcare services (Michaleff, et al., 2011). As per the initial search, it is needed to build on the four concepts and those mainly belong to the field of IT, health professionals, research etc. All the concepts are found to be combined with AND within this search strategy. 

As the references are being retrieved, four initial concepts and the fifth concept have to add as per the attitudes of Public or Patient. It is needed to combine with NOT in order to exclude the terms and the items as related to the attitude of the public within the IT of health care (Whyles, et al., 2015)

Finally, the sensitive approach has been taken into consideration for the development of this strategy. It is needed to search the terms in google scholar or other library sites and thereby, it is needed to map the search terms within the range of the field that includes the titles, subject headings, heading words and also the abstracts. The appropriate balance is made within the sensitivity or recall and the specificity or precision in order to achieve the iterative process (Diaconu, et al., 2017). It would refine and test all the search terms and the strategy among the specified seven core databases.

Also, the thesauri of those databases would include the review for identifying further for potential search terms and it will ensure all the relevant subject headings those are extracted before and have to include within the list of the search terms. It is needed to encapsulate all the relevant subject headings and also the search terms that are negated within the requirement as per the form of exploded subject headings. The approach has meant to say that there is an unnecessary issue for developing the separate search strategies in the case of ‘core databases’ that can be built in the unique issues for the subject heading structure. As per the single and all-encompassing search strategy it is needed to develop as well as applied across all over the databases as provided from the university, like Ovid interface. It is noted that there can be a chance of generating duplicate words and Ovid can remove those duplicate tool (Sarkies, et al., 2015).

Mainly, the single final search process can be useful for this core database which is a real bonus in respect to carrying out the review. 


Article selection

One data extraction sheet is being developed for standardizing all the collection of the information and it enables in the case of rapid comparison within them. Therefore, the bibliographic detailing can be computerized within the database search and it includes the abstracts and thereby can be available for the printed version which can be examined in the computer screen. For this sifting exercise is followed here. The research, the material also examines the health care personnel attitudes as based on the initial reviews of that literature. As per the thematic analysis, the comparison of all the selections can be performed in narrow down the concept from all the other materials. This comparison of the selections has been carried out by the reviewers in 1:20 basis and also has been undertaken independently in reducing the selection bias (Raghupathi & Raghupathi, 2014).

This full paper thus has been acquired when the main criteria have been fulfilled. All the criteria are shown in table 2 below. There are many papers which are provided for the general analysis and literature reviews. Also, the other works can be useful in the case of informing the review and those are not included within the detailed data of extraction. 

the inclusion and exclusion criteria

Table 2: the inclusion and exclusion criteria

Source (Ward, et al., 2008)

Literature Review

As per Murphy (1998), the new technology in the case of the health management system has to be considered and this technology should more or less spend on the system of health care. Fuchs (1999) has stated over the costs of the technology within the healthcare system. As per him, technology is the main driving force for the long-term processing of health care management. It has been found in a survey of 50 leading world best economists held in 1995 that the primary reason of the increment of the health sector’s share for GDP is mainly due to the change in technological aspects within medical science (Harris, et al., 2017). This statement is generated from the survey when there is 81% is agreed with this argument. In a real sense, the expenditures have been grown at the primary stage so that the medical system has to deliver more as well as better services to the patients. There are new drugs and the magnetic resonance imaging are the best process in the health care system. Also, angioplasties or hip replacements are the most costly interventions in this century within the medical system. As per the advanced of medical technology, it is thus feasible and also desirable that this technology can be applied within more and more patients (Galipeau, et al., 2016).

As per Harrison et al. (1997), it has been anticipated that within the United Kingdom or the UK there are four main pressures over funding and its efficiency of the National Health Service which is expected within demography, morbidity and for the advancement of the new technology. A prediction has been made on the demographic change which would increase as per the expenditure of 8.25 per cent and the changes on the morbidity (Lenel, et al., 2017). This is thus needed to consider that the major cost drivers in this health care system are the technological change and also the change expected in this system. Also, the pattern is found to be similar within Australia as well. As per the Health and Medical Research Strategic Review (1999), it is needed to provide that there is an estimation of likely impact for enhancing the application of the technology as per the expenditure of the health system. It is needed to consider that there will be an increased demand on the basis of the supply and services on the account for the population of growth within the year from 1996 to the year 2016 (Haustein, et al., 2014). This growth rate is accounted for the increased demand and supply of the services on the basis of the account in the case of population growth and foraging of three-quarters of the projected expenditure rate. It is consistent and verified as analyzed by Fuchs (1999) (Baro, et al., 2015).

On the other hand, there are new technologies which offer the new opportunities for the treatment as it raises the quality as well as the outcome of the health treatment. Therefore, an increased number of people would get benefitted and thereby, the particular item for the new technology should be cost saving. As per the new technologies, therefore, there is a tendency to create continuous pressure on increase spending (Jafari, et al., 2017).  

As per Geisler (1996), it is thus assumed that this type of ever going and increasing pressure over the health services would increase the utilization of the technology that would come from the competition within the health care providers and the new areas of the medical applications in the case of technology as well as for the regulatory requirements (Galipeau, et al., 2016). It is also needed to consider that the direct pharmaceutical company and another physician would be befitted from the advertisements for the general public report. It is also needed to be consistent as per the observation that the growth strategies over the medical expenditure for technology should be due to the increased use of the drugs, process and the small tests. There is enhanced use of the high unit cost for the advancement of the technologies.

Moreover, it has been considered that from the last 30 years, in the case of the treatment of peptic ulcer, the impact of technology is seen as per the cost of the treatment over one disease. In the field on diagnosis, a vast change has been found for the replacement of the X-ray in the case of the flexible endoscopy. It is thus found that substantially there is an increased amount of cost in managing the peptic ulcer. Further, the introduction of the H2 receptor antagonist drugs would be increased based on the cost of the treatment as compared to surgical treatment (World Health Organization, 2018). Subsequently, the innovation of Helicobacter pylori in the case of eradication therapy would reduce most of the cost of the treatment under the costs of all types of previous treatment and modalities. 

It has been thus found that the relationship within the cost and volume is the main significant issue as per the cost of the technology. As per the recent research, it has been illustrated that the complexities within the relationship would vary in minimal ways for the invasive of the surgical process. In the case of Coronary artery, angioplasty is much less costly than the coronary artery bypass grafting. The latter process is the replaced version of the first one (Suter, et al., 2017). But it is easy to perform the process and in there is a lower rate of morbidity along with that there is a reduced case of staying within the length in hospital. It is also found that by the introduction of the angioplasty process there is a massive increment in the number of the coronary procedures. Together with that, there is no need for extra people in the case of administration of the procedure for bypass grafts (Jafari, et al., 2017).

Therefore, the major capital technology has advanced health care means and it is largely encouraged in the case of health care services. It is thus needed to consider that this high technology research and development activities would locate within the major health care facilities which are followed in major teaching hospitals.

It is also needed to consider that, as per Shine (1997), the barrier of this low cost and effective technological growth is the public pressure related to the technology which offends the particular groups in social activities. Public pressure can be restricted within the development and also the distribution of those contraceptives, and mainly for the genetically modified food (Savory & Fortune, 2015). This pressure is also seen in the case of animals and fetal issues. However, in Europe and Australia, there is still a controversy on genetically modified food, but in the United State, it is widely accepted (Diaconu, et al., 2017)

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