India - undertake an assessment and critical analysis of its health and development status.
Identify key health indicators that provide a good description of the health situation in that country.
Also include relevant sustainable development goals from India.
1. background of India (include social, economic and political situation, including relevant historical factors), 400 words
2. then clearly present the relevant health indicators - with graphsYou then need to discuss the meaning of the indicators and their value (and limitations) within a local and global context. You should demonstrate your ability to interpret and discuss the health indicators in relation to those that are relevant from the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), but are encouraged to go beyond simply presenting and interpreting these data. Provide an assessment of whether SDG targets are being met and how this compares to other countries in the region and beyond.400 words
3.. country's national health policy, global and other external influences (such as economic and political influences of external donors), and the impact of any international programs such as global health initiatives (GHIs). Comment on how these factors may have affected the health and development situation. Make an assessment of other key challenges and what priorities might be included in the era of the SDGs. 400 words
4. Conclusion 300 words
Please note: You should not structure this assignment solely around the SDGs (e.g. we do not want one section on each SDG) as many of these indicators will not be relevant to your assignment while other non-SDG indicators will be relevant. Also, the most pertinent indicators for your chosen country may be different from other countries depending on what you consider best illustrates the health and development status in the country and its health and development priorities.
In summary, use relevant health and development indicators to provide an overall summary report of health and development in a low or middle income country of your choice. Key learning outcomes for this assessment include:
India - A critical analysis of its health and development status
India is a diverse country with various linguistic, religious and ethnic backgrounds comprising of people in different climatic and geographical locations. The people of the country are from various social and economic strata of society. India is a developing nation with 1.25 billion population. Its 70% population is between the ages of 15 to 65 years. So, the country is primed with an abundant workforce. Although the population is high, the literacy rate of the country is very low, which has created a need for more work.
The country is primarily agriculture dependent, and hence, the economic condition is very weak. The country is regarded as a third-world country but has emerged as being one of the growing economic forces. The country spends on 3.6% of its GDP on the healthcare, but out of it, 1% is spent by the government (World Bank 2017). Due to the exclusion of the people from the government schemes, the health of the country is very poor with people suffering from curable diseases (Prinja et al. 2017). The mismanagement of the treatment procedures has also led to the death of several people.
The political condition of the country is also not stable with corrupted politicians not using the allocated money on improving the healthcare services of the country. The combined effect of the economic and political situation of the country has led to the deterioration of the healthcare system and the services not reach the needed people in case of emergencies and in time of need. Thus, the strategic plan for improvement of the health care services in India has to be undertaken which would provide services all over the country. The government of the country has undertaken several measures like Rashtiya Swasthiya Bima Yojana (RSBY), AamAadmiBimaYojana (AABY) etc. to provide minimum healthcare services to the people (Salve &Yadavar 2017). The government has also declared the establishment of 17 new medical colleges all over India to train and educate the people in the latest medical technologies and development. Albeit, there is still a lot of work to be done, but the government is working and has prepared an efficient plan for the development of the health industry (Nahar et al. 2017). There is a critical shortage of trained and educated medical professionals which has worsened the medical condition of the people.
Figure 1: Health Expenditure by source
Source: (Asrar 2017)
The graph clearly shows that India's present situation in the healthcare sector is signified by the income level of the people of the country which is very low. The people of India spend about $75 on health expenses every year in comparison to other countries, which is very low (Asrar, 2017). It is almost 10 to 12 times lower than in developed countries. Out of the total expenditure, the private spending accounts for 70% of the expenses and the government support only 30%. This is an indication of the healthcare condition of the country, which is very expensive and is not affordable by everyone (Voraet al. 2016).
Figure 2: Population of Nursing staff in India
Source: (IndiaSpend 2017)
India has about one doctor per 11000 people in the country, which is about 10 times recommended limit by the World Health Organisation. The quality of the available physicians is also not great as the medical institutions are very few in number and the private institutions not provide quality education or requires a huge amount of money which has limited the quality of the education and production of doctors in the country. There are about 1.79 million registered nurses and midwives in India who are directly involved in the healthcare services but looking at the 1.25 billion population. The prediction is made of 2 million shortages of the required nurses(IndiaSpend 2017). There is also alarge section of the workforce involved in the healthcare industry who are not qualified or trained in the professional courses, and so they provide inefficiently and danger to life. The government need to include workforce training to improve the workforce of the future.
The Sustainable Development Goals which has been outlined by the World Health organisation is aimed at obtaining a minimum and standard social and economic independence and to root out several circumstances like food for all, no poverty, clear water, gender equality etc. The primary aim of these goals is to improve the standard of life all around the world and to provide minimum and necessary services to the people of the country who cannot afford such services by helping through monetary or financial assistance. There are still 14.8% malnourished people in the country in comparison to 12.9% all around the world (Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations 2018). This comparison of the statistics provides a basis of understanding that India is yet to achieve the sustainable development which has been outlined by the World Health organisation, but the country is increasing its effort to cater to the basic needs of the people and provide at least the minimum and standard global requirements and to meet the sustainable developments.
The Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) are the basic initiatives taken by the various countries of the world and vetoed to raise awareness and achieve the minimum standard of global certification in health and health-related issues. It provides funding for eradication of various curable non-communicable and non-communicable diseases all around the world, which is raised by the contribution of the participating countries and donations from people.
National Health Policy
The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Gavi etc. are some of the initiatives taken through such initiatives which aim at eradicating the diseases of which people are being affected.India has also undertaken several schemes such as Rashtiya Swasthiya Bima Yojana (RSBY), Aam Aadmi BimaYojana (AABY), which is aimed at providing necessary and minimum healthcare services (Salve &Yadavar 2017). The RSBY provides healthcare services to people under the poverty line at a minimum cost, which has been integrated with the central system of disbursement for the speedy delivery of services. The government has also curated specifically design schemes for the senior citizens of the country. The establishment of the 17 new colleges all over the country is also an indicator of the improving healthcare condition and initiative taken by the government will definitely produce more doctors to meet the future needs and demands of the country (Assembly 2015). Thus, India is way behind the global standard for healthcare services, but the recent steps taken by the government of India is certainly an indication of the direction the country is trying to achieve. According to a recent CIA report, there are 38 infant deaths per 1000 infants in the country in comparison to the 34.1 deaths per 1000 (Central Intelligence Agency, 2019). So, the country has to improve the healthcare services for children specifically to reduce the rate of infant mortality.
The key challenges for the implementation of the Global Health initiatives in India are due to poverty. The income ratio of the population of the country is very less and shows their lesson client to spend more towards their health benefits. The policy-making of the country also needs improvement with the induction of the new and modern methods of treatment.This would provide efficient disbursement of the treatment procedures (Nilsson et al. 2016). The training and education of the doctors and the healthcare personnel is also another challenge which must be considered by the government of India while implementing various strategies adopted. The priority of the country should be in implementing the adopted strategies and schemes as they have been taken in the past but was not applied, and the services did not reach the people.
It can be concluded from the above discussion that the country definitely needs to improve the healthcare services, and the inclusion of effective planning is necessary for it. The Government of India definitely has taken a step towards the achievement of the sustainable development goals which has been outlined by the World Health organisation and ratified by the United Nations, but there is a long way to achieve the healthcare service level as prevalent in the developed countries like USA, UK, Germany etc. the healthcare indicators suggest the doctor to patient ratio, and infant mortality rate is a certain indicator of the poor condition of the healthcare services in India whereas the establishment of new schemes and colleges all over the country also provide necessary information about the improving situation. However, it must be kept in mind that the sustainable development goals outlined by the World Health organisation are achievable in the distant future, but the country has taken a step forward with the induction of the modern and strategic decisions taken by the government. The considerations made by the government should include the training and education of the workforce to improve the workforce of the future so that it could be handled the work and also adapt to the changes in the industry. The detriment of the sustainable development goals should be the main criteria for establishing a minimum healthcare service in India and to improve on the existing service, which would benefit the entire country. Thus, sustainable development goals and the Global Health initiative food service symmetric and target measures for the development of the healthcare industry in India.