A Critical Analysis of Role and Functions of HRM
Human Resource Management is concerned recruitment and selection in an organization. The HRM seeks to develop the management of man and shaping one’s skills, talents and dynamic nature. It is their responsibility in identifying capabilities, mental abilities, sentiments, and attitude and behaviours of a person. HRM not only manages with strategic approach but also develops manpower. Using suitable and tactical approach, manpower is shaped towards benefiting the goals and objectives of organization. The study explores various areas of HRM entailing scope, function, activities, responsibilities, employee performance development and others. It refers to secondary resources in extracting information of paramount importance of HRM in business.
PART 1 – Task1- LO1 (P1, P2, M1, M2 and D1)
Say it with Chocolate is a growing company that intends to expand diversifying product range. The organization is located in North Yorkshire popularly known for chocolate based greetings cards. The company manufactures and sells its product across UK. The business consist of few functional areas concerning finance and marketing team, manufacturing and production team, packaging and distribution team and marketing team. The business owner is a master inpreparing chocolate using innovative chocolate flavors. The company is aiming at expanding profitably with increasing workforce. The organization is under rapid growth and experiences staff turnover. Feedback has been reviewed of long standing customers that records there is a downfall of quality in few items. The organization is located in North Yorkshire that has high unemployment. The applicants has been outnumbered the required or estimated. Therefore, recruitment and selection needs to have proper selection criteria ensuring recruitment of best candidates.
1a. Understanding purpose and the functions of HRM
Purpose of HRM
HRMseeks to manage to selection and process of recruitment. The department consist of HR and manager who conduct the process of recruitment in expanding workforcestructure. The purpose of HRM is to ensure that employees are able to work with workplace standards and develops performance procedure through leadership qualities. They develop organizational performance in aspects of Organization, societal Functional and personal (Arulrajah, 2015). They ensure that employees are able to fulfil the needs of self and the company it works for. It is important to develop basic organizational goals by utilizing motivated workforce and integrating motivation. It seeks to train the employees establishing desirable working relationships, foster team work among all the members (Iwu, 2016). The main purpose is to develop organizational atmosphere performance. Besides, it is important to create facilities and opportunities aligning to the growth and to attain an effective and profitable utilization of human resources.
Figure 1- Purpose of HRM
Functions of HRM
Human Resources Officer plays a major role in equipping both employees and organizations. It helps in developing employee to meet changes andchallenges in an increasingly competitive sector. It is important to focus on diversification and changes and generate new techniques in limiting risks (Arulrajah, 2015). It is their responsibility in identifying capabilities, mental abilities, sentiments, and attitude and behaviours of a person. HRM not only manages with strategic approach but also develops manpower. The HR manager of Say it with Chocolate required to reconfigure strategic management ofhuman resources. The main functions of HRM are-
- Promote healthy and integrated workforce
- Be responsive to current employee requirements and needs
- Work as a proactive and promote leadership
- Develop reshaping of organizational objectives
- Develop recruitment and selection procedure
- Encourage employee performance aligned with organizational objectives
- Managing and strengthening employee relations
- Training and development of employees
1b. Role and responsibilities of HR officer
The responsibilities of HRM Officer need to align with objectives of HRM. The responsibilities of HR officer help in developing acquisition, training and development, motivation and maintenance, industrial relations and integrate operative function of employees (Arulrajah, 2015).It helps in monitoring performance of employees, control employee turnover and train employees in fulfilling the organizational objectives. It is the responsibility to ascertain pressing concerns inhibiting quality performance.
1c. Identifying approaches to recruitment and selection
The HRM uses variety of approaches in developing recruitment process. Using of recruitment strategy and approach help in recruiting best/skilled employees and to develop workforce structure. The different kinds of recruitment approaches are described below-
|Approaches ||Process||Strength ||Weakness |
|In-house recruitment ||Employers of large company use of an in-house recruitment over outsourcing or other agencies. The employers identify their hiring needs and attempts to find job-role within their occupational workforce (Jamaliet al. 2015). ||It helps the employers to cover hiring needs in and round company |
It hires permanent staff
They help in improving procedures using strong team players
The selection is done based on candidate’s work experience
|Less dynamic |
Salary is not performance based
Provides base salary
|Outsourcing ||Outsourcing performs business activities by allowing an employer to transfer sections of recruitment processes to external department. The recruitment is performed by an agency that has knowledge regarding requirement, company's staff, technology, salary and others (Jamaliet al. 2015). ||Cost reduction and develop saving methods |
It operates with flexibility
Provides staffing flexibility
|Job insecurity |
Adverse affect on morale and motivation
|Employment agencies||Employee agency works as public-funded recruitment team that helps employees to find job. It charges the company the employee gets recruited for or might deduct a percentage of pay. ||Cost and time savings |
Retaining interest of applicants
Pool of Qualified applicants
|Limited access to some applicants|
Less liability and authentication
|Talent management||Talent management helps in hiring talented employees driving optimal levels, skills and experience. Their aim is to create high-performing workforce within the organization (Arulrajahet al. 2015). |
The tools of talent management are bonus, compensation, incentives and rewards.
The elements of talent management are development of performance, succession, onboarding, employee and career (Arulrajahet al. 2015).
|It help in providing right job to right people |
It help in retaining talent of employees
Better hiring process
Help in understanding employees
|Costly process |
Say it with Chocolate is operating in an area of high unemployment. It experiences a growth in number of applicants in administration vacancies. It becomes difficult in recruiting the potential candidate for the same position of high frequency (Marchington, 2015). The HR manager is responsible in monitoring the potentiality of applicants. The selection method is based on English assessment entailing, language skills and comprehension (Brewster, 2017). The HR officer is responsible of counselling the current selection methods also identifying talent and skills for business objectives. It becomes important to recruit right people based on qualifications/experience, talents and skills and interest (Jamali et al. 2015).
Advantages of current selection method
The current selection method uses a writing test examining the thought process, reading and writing skills, strategic writing and understanding. On the other hand, knowledge test will help in assessing professional expertise and learning potential of candidate. Most importantly, in case of high frequency of applicants, it becomes easier to select better candidates. This help in examining the aptitude, learning temperament and attitude.
Disadvantages of current selection method
The disadvantages in current selection method of Say it with Chocolate are unreliability, fear of exposure among candidates, becomes biased towards few candidates, not a strong medium of selection (Jamali et al. 2015).
1d Area of improvements in current selection methods
Say it with chocolate need to develop selection procedure enhancing better selection process. Since the company is experiencing high employment ratio, it is important to conduct strategic selection method in identifying the potential candidate. The HRM conducts knowledge based on language skill. Being a chocolate company, it is important to focus on aptitude skills and other knowledge tests. It is important for an employee to have technical knowledge. The selection need to be based on quality management and customer service. The employee performance is required to contribute to the reputation of company, allow enrichment of opportunities and retaining customer base (Lopez and Nicolini, 2015). Besides, conducting language written test, it is necessary to conduct interest tests and personality tests enabling an employee understands and opinion of work preference.
The steps of alternative selection includes-
- Preliminary interview- it will help in eliminating applications using questionnaire as primary tool. It willhelp assessing the misfits to the position (Zibarrasand Coan, 2015).
Task 2- LO4 (P7, M5)
2a. Understandingapplication of HRM practices
The practices of HRM are to prepare job analysis, recruitment, training, job design, selection and performance management. Say it with chocolate intends to recruit receptionist in handling new entrants in company (Ahlvikand Björkman, 2015). It is the role of HRM in developing the job description regarding the concerned position.
|Job analysis ||The HRM deals with the process of getting detailed information regarding candidates and job profile in preparing application process |
|Recruitment ||The recruitment is essential in selecting the right candidate for the concerned job role |
|Training ||Training becomes a planned program that help shaping talent, management, experience and behavior into positive path|
|Performance management ||It helps in managing performance through reward, bonus, incentives and benefits. Besides it develops labor and employee relations. |
|Job design ||The role of HRM is to make right decisions regarding particular job and assign appropriate role and responsibilities |
|Selection and recruitment ||It is important to select the right candidates by examining key skills and ability (Zibarrasand Coan, 2015)|
|Development ||The acquisition, knowledge, experience and talents need to be recorded and managed in meeting challenges and change in future|
Say it with Chocolate
|Objective of job||the receptionist is required to have welcoming attitude towards clients/ visitors/ employees and others and deliver information to the concerned using telephone services. |
|Qualities ||the position need to have strong experience, talent and power of fulfilling targets within given time. It is necessary to align organizational objectives with time-management. It is important to assist legislative and administrative responsibilities in right way.|
2b. Identifying suitable medium of advertisements
The company has been using in-house recruitment in appointing potential candidates. It was associated with referral system where the existing employees referred an individual based on requirements. Sometimes, employees are selected or promoted based on performance. The company favoured the use in-house recruitment over outsourcing. Outsourcing is the third-party/mediator that works as an agency in providing candidates (Punchevaet al. 2018). The agencies conduct selection process over a percentage of amounts.
The advantages of in-house recruitment help in boosting employee morale and reduce recruitment expenses.Social media advertisements help in using social media channel in delivering information served to audience. This will help applicants to direct apply on the company website without getting engaged with foreign agencies or mediators. Social networks help in creating marketing chain and deliver communications among employer and employees faster (Rauchand Hatak, 2016). The recruitment agency or outsourcing work as a mediator in selecting candidates on behalf of company. The agency levy certain amount or percentage from the company or deduct an amount of percentagefrom applicants. It helps in finding bestcandidates among the targeted.
2c. Assessing advantages and disadvantages previous methods of advertising
The earlier form of advertisement encompassed delivering recruitment details on newspaper and radio. The company focused on in-bound recruitment where transfer, promotion and referral were the medium of recruitment. The advertisements through newspaper and radio become expensive over internal recruitment process. The in-house advertisements help in selection based on extensive skills, resources and experiences. It saves time and acts easy medium to change the teams creating marketing opportunities. The disadvantages of in-house approach are risk of inadvertent marketing and that it creates place of competition among employers posing negative impact (Clairand Milliman, 2017).
2d. Interview questions
The task of HRM is to ask questions during interview of final selection of candidates. The questionnaire is prepared in identifying the thought process, willingness, interest and hard work of the candidate. Specific set of questions are prepared for different job roles. The questions prepared for the role of receptionist are-
- Why do you want to work for the company?
- How does the job role pertain to your interest?
- Why do you want to work for selected job role?
- How would you welcome new client/visitor?
- What are your strengths and weaknesses?
- What are the primary responsibilities as a receptionist?
The interview round can be two-way process entailing telephonic round and face-to-face interview round. A planned training and interview session help facilitating learning of job-related information concerning skills, experience and behaviour (Tzabbaret al. 2014).
Part 2- Task 3- LO2 (P3, P4, M3, D2)
Microsoft has strong stakeholders and shareholders committed in fulfilling the organizational objectives. The occupational culture of Microsoft motivates personal growth and development among employees. Microsoft aims at innovatingactivities in changing the world. In order bring positive change, it is important to change the dynamism of work structure. The employees are required to be trained and developed in right direction, are motivate and encouraged, provide reward and scope of development in integrating work force structure.
3a. Understanding the benefits of apprenticeship and training schemes
Apprenticeship refers to a training process that helps in training employees by skilled practitioners. The employees are invited into classroom work and reading guided by individual assessment. Besides, it helps practitioners in identifying individual role and responsibilities towards organization. Apprenticeship allows practitioners to obtain a license in attaining regulated profession (Gerhartand Fang, 2015). It provides individual with professional certification, standardised practice and level of competence. The advantages of apprenticeship are finding higher job opportunity, help individual building skills, reliable next-generation workers and devise possibilities lowering long-term costs.
The training schemes help employees identifying their job role and responsibilities; identify strength, weakness and opportunities. The training conducts both physical and mentalactivity driving new change and possibility (Massenberget al. 2015). The key advantages of training schemes in Microsoft are resourceful manpower, effective operations, lower maintenance costs, knowledge transfer and increase efficiency. On the organizational front, training brings in increased communication between employer and employees, positive impact on individual performance, increased profits, drive business performance, develop professional qualifications and develop new ideas (Gerhartand Fang, 2015).
The job design and structure of Microsoft is flexible and do not overburden/pressurize employees. For example, if an employee of Microsoft normally assembles parts, the task may be enlarged to include new tasks. It includes work planning, inspection / quality control, or maintenance under the invigilation of Microsoft HR team.
3b. Assessing developmental opportunities of employees
Microsoft focuses on employee integrity and development. Besides, training schemes, it allows employees to participate in professional activities and discussions, participate in skill based training and lead projects. Developmental opportunities help in providing scope to employees in improving job performance with increased responsibilities. It helps in gaining trust and loyalty of employees towards organization (Mengeset al. 2017). Microsoft motivates its employees to participate in conferences, seminars and coursework broadening thoughts and attitude. Besides team work is a proactive developmental opportunity giving way to collaborative understanding workers, integrate performance and maintain formal credentials.
3c. Assessing Microsoft’s flexible working practices
Flexible working practices help in motivating employees to secure interest and achievements. Microsoft provides part-time, full-time job opportunities, job sharing and temporary working opportunities and multi-skilling and home working in fewer occasions. In order to implement flexible working practices, it is important to assess culture and attitudes, physical environment, communication andtraining, performance management and job roles. Microsoft focuses on the barriers to flexible working practices in limiting anyrisk and irregularity. It records operations of senior management, state of economy, technological constraints, employee resistance, lack of interest and lack of senior-level support (Afsaret al. 2016). Part time working helps employees to work less as compared to full-time. Temporary contracthelpemployees to work under an agreement/ short span of time in completion of objectives.
Microsoft incorporates new approaches of flexible work opportunities such as flex time, work from home and job share. Maternal leave and work from home helped women employees to conduct work from home. Working from home is applied on woman (during pregnancy days), that allow to conduct task from home using technology for connection. The employee is connected with origination through internet or telecommunication and do not have to travel workplace every day. Flex-time allows employees to choose their shift/ time (Afsaret al. 2016). Job share encourage sharing of jobs between two-three individuals. Condensed hours allow employees to work based on weekly hours/days in completion the task.
During maternal leave, woman is required to communicate through telephone and perform responsibilities through home for 8-9 months. It becomes easier to conduct and complete work. Under Fair regulations 2009, allow employees to conduct work using individual flexible arrangements (Galea et al. 2014). IFA works as written document and allow them to change certain clauses in registered agreement. Microsoft in implementing flexible work practices focused on performance management, culture and attitudes, recruitment, communication and work implementation process.
3d. Projecting work structure motivation
In order to allow employees to stay motivated and integrate their performance, Microsoft pertains to motivational schemes feeding the interest of employees. It is important for employees to retain their interest in responsibilities through self-management and time management. Microsoft exhibits that the key motivational factors leading to satisfaction among employees are achievement, rewards, advancement, growth and promotion, responsibility and recognition. The factors that lead to dissatisfaction among employees need to be limited. Theorganizationbecomes responsible in assessing company policy, micromanagement, status, job security, work conditions and supervision (Gerhartand Fang, 2015).
Microsoft focuses on designing job structure in needs and requirements of employees. The core job characteristic encircles skill variety, task identity, task significance, feedback and autonomy. It will help in developing psychological states through meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge integration. The outcomes under favourable job design are performance, absenteeism, turnover, satisfaction and motivation (Ganta, 2014). The idea of increasing the job scope by developing duties and responsibilities helps in ascertaining job engagement.
The responsibility of HRM is to focus on strenuous circumstances that create greasy challenges. Organizational structure needs to be structured and made flexible influencing the performance of employees. The four different methods driving employee motivation are training, job security, appraisals and compensation (Mengeset al. 2017).Reward and compensation are provided under the supervision and approval of HRM manager. The individual’s performance is assessed and recoded for evaluation. The progress reports help to examine the promotional schemes, rewards and compensation for individuals. The rewards and compensation are two sources of motivation that is applied in Microsoft in regaining interest. It builds competence, motivation and hard work among employees (Massenberget al. 2015).
Task 4- LO3 (P5, M4)
4a. Employee engagement
Microsoft conducted business summit on employee engagement inviting large organizations. The summit focused on identifying employee workforcestricture and the significance of employee engagement. There were speakers from Microsoft such as Anton Andrews, Jason Warnke, Kathleen Hogan and others inspiringpeople at Employee EngagementSummit.
Employee engagement refers to the systematic approach in workplace in driving minds of employees. The formulation of approaches is made in alignment with legal system, employee needs, objectives, right conditions favouring members of Microsoft. It is important for organisation to have clear goals and values that will help employees to stay motivated to success. Employee engagement is driven by major motivational factors enhancing sense of well-being (Anitha, 2014).
It isbelieved that better engagement means quality productivity. Employees of Microsoft are engaged at work, witha feeling of connectivity to company. Therelationship between employer and employees need to be strengthened, communication skills and understanding need to be exercised, team work and time management need to be involved in training, individual decision-making need to be appreciated, freedom to information help in gaining trust of employees (Anitha, 2014).
4b. Use of employee engagement as a strategy
Human Resource Management use employee engagement asa strategy. The HRM designs the Employee engagement structure and procedures ensuring them to stay committed to the organization's goals and objectives (Huanget al. 2016). It is important to infuse the understanding of one’s responsibilityand contribution to organizational success. The different factors that influence employee engagement are flexibility in workplace, career development opportunities, adoption of new learning culture, fair pay structure, compensation and incentives, autonomy and inspiration, agility help in driving interest of employees.
4c. Key approaches to employee engagement
Microsoft helps in retaining employee engagement in workplace through multi-disciplinary activities. The training schemes has developed few activities/approaches for new recruited employees such as strong induction and orientation program identifying their field of knowledge and experience, provide a preview of job structure, leadership programs, skill development program, in-house,magazines, satisfaction surveys on-line communications (Huanget al. 2016). Besides, team work involving new and existing employees help in developing understanding of opinion. The HRM records eth feedback of employees that are timely assessed towardsactive soliciting of employee interest (Othmanet al. 2018). It is important for HRM to manage the conflicts caused to differences of culture. The employees are required to understand the benefits of working in diversified workplace and respect culture and value of different people. This will reduce conflicts and generate team work.
The approaches undertaken in retaining employee engagement of existing employees are team building, leadership development, reward and incentive schemes and communication activities. The leadership activities help in guiding leadership qualities, examination of individual performance and undertake promotional activities. The approaches are formulated based on equal opportunities, inspiring environment, commitment, corporate social responsibility and maintaining quality lifestyle (Othmanet al. 2018). Thereward schemes consider benefit programs, performance awards, idea generation schemes and recognition programs. It is important for the HRM to initiate approaches only with the needs of organizations. The employee engagement activities do not strengthen the workforce structure but internally help organization with profit sharing, profitable outcome and stock ownership.
4d. Employment legislation UK
Microsoft is guided by legal system that pertains to different rules and regulations. Employees work in the UK conforming to legal standards that benefit the workforce. Microsoft complies with minimum charter of employment rights, Health and Safety Act, Regulations, common law, employment protection and equity (Albrechtet al. 2015). Besides, the employees are provided with minimum wage of £7.50. Child employment is discouraged in UK and employment is provided for over 25-year-olds following the legal procedure of National Minimum Wage Act 1998.The Employment Protection legislation (EPL) is conducted by Microsoft that is followed by the managers and employers (Karangeset al. 2015). The EPL deals with employment protection measures, court rulings, conflict resolution procedure, safety acts, conditions of employment and other customary practice guarding employee engagement and workforce (Baileyet al. 2017).
Human Resource Management helps in strengthening human dignity, respect and equality among employees. It helps employees to identify potentiality, talents, achievement, motivation, willingness and patience. HRM believes that strengthening aspects of employees will help in developing occupational environment. It is easier to shape employee’s talent and capability using strategic approach, rewards, compensation and training session. Human Resources Management develops the dimension, thought process and management among employees. It drives employees towards high level of performance and ensuring that they are developing at organizational and individual level. HRM using training session teach employees in achieving objectives of organization.