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Acute Kidney Failure: Glomerular and Interstitial Injury Models

Assessment title: Disease Awareness Pamphlet

This assessment is worth 50% of your overall marks. The assessment has multiple parts.

Task description:

For this assessment,

  1. You are required to design and submit a Disease Awareness Pamphlet based on
    • interviews conducted with randomly selected members of the public and
    • your research using the approved reference textbooks,
  2. You are also required to submit a written summary of your interviews and rationale for your pamphlet design in the form of a reflection.


The ONLY approved references for your Disease Awareness Pamphlet are the two textbooks:

  1. McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L. and N.S. Rote. Pathophysiology. The biologic basis for disease in adults and children. 2014, 7th Edition, Elsevier
  2. VanMeter, K.C., Hubert, R.J. Gould's Pathophysiology for the Health Professions. 2014, 5th Edition, Elsevier/Saunders

Please note that both textbooks are available at the CQUniversity Library. Textbook 1 is available as an eBook and hard copy.

Please read the following instructions carefully. You are required to complete both Part A and B.

Part A

Step 1A. You are required to select ONE clinical model from the Clinical Model Selection list provided on the BIOH12008 Moodle site under Disease Awareness Pamphlet assessment task. The clinical model needs to be selected before 21:00pm AEST, Monday of Week 4. There is only a limited choice of clinical models to choose from therefore you will need to make your choice as early as possible. If you do not select a clinical model by week 4, one will be selected for you by your lecturer.

Step 2A. You are required to interview FIVE randomly chosen individuals with no healthcare background about your chosen clinical model. An interview sheet has been provided for you in Moodle under Disease Awareness Pamphlet assessment task. The interview sheet consists of the questions you need to ask in your interviews. You need to complete this interview sheet during each of the five interviews.

For your interviews:

  • Interview individuals in your local community, for example at a local supermarket, library, gym, etc.
  • If you do not have access to anyone of the above as you live remotely, interview some of your family members and some of your friends, colleagues
  • Or any possible combination of the above


Step 3A. Write a summary of all five of your interviews (500 to 600 words). Based on the information you have collected, you are required to plan for your Disease Awareness Pamphlet. For example, based on your interviews, any shortfalls you identify in public awareness about the disease can be one of the focus points in your Pamphlet in addition to the pathophysiology of the disease, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.


Step 4A. You are then required to develop a draft of your Disease Awareness Pamphlet using the approved textbooks as a source of information. There are further instructions for the pamphlet on Moodle under Disease Awareness Pamphlet assessment task (design, text-coherence, pop-out effects, and exemplar).

Answer

ACUTE KIDNEY FAILURE (ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY)

Selection of Clinical model (1A)

A clinical model such as Glomerular and interstitial injury models has been selected for the carrying out of the project. The interviews are based on the disease occurrence of acute kidney failure (acute kidney injury) among Australian population.

Interview of five randomly chosen individuals (2A)

Selected Clinical Model Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 1 date: xxx
Interviewee background (optional)
Gender: male
Age: 34
Occupation: xxx
Q1:What symptoms does this disease have?

“I feel this disease reduces urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal. I have seen issues with shortness of breath with the victim of kidney failure disease. Occasional seizures can be seen sometimes.”

Q2:What causes this disease?

“Slow blood flows to the kidney are the main reason for acute kidney failure. Kidney injuries such as heart diseases, hypertension, liver dysfunction, continuous dehydration can lead to acute kidney failure as per my knowledge"

Q3:How does this disease affect the quality of life of the patient?

“Acute kidney failure causes diabetes, morbid obesity that leads to life-threatening risks of the victim. This disease leads to non-recoverable coma, unusual bleeding of the patients”

Q4:Who are the most affected people in the Australian population?

"Being age 5 or above, the population gets most affected with kidney failures. However, children with born chronic diseases such as lack of blood level can be affected with this disease
Q5:How is this disease diagnosed?

Acute kidney failures can be diagnosed through analyzing of primary symptoms such as continuous tiredness and bloody urine. Blood urea nitrogen can be examined to detect the status of the victim as per stages of acute kidney failure"
Q6:How is this disease treated?

Medication is the primary solution for preventing acute kidney failures. In addition consumption of calcium and insulin can avoid an increase of the disease"
Q7:What else do you know about this disease?

‘Kidney failure is a life-threatening risk that almost reduces working power and increases mental traumas"


Selected Clinical Model Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 2 date: xxx
Interviewee background (optional)
Gender: female
Age: 62
Occupation: xxx
Q1: What symptoms does this disease have?

"Fatigue and Nausea are the common symptoms that can be seen with acute kidney failure disease. In addition, chest pain and pressure in the chest can be seen".

Q2: What causes this disease?

“Severe blood loss, a sudden heart attack can cause acute kidney failure. Unnecessary use of Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and Naproxen sodium such as Aleve can lead to acute kidney failures"

Q3: How does this disease affect the quality of life of the patient?

"As per my knowledge, I can say that acute kidney failures lead to enlarged prostate, bladder dysfunctions kidney stones and blood clots around the kidney. This disease leads to loss of appetite for a lifetime"

Q4: Who are the most affected people in the Australian population?

“Kidney donors are the primary victims of acute kidney failures in case of improper maintenance after donations”

Q5: How is this disease diagnosed?

“Creatinine clearance can be done to detect in which stage of kidney injury the patient is”

Q6: How is this disease treated?

“Diet based on doctoral advises according to body status can prevent dangerous causes of acute kidney failure”

Q7: What else do you know about this disease?


“Kidney failures causes blood losses and increases the risk of heart attacks and unusual blood losses”


Selected Clinical Model- Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 3 date: xxx
Interviewee background (optional)
Gender: male
Age: 71
Occupation: xxx
Q1: What symptoms does this disease have?


“Malignant hypertension and breaths problems are common in case of acute kidney injury or kidney failure. Swelling in the legs and ankles are other common symptoms that I have seen in most of the cases."

Q2: What causes this disease?

“Autoimmune kidney diseases such as interstitial nephritis, urinary tract obstruction, the acute nephritic syndrome can cause kidney failures. In addition, acute tubular necrosis leads to severe kidney injuries"

Q3: How does this disease affect the quality of life of the patient?

“Continuous drowsiness and tiredness are the common impacts of acute kidney failure. On the other hand, it makes the outer skin sensitive that got bruised easily. The problem in blood clotting, as well as changes in mental status such as mood and memory power, can occur with acute kidney failure"

Q4: Who are the most affected people in the Australian population?

“People with peripheral artery diseases that makes problem in hand and leg blood flows are commonly detected with acute kidney failures at their 30’s. Sometimes people with high blood pressure or continue hypertension are detected with kidney failures”

Q5: How is this disease diagnosed?

"Urinalysis can be done at the initial stage of detecting kidney status of the patient. In addition, the glomerular filtration rate can be estimated to detect kidney situation.”



Q6: How is this disease treated?

“Regular and proper dialysis that involves diverting blood and filtering wastages can reduce the major damages of other body parts as a result of kidney failures”

Q7: What else do you know about this disease?


"With proper treatment and care kidney failure can be prevented. In case of severe symptoms of kidney failure, immediate treatment needs to be given"




Selected Clinical Model- Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 4 date: xxx
Interviewee background: xxx
Gender: female
Age:35
Occupation: homemaker
Q1: What symptoms does this disease have?
“I suppose people suffer from urinary dysfunction. I know a person who has problems in kidney function, he suffers from diabetes also. But I don’t know if they are related.”
Q2: What causes this disease?
“My husband once told me about his colleague who suffered from kidney stone. This went further to kidney failure. He used to drink alcohol a lot. May be that caused the disease.”
Q3: How does this disease affect the quality of life of the patient?
“I think excessive medication and frequent visits to healthcare organisations become a part of it. Food habits may also get affected along with lifestyles."
Q4: Who are the most affected people in the Australian population?
“I have seen mainly aged people get affected with this disease. However, females are more prone to this disease.”
Q5: How is this disease diagnosed?
“Pathological tests on urine, blood and imaging tests are performed usually as per my knowledge.”
Q6: How is this disease treated?
“Medication and diets are important. I have heard of conduction of dialysis for issues related to kidney functioning.”
Q7: What else do you know about this disease?
“I think people suffer a lot with kidney injury. Kidney failure can lead to kidney transplant or even death.”





Selected Clinical Model: Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 5 date: xxx
Interviewee background (optional)
Gender: Male
Age: 42
Occupation: officer
Q1: What symptoms does this disease have?
“I’m not sure, but do people with kidney problems have issues related to urination? I think they get urination problems like increased or decreased urination.”
Q2: What causes this disease?
"I went into a medical workshop about chronic diseases due to unhealthy food habits. They mentioned that excessive cholesterol blocked blood vessel and may damage kidney function."
Q3: How does this disease affect the quality of life of the patient?
“It takes a toll to regular lifestyle. Need to undergo vast medication processes. Along with this, individuals need to check on their alcohol consumption. Urinary dysfunction can prove to make situations critical sometime.”
Q4: Who are the most affected people in the Australian population?
“Mainly people above 70 years of age get affected with kidney failure and acute kidney injury. Umm…people with issues in kidney dysfunction get affected early in this case.”
Q5: How is this disease diagnosed?
“I think biopsy tests are performed on kidney to identify issues in kidney dysfunction. Along with this blood and urine tests are must.”
Q6: How is this disease treated?
“I have seen people undergo weekly dialysis procedures to make blood purified. In addition, medication is continued to maintain blood component level and easy functioning of kidney.”
Q7: What else do you know about this disease?
“I think healthy food habit can help in surviving this situation. Even some people with lower immunity system get affected by kidney failure.”


Summary and reflection of all five of interviews (3A)

The interviewees are clear about the concept of the disease, acute kidney failure. Ideas about diagnosis and treatment procedures became clear among interviewees. In addition, they became understanding about the effects of this disease occurrence in lifestyle quality and renal system. The Glomerular and interstitial injury model helped in describing the causes of disease occurrence and disease spreading among female and male population. According to Chen et al. (2017), Lupus Nephritis occurrence leads to kidney failure through the weakening of immune system. The pamphlet described this information through pictorial illustrations. However, the concept became difficult for the interviewees.

Aging as a cause of kidney failure occurrence was an easy concept for the interviewees. However, the details of this process as described by Glomerular and interstitial injury model such as progressive glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis terms were difficult. Nevertheless, the easy explanation with description of treatment procedures was easy to be understood by them. As commented by Sewell et al. (2017), kidney failure treatment needs to be started with early diagnosis. This should also include genetic analysis because genetic interaction is one of the leading factors affecting disease occurrence. Nevertheless, interviewees got the idea about the precautions against such conditions.

The symptoms are cleared to the interviewees after the reading of pamphlet. They became aware of the associated disease symptoms of Kidney problems. In addition, interviewees became aware about the differences between symptoms of associated diseases. As cited by Lecamwasam et al. (2017), injury-dependent inflammations and interstitial fibrosis in blood vessels of renal system result in kidney dysfunction, as per Glomerular and interstitial injury model. In addition to this, the concept of renal lesions was clear with clear descriptions. Nevertheless, knowledge enhancement in physiological system of kidney is needed to be incorporated within the pamphlets to describe and elaborate on specific reasons behind its occurrence. Some interviewees were not clear about the structure of system, thus, details can be spread among them with more illustrations.

Aging of humans develop progressive degeneration of physiological system. As commented by Wright et al. (2018), age-related kidney degeneration becomes prominent with increasing age in male population. However, this type of occurrence is lower among young adults. This concept of Glomerular and interstitial injury model was easily interpreted by interviewees and they became assured that age-related disease occurrence is more common in Australian population, which is 65%. In addition to this, Luckett et al. (2017) explained that mesangial expansion and renal morphological changes are the main factors affecting renal lesions due to increased pressure on renal functioning. This idea was generalised with age related to kidney failure.

I was impressed by the development of general awareness of common people with no medical background about issues related to kidney failure. They are aware of the possible common reasons behind this. However, they were not firm about the specific symptoms of acute kidney failure or injury. In addition, governmental support is important for the social works and avail facilities to people for diagnosis and treatment of acute kidney injury.


Development of draft for disease awareness pamphlet (4A)

Interview of five randomly chosen individuals (1B)

Draft Pamphlet Interview Clinical Model: Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 1 date: xxx
Interviewee background (optional)
Gender: male
Age: 36
Occupation: xxx
Q1: After reading the draft pamphlet, can you briefly summarise what you learnt about the disease?
“The disease is related to renal dysfunction and results in abnormality in urination. Kidney stones and lesions can lead to kidney failure. In addition, food habit can make the condition serious for affected person.”
Q2: What information did you find difficult to understand on the draft pamphlet? Why?
“The causes related to renal structure changes are difficult to me. It was not described properly according to my knowledge. I have no idea about renal system, thus, more information was required for me to clarify certain terms.”
Q3: How did the pamphlet help your understanding of the disease?
"I think it cleared the symptoms and possible reasons for this disease occurrence."
Q4: What is your opinion about the language of the pamphlet? Is there a term you could not understand?
“The Medical terms are well illustrated. I am quite fine with language used.”
Q5: What is your opinion about the design of the pamphlet? Is there anything you would change?
“The design is attractive, picture illustrations are good. However, I would like to use more basic colours for my pamphlet.”
Q6: What else do you think could be improved on the pamphlet?
“Clarification and spacing can be improved according to me.”
Q7: What else do you want to me to consider for the final pamphlet?
“You can consider on better images for description.”



Draft Pamphlet Interview Clinical Model: Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 2 date: xxx
Interviewee background (optional)
Gender: female
Age: 26
Occupation: xxx
Q1: After reading the draft pamphlet, can you briefly summarise what you learnt about the disease?
"I get to know about distinct symptoms and whom to approach when these symptoms occur. The disease mainly occurs at older age when renal functions get interrupted with other conditions and aging."
Q2: What information did you find difficult to understand on the draft pamphlet? Why?
“Certain medical terms proved to be difficult for me.”
Q3: How did the pamphlet help your understanding of the disease?
“It provided clear understanding and procedure of diagnosis. I get to know details about symptoms, treatment procedures and diagnosis processes.”
Q4: What is your opinion about the language of the pamphlet? Is there a term you could not understand?
"Language used it is easy to interpret."
Q5: What is your opinion about the design of the pamphlet? Is there anything you would change?
“It was an attractive pamphlet. I am happy with it. It will become more appealing with more picture illustrations.”
Q6: What else do you think could be improved on the pamphlet?
“Colours can be modified… Overall it is good.”
Q7: What else do you want to me to consider for the final pamphlet?
“Please consider mentioning best healthcare services available.”


Draft Pamphlet Interview Clinical Model: Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 3 date: xxx
Interviewee background (optional)
Gender: female
Age: 39
Occupation: xxx
Q1: After reading the draft pamphlet, can you briefly summarise what you learnt about the disease?
"The disease can be prevented with certain habits. Medication with healthy diet can extend lifespan. In addition, people get affected by diabetes and urinary dysfunction. I think this can be an aftermath of kidney stone."
Q2: What information did you find difficult to understand on the draft pamphlet? Why?
“It is difficult to understand the reasons of injury occurrence in renal system.I got confused with the theme of occurrence of lesions in kidney and vessels. But how vessel lesions occur?”
Q3: How did the pamphlet help your understanding of the disease?
“The pamphlet described the symptoms and diagnosis procedure that are important for common people like us. In addition, the easy language and pictures relayed the content easily to me.”
Q4: What is your opinion about the language of the pamphlet? Is there a term you could not understand?
The language is fluent, even people with no medical background can understand the topic and related terms easily.”
Q5: What is your opinion about the design of the pamphlet? Is there anything you would change?
“The design is good. However, more spacing would have made it easier to read.”
Q6: What else do you think could be improved on the pamphlet?
“The pamphlet can be improved with the incorporation of a glossary of certain medical terms for easy understanding.”
Q7: What else do you want to me to consider for the final pamphlet?
“You can add links for useful services that common people can avail in Australia. Is there any governmental policies available for people affected with this disease?”


Draft Pamphlet Interview Clinical Model: Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 4 date: xxx
Interviewee background (optional)
Gender: male
Age: 45
Occupation: xxx
Q1: After reading the draft pamphlet, can you briefly summarise what you learnt about the disease?
“The disease is related to aging and progressive degeneration of kidney functioning due to aging. I got the idea that this disease is the result of kidney lesions. Food habit and lifestyle practices have adverse effects in proceeding to this disease.”
Q2: What information did you find difficult to understand on the draft pamphlet? Why?
“The information related to human genetic model for disease occurrence was quite difficult to understand for me. Detailed explanation can help me in this aspect.”
Q3: How did the pamphlet help your understanding of the disease?
"The pamphlet is illustrative of the pictures and flourished with necessary information for us common people. This has helped me in distinguishing symptoms between kidney problems and diabetes.”
Q4: What is your opinion about the language of the pamphlet? Is there a term you could not understand?
“The language was easy to understand and provided easy understanding on the given topic. I was happy with the description of terms provided in pamphlet.”
Q5: What is your opinion about the design of the pamphlet? Is there anything you would change?
“The design can be improved with colour choices. Overall, the design is good.”
Q6: What else do you think could be improved on the pamphlet?
“I think the pamphlet can include more space between the information. Pictures are good, but it would have been better with easy meaning.”
Q7: What else do you want to me to consider for the final pamphlet?
"In my opinion, you can consider incorporating more illustrative pictures."


Draft Pamphlet Interview Clinical Model: Glomerular and interstitial injury models
Interview 5 date: xxx
Interviewee background (optional)
Gender: female
Age: 34
Occupation: xxx
Q1: After reading the draft pamphlet, can you briefly summarise what you learnt about the disease?
“The disease is related to loss of kidney function. This can be a result of kidney injury due to lesion occurrence. Aging plays a key role in this disease. Urination abnormality is one of the key symptoms for this disease."
Q2: What information did you find difficult to understand on the draft pamphlet? Why?
“Information provided in the pamphlet was okay. But information on kidney function and system needs to be more detailed to get the idea.”
Q3: How did the pamphlet help your understanding of the disease?
“The pamphlet helped me a lot. I got the gist of the disease and now know whom to approach if certain symptoms occurred.”
Q4: What is your opinion about the language of the pamphlet? Is there a term you could not understand?
The language is understandable. I am happy with it. No language barrier has been faced by me during reading and comprehending the topic.”
Q5: What is your opinion about the design of the pamphlet? Is there anything you would change?
“Pamphlet design was attractive. I really liked that. The colours are bright and catch your attention. But I want to mention the size of it. I would have made it handy and easy for distribution."
Q6: What else do you think could be improved on the pamphlet?
“The pamphlet can be improved regarding its size. Otherwise, it is well and good.”
Q7: What else do you want to me to consider for the final pamphlet?
"The design was good. It was attractive and incorporated all the necessary data related to acute kidney failure and injury. The pictures were placed at appropriate sections. However, I would like to comment about spacing. Consider this and your pamphlet will be mind-blowing."

Summary of interview and development of final pamphlet (2B)

The next phase of interview was conducted on the understanding of concepts of interviewees about the pamphlet distributed among the population. The five different interviews conducted on the interviewees to acquire the idea about their acceptance about the pamphlet presented a diverse range of responses. The interviewees have gathered the key concepts of occurrence of acute kidney failure or injury from the designed pamphlet of the researcher. However, their concepts mainly focused on the general ground of reasoning and symptoms of kidney diseases. As commented by Ludlow et al. (2017), Australian general practitioners provide suitable medications for specific diseases; however, they fail to provide the appropriate reasoning and knowledge to common people. They often fail to register the meanings of difficult medical terms which make the idea more seriously. The presentation of pamphlet was acceptable and clear to the interviewees. As explained by Ahn et al. (2018), Australian population has the gross idea that surgical intervention is the sole treatment procedure for kidney failure. However, the interviewees gathered ideas about precautionary measures about that.

The language and approach of the pamphlet were acceptable to the common people along with its designs. Nevertheless, certain suggestions were provided by them to modify and improve the present pamphlet. This includes colour choice, letter spacing, inclusion of a glossary of medical terms and such. These suggestions are helpful for my future references to make better pamphlets and achieve enhanced acceptance. In addition, the sections that comprised of medical terminologies are needed to be well explained with pictorial representation and explanation. In addition to this, references to healthcare services and organisations if provided can help in creating general awareness. As opined by Zimbudzi et al. (2017), relation among service users and service providers are to be enhanced in order to generalise terms related to chronic kidney injury. This type of information is provided in the pamphlet will increase general people's approaches to healthcare services. In addition, related healthcare facilities can be incorporated within. The challenges faced in presenting the whole material in an illustrative format for easy understanding of the topic for people with no medical background. Nevertheless, this provided the scope for modifying the present pamphlet to make it more formal and understandable. For this purpose, the feedback from the interviewees played critical role to present issues in the first one.

Reflection on feedbacks received in interview (3B)

I faced challenges in including all data related to the disease in the pamphlet with pictorial illustration. In addition, my design of pamphlet was appealing to the interviewees to a certain extent. However, they provided with suggestions to make improvements in my pamphlet. The draft contained the concepts about the disease, such as symptoms, diagnosis procedure, and treatment. In addition, precautionary suggestions were provided. However, interviewees suggested incorporating the explanations to medical terms and phrases. Nevertheless, the new design provided the importance of addressing the knowledge of common people. Moreover, the modifications in the pamphlet helped in easy understanding. Thus, the less information presented provided the needs to include easy explanation. This helped in equal understanding to people about the reasons, etiology, and implications of treatment procedures of acute kidney failure. Henceforth, the designing of new pamphlet gains the importance.

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