Format: The report must be prepared as a professional engineering report with an abstract,
introduction, data collection and analysis and conclusions. The report must include
headings and appropriate levels of sub-headings. It must also include table of content, list of abbreviations, figures and tables. All the literature data must be appropriately referenced. Harvard style referencing must be used. Students are expected to produce about 4,000 word length (20 pages) report (excluding title page, table of content, list c abbreviations, figures and tables).
Students must select a 10 ha (315 m x 315 m) area of an urban area within Australia. Selected are must include some commercial and institutional areas. For the selected area, carryout the following data collection and analysis:
- Number of residential and commercial properties.
- Estimate the quantity of waste generated from these houses.
- Estimate the quantities for each type of waste that is generated.
- Identify the processing required for each of the waste types.
- Design the processing centre.
- Identify the resources that can be recovered, annually.
- Identify the appropriate disposal options.
- Design the selected disposal options.
- Evaluate all the resources recovery and diposal options using triple bottom line approach.
- Provide a succinct summary of all the data that was collected and analysed.
- Develop a thought provoking conclusions and recommendati
ADVANCED WASTE MANAGEMENT
Waste generation is inherited to inhabited areas. The study shows that the waste generated is directly proportional to the population and economic growth. Waste management is the need of the hour. The three steps which forms the base of waste management are the 3Rs –
Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. While reduce transfers the burden on the waste generators, reuse and recycle are part of waste management Techniques. Waste management is becoming an upcoming business line. The recycling and reuse of waste generated are being looked upon as the business opportunities because the cost of procuring the raw material is negligible and the market value of the recycled products is significant.
Australia is showing great economic growth and hence generating more waste. But it will not be wrong to say that Australia generates less of municipal waste and recycles more waste that is generated (Australia National Waste Report, 2016)) The major sources of waste generation are:
Due to growth and development Australia is generating more waste which can be classified as commercial and industrial waste and demolition waste. However it ends up recycling most of it. Due to low population density the domestic waste generated the country is less and is mostly processed.
Waste management is the need of the hour because of the increasing population and the resulting pollution to the natural resources and environment by the waste generated. The report selects a given area of 10h and estimates the waste generated from the area. The report designs the waste management and disposal plan the area and concludes that proper waste management not only reduces the pollution to our surroundings but also generates profit that can be used in development of the area.
The area selected is from the urban part of Australia. The area selected is within the following latitudes and longitudes:
98086.18 m² | 0.10 km² | 24.24 acres | 9.81 hectares | 1055790.81 feet² | 0.04 square miles | 0.03 square nautical miles
1270.328m OR 4167.741feet
The map can be viewed at the following link <https://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm?showarea=93409&verify=7ed02a7137d42b3c6f220c86ef331b75>
Population in the area:
The area selected in Sydney near the University of Sydney and is highly populated place in Australia. According to the European Commission report (2018) to produce a map called the Global Human Settlement Layer, report in Sydney had an average density of 2800 people per square kilometre in 2015. Forming this as the basis, the population of the above area is estimated as 274.
Waste generated is of various types. The waste can be classified on the following basis:
|Garbage or kitchen waste||Wastes from preparation, cooking, and serving of food; market wastes; wastes from handling, storage, and sale of produce||Households, restaurants, institutions, stores, markets – this waste can be mostly composted and used to prepare good quality manures|
|Rubbish||Combustible: paper, cartons, boxes, barrels, wood, excelsior, tree branches, yard trimmings, wood furniture, bedding Noncombustible: metals, tin cans, metal furniture, dirt, glass, crockery, minerals||Institutional- this waste can be easily recycled or reused|
|Ashes||Residue from fires used for cooking and heating and from on-site incineration||This is the waste that goes to landfills and should be processed to reduce the negative effect on environment|
|Street refuse||Sweepings, dirt, leaves, catch basin dirt, contents of litter receptacles||Public utilities: streets, sidewalks, alleys, vacant lots, parks, etc. – this waste goes to landfills and mostly compostable|
|Abandoned vehicles||Unwanted cars and trucks left on public property|
|Industrial wastes||Food-processing wastes, boiler house cinders, lumber scraps, metal scraps, shavings, residues from pollution control devices.||Industries – this waste needs to be processed before it is disposed off in the environment.|
|Demolition and construction wastes||Lumber, pipes, brick, masonry, and other construction materials from razed buildings and other structures||Demolition sites to be used for new buildings, projects, expressways|
|Special wastes||Hazardous solids and liquids; explosives, pathological wastes, radioactive materials||Households, hotels, hospitals, institutions, stores, industries – this waste needs processing before it is disposed off|
|Sewage treatment residue||Solids from screening, grit chambers, septic tanks, biological processes||Sewage treatment plants, septic tanks – this waste is disposed off in landfills|
Once the type of waste generated by the population in the locality is identified, the waste is to be segregated. Segregation of waste is important because the different types of waste need different types of treatment and processing. The mixed waste become impossible to process and is very dangerous for the environment.
According to the Australian National Waste Report (2016), in 2014-15 Australia produced about 64 million tonnes of waste, which is equivalent to 2.7 tonnes of waste per capita. Almost 60% of this was recycled.
The waste per capita is classified in the report as follows:
The area identified is the educational institutional area and hence the waste generated is mainly :
On the basis of the data provided by the Australia National report, the waste generated is calculated as follows:
Table 1: Waste generated for the Area
|Waste (in Kgs)|
|For the given population||1,48,508||1,02,750||24,934||2,76,192|
The waste can be segregated on the various basis. The waste can be
The term ‘resource recovery’ is used to represent the sum of recycling and energy recovery. ‘Waste generation’ is used to represent the sum of disposal and resource recovery.
In the above classification of waste –
Table 2: Detailed segregation of waste for Area
|Waste (in Kgs)|
|Paper & Cardboard||Plastics||Glass|
|For the given population||1,48,508||61,102||29,318||12,330||24,934||2,76,192|
The processing of the waste will differ according to the waste generated
For the waste generated and segregated in the above covered area the following collection process is planned:
Processing of the waste is the activity that is performed to reduce the negative impact of the waste on the environment and extract resource out of the waste. The processing varies with the type of the waste generated. The various activities that need to be carried out on the said waste collected include:
Volume Reduction (%)= (Vi-Vf / Vf )×100 And the compaction ratio of the waste is Compaction ratio = Vi / Vf where Vi = volume of waste before compaction, m3 and Vf = volume of waste after compaction, m3.
The processing centre will require the following:
Since the area covered is small and the quantity of garbage generated is less, it is not feasible to set up a different waste recycling plants and it is mo=re beneficial to sell the segregated dry waste to the recycling houses.
The processing of the waste requires the following resources:
Table 3: Cost of resources required
|No of households (Average 4)||69|
|Item/Product||NO of units||Price/Unit||Total Cost|
|Supplies and other materials||10000 p.a.||10,000|
The garbage collection price per house is $50 / annum
The recovery from the project will be as follows:
|Revenue||Quanity (kgs)||Rate (per 100 kg)||Per Annum (in $)|
|Collection revenue (per household)||3450|
|Sales of Cardboard/paper||223||171||381.33|
|Sale of plastic||107||375||401.25|
|Sale of Glass||45||30||13.5|
|Sale of compost generated (100 kgs of compost is made from 150 kgs of organic waste)||99,005||4 per kg||3,96,020|
It can be observed from the above calculations that the costs of the waste management facility is recovered in the first year itself and in the following years the facility will be self sustainable and even generate significant profit to the community.
The excess of resources generated from the processing of the waste can be even used to hire a larger location for segregating the waste. Also after discussing with larger localities the waste processing facility can be dedicatedly planned to address to the needs of the place.
The Australia national Waste Report 2016 also shows that the recovery from the waste is substantial if the right process are utilised.
Disposal of waste in the right way is not only the need of the environment and nature but is also a very good resource. It is observed everywhere than whenever the waste is segregated and managed effectively it results in generation of more resources than the waste generated. source of energy. The researches show that the waste industry currently recycles around half of the waste generated in Australia. The remainder – residuals from recycling and mixed putrescible wastes – is land filled. However, it cannot be ignored that there are challenges to both the ways:
• Recycling – The recycling industry comprises three segments construction materials; organics; and discarded packaging. The major waste generated in the area under consideration is the paper/cardboard waste and other rubbish. This waste can be easily recycled. However segregation and transportation of the waste to the recycling sites is major concern. The sites require large space and are generally established in the suburbs. The transportation time and cost is high which makes it difficult for all the waste to reach the recycling locations.
• Landfill – Major landfill practices have improved significantly and are evidenced by most sites embracing composite liners, leachate extraction and disposal capability, landfill gas combustion and responsible long term rehabilitation and after use. Unfortunately, many smaller regional landfills are not at this standard and more needs to be done to close the poorer quality sites and provide local waste transfer facilities. Even though certain waste are to go to landfills only, lack of segregation and mixing of the waste reduces the natural composting process and even results in secretion of harmful gases affecting the environment negatively.
Thus considering the above concerns, the best way to dispose of the waste is to either sell it to the recycling organisations or give it to the government organisations which process the waste which is to go for land fills. Directly dumping the waste into landfills will result in destroying the environment and cause more harm to the nature.
As concern over climate change continues to influence environmental policy, the waste industry is well positioned to contribute to emission reduction by diverting organics from landfills for processing. This initiative has commenced in some city markets but has considerable scope for expansion. Diverting organics from landfill has a double benefit – reduced landfill gas emissions and sequestered soil carbon contributing to improved farm production. Other opportunities are also now becoming available from the use of mechanised waste sorting technology that allows acceptance of organic wastes with higher levels of contamination without compromising product quality. Thus the composting of the organic waste provides good quality manure which helps in improving the farm land productivity.
The evaluation of the waste management and disposal plan in the selected area in Sydney, shows that the total cost of managing the waste and processing it for a small area is less than the resources generated and recovered from the waste management process. The cost of the e garbage truck and the bins is recovered in the first year itself from the sale of the compost manure than will be generated from the kitchen or wet organic garbage in the year.
Since the area identified is small it is not possible to have the glass, plastic and other waste processing facilities in the area. Thus it is considered that the waste will be segregated and will be sold to the recycling companies to recycle the waste so segregated.
Though the transpiration cost of the recyclable material form teh site to the recycling companies is not considered because the truck used for picking garbage can be used to deliver the material on non waste picking days. Also the project is delivering excess of resource in the first year itself which can be easily used to streamline the process once the segregation starts and the households keep the waste out of their house to be picked up.
However there are some risk associated with the project. They are as follows:
Waste policies and programs have been established at all levels of Australian governments— Commonwealth, state, territory and local. Policy and legislative responsibility for waste rests with the states and territories, and policy at this level has the greatest influence on waste management.
Suitable locations are needed for processing this important and beneficial resource. Facilities must be located with consideration to end user markets to reduce freight costs to end users. The capital investment required to establish these facilities requires early support to deliver long term benefits. Material should be categorised and directed to its most suitable reuse process; either sustainable power generation or manufacture of compost and other soil amendments. Opportunities The key to delivering change is the establishment of sustainable demand for finished products. Agriculture is the primary target. Prior to the development of synthetic fertiliser, manure and compost were the primary soil fertility products. While synthetic fertilisers have delivered extraordinary growth in yields and profits, those gains are now plateauing and the re-emergence of the two soil fertility products looks inevitable. In many cases the loss of soil fertility can be attributed to a reduction in soil organic matter through ‘conventional’ farming methods. It is here that the greatest opportunities lie to improve soil health and vitality, leading to increased yields and profits. This link is not in dispute. Improvements to soil health deliver:
• more efficient nutrient cycling resulting in lower fertiliser requirements
• increased water holding capacity, which buffers against unreliable rainfall
• reduced pest infestations.
From the above small waste management facility it is concluded that waste management is a very resourceful activity which not only keeps the surrounding and environment clean but also enhances the sustainability.
It is recommended that waste management should be carried out micro level to make it more profitable and sustainable.