College: UK College of Business and Computing
Unit code : H/508/0525
Purpose of this assignment:
The purpose of this assignment it to enable students to demonstrate their understanding of the influence of culture, politics and power upon the behaviour of individuals across a variety of organisations.
The assignment is divided into 2 parts:
Part 1 Organisational culture, politics and power & Motivating teams and individuals
Part 2 Effective cooperation within teams and concepts and theories of organisational behaviour
Case Study – Changing Times at the BBC
The BBC has been undergoing significant change in the past few years, largely in response to the child abuse cases against two long serving presenters (Savile and Hall). The subsequent independent review found that there were some “serious failings in the BBC’s culture and its systems of communication, management and investigation” (Smith, 2016:32) at the time, with concerns around bullying and harassment or staff complaints not being listened to. Aside from this there have also been criticisms about the pay/gender gap between staff.
The organization had a new Director General in 2015 who has spearheaded, via the HR department, large scale re-organisation, leading to the development of a culture which now sees people “coming to work wanting to do the best they can” (Hughes-D’Aeth, 2017). Read the article in Appendices 1 and 2 and then carry out your own research on the subject and on the BBC, to answer the following questions.
LO1: Analyse the influence of culture, politics and power on the behaviour of others in an organisational context
LO2: Evaluate how to motivate individuals and teams to achieve a goal
a) Using Handy’s cultural typology (1986) or an alternative academic cultural model, identify and discuss the earlier organizational culture within the BBC, as observed by the Smith review.
b) Analyse how culture, power and politics overall have affected the behaviour within the BBC in the recent past and today. In your analysis you may want to discuss how much of an influence power and politics played in this culture and discuss the culture now being developed within the BBC.
a) Explain what is meant by content and process theories of motivation.
b) Evaluate how these, along with other motivational techniques, may have helped to improve the effectiveness in the teams within the BBC.
c) How will improved levels of motivation within the BBC help to achieve its organisation’s goals?
LO3: Demonstrate an understanding of how to cooperate effectively with others
LO4: Apply concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour to a given business situation
a) Identify and explain the different types of teams (you must include functional, problem solving and project and virtual teams), within the BBC and why having different types of teams is important.
b) Explain what makes an effective team in the BBC. In answering this question you should relate to appropriate theory such as Tuckman and Jensen’s model of team development and/or Belbin’s team roles.
a) Using an appropriate organisational concept/theory (such as path-goal theory) suggest how team performance and productivity could be improved within the BBC.
b) What have been the main barriers to effective performance within the BBC?
Part 1: organizational culture, politics and power and motivating teams and individuals
Organizational culture and attributes are subject to change and BBC is one such organization that over the past few years have gone through significant changes. In the study based on the provided scenario different aspects of organization culture have been analyzed and scrutinized in the context of BBC and with reference to relevant cultural and motivational theories and models.
a) Earlier organizational culture within BBC
The Smith Review provided the opportunity to have a glance at the interior of the organizational culture of BBC. However, as per the reports it is evident that the organizational culture of BBc has undergone significant changes and the current organizational culture is different from the previous one. In order to analyze the organizational culture of the enterprise it is important to understand Handy’s Cultural typology as this organizational culture model can be treated as one of the benchmarks in the cultural structure models as far as an organization is concerned. According to Charles handy there are four different types of culture that are widely followed by most of the organizations (Miner, 2015). These four different cultures are;
Power culture is only allows a limited people in the organization to enjoy the positional power. These people have the power and they are authorized to take necessary decisions. These people are considered to be the privileged ones at the work place (Dempsey, 2015). These authoritative bodies further have the responsibility to further delegate job designations and responsibilities to other employees. In this work culture the employees do not have the liberty to express their views.
Task culture denotes an organizational culture that is based on the team performance. In such organizational culture teams are formed accordingly in order to achieve the targets or in order to solve the critical problems (Denhardt and Catlaw, 2014). This culture allows the participants or the employees of the organization the opportunity of equal contribution in order to accomplish the assigned tasks in an innovative manner.
An organization that follows the model of a person culture emphasizes over the importance of the employees (Cummings and Worley, 2014). In such culture individuals are more concerned about their individual profit rather than the organizational benefit.
Role culture indicates an organizational culture that emphasizes on the delegated roles of the employees. These delegated roles of the employees are based over the specialization, educational qualification of the employees and in this culture the employees enjoy the opportunity of deciding what best they can do and according to their selection of the job roles they also willingly accept challenges (Bellamyet al, 2016).
The models that BBC followed before Dyke took the charge of the organization were the bureaucratic model which is similar to the power culture. It proved to be not suitable for the organization to run the organizational operations smoothly as the model only aim at the efficiency through framing strict organizational rules and codes of conduct for the employees. In the reign of this culture the employees did not have enough scopes and opportunity to express their views and their organizational issues (Barricket al, 2013). As everyone in the organization were bound to follow the same rule in spite of the fact the rules are not according to the individual capabilities of a person. Employees with innovative ideas also lacked behind because of this culture model as they were unable to express their views and ideas.
After Dyke took charge BBC implemented new policy and organizational culture models. The models that were implemented in order to improve organizational profit and benefit are the Rational Goal Model and the Mckinsey 7 s model (Pinder, 2014).
The clan control policy represents cultural values which is opposite of bureaucratic control. Clan control is a culture that works well with values, beliefs and corporate culture and it has been proved to be helpful in regulating the employee behaviors and achieving organizational goals. The rational goal model has also proved to be an appropriate one for achieving organizational goals in a systematic manner.
The managerial process model that BBC started following has increased the productivity of the managerial processes like managing, decision making and budgeting.
The structural functional model facilitates the process of testing the organizational durability and appropriate ways of responding to the organizational issues.
b)Impact of power and politics over the behavior within BBC
The corporate culture within BBC has been influenced by the external power and political scenario of UK. The cultural norms and the organizational cultural models that have been implemented in the organization have been affected by the political scenario of the country. After Brexit in order to cope up with the current political situation the organizational culture has been customized.
After changes in the political scenario of the country the management team of BBC has also been changed. Helen Broaden incorporated a new theme in the organizational culture in order to inspire creativity across the organization. Jane Root one of the controllers of BBC introduced the policy of connecting directly with the audience. Specifically, in regards with the organizational culture Jerry Timmings introduced and recorded better ideas for the betterment of the relationship among the employees in the organization (www.bbc.co.uk, 2017). Another major change that the organization faced was transformation of the bureaucratic approach of the hierarchy in the organization. The hierarchical structure of the organization gradually transformed into an organization proceeding with the clan control policy.
All the three factors that is the culture, power and politics has various impact on the behavior of the company BBC. It has influenced the overall decision making strategy of the organization. it influences the interaction of the employees in the organization with the customers and the individual related to the organization. Due to the influence of culture, power and politics there has been changes in the overall productivity of the company. In the company due to the cultural changes, influence of power and the interference of politics have created steep changes in the organizational behavior and its culture. The use of power in the company BBC has influenced the overall productivity of the organization by allowing the employees to work in a much better environment than before. The factors have created both positive and negative impact on the organizational behavior of the company BBC. The use of power and politics ahs allows the company to bring in new changes like the reward system where the employees are provided with rewards based on the performance of the organization and employee selection for the supervision of the other employees. But at the same time power use has been vicious for the employees in the company due to the misuse of the power done by different officials in the organization initially. Again the use of politics has influenced the performance of the company as the company BBC has adapted elements from different political structure that is currently in action in the country into its business policies. This adaption of the policies has improved the productivity of the company but again it has created employees getting involved in the unethical practices in the company.
The previous working culture of BBC reflected the power culture and current culture after facing several problems reflects working culture. The journey from power culture to working culture has not been linear for BBC. The company has gone through significant organizational changes within its structure and culture. Internal structure has gone through significant changes. From bureaucratic structure, it has become divisional structure. In the process of change the company had also adapted functional structure.
a)Content and process theories of motivation
Motivation can be defined as the process of simulating the employees in an organization in order to achieve the goals of an organization. In the organizational context, motivation can be defined as the process of influencing the overall performance of the employees by providing them motivation in terms of increasing the desire, need or drive to accomplish the given project to them. It helps in the successful completion of the business processes with better productivity.
The study of motivation has classified or typified the motivational theories into two major groups and that are content theories and Process theories.
The primary focus of the content theory lies in the factors that are present within a person who has the ability to energize, direct, sustain or stop behavior. These theories focus on the individual needs of the people and considering theses needs focus on the areas that require motivation. The identified specific needs are considered to be motivational factors for the people, for example the theorists that applied this particular ideology in their motivational theories are Abraham Maslow, Federick Herzberg, Clayton P. Alderfer and David C. McClelland (Lazaroiu, 2015).
Content theories believe in satisfying the individual needs of the employees and it requires a process of identifying the needs. In an organization meaningful rewards often prove to be helpful in satisfying the needs of the employees and it is also important to understand that the needs of an individual do not necessarily repeat in a regular pattern and offering appropriate rewards can optimize the performance of the employees.
Management assumptions (Theory X and Theory Y): Douglas McGregor further developed Maslow’s motivation theory into Management Assumptions Theory. According to these theory the managers of an organization assumes several needs of the employees. The two categories were distinguished and the mangers tend to adopt one among the two.
The first category is termed as Theory X and the managers who follow this theory adapted the dominant management approach based on the following assumptions:
Along with the application of this approach, McGregor mentioned the real needs of the workers that are often misinterpreted by the managers and in contrast to the previous theory he proposed another theory that is known as theory Y.
Theory Y is virtually opposite to Theory X and it is based on the following assumptions:
According to McGregor Theory Y apart from meeting the needs of the organization also meets the needs of the employees. He also stated that Theory X only has the credential to meet Maslow’s Deficiency needs but Theory Y can also meet the development needs of the employees.
Process theories primarily focus on providing a description and an analysis of the process that can be followed in order to energize, sustained, directed and stopped. Among the process theories the predominant ones are:
Process theories explain how employee behavior is energized. The work of B.F Skinner is often associated with the reinforcement theories. His work is based on the assumption that the behavior is influenced by its consequences. In this theory the consequences are referred to as operants (Soltaniet al, 2014).
Expectancy model focuses on the likeliness of the performance and the outcome. It emphasizes on the individual behavior and according to this theory an individual decides whether a job can be accomplished or not, whether the outcome can be treated as the result of performing and along with that whether the outcome will be desirable or not (Soltaniet al, 2014).
(Figure 1: Content and Process Theories
Source: Self generated)
Process theories also includes behavioral model and OBM or Organizational Behavior Modification research emphasizes over the scientific approach of the behavioral model. As per the experts OBM has made a positive contribution in the organizational behavior and employee behavior has been utterly improved with the implementation of OBM in the organization.
(Figure 2: Behavioral Model
Source: self generated )
b)Impact of motivational techniques in improving the effectiveness in the teams within BBC
In the Big conversation that took place in the May of 2003, many of the BBC employees complained against the harassment and the bullying of the management teams. According to the employees they have been bullied rather than being managed by the management of the organization. From discussions it has been found out that BBC had good leaders but the number of the leaders is not enough to run such a huge organization (Pinder, 2014). As BBC is a huge organization it is important to look after the needs of the employees in order to motivate them accordingly.
Because of the bureaucratic management the teamwork inside the organization was lacking and it required to be treated with importance. In a bureaucratic culture the employees can not work as a team. In order to increase team spirit, group loyalty and team spirit the supervisory behavior and concern for the workers have been improved.
Both content theories and Process theories can facilitate the process of employee loyalty and the employees can be motivated in such a manner that their productivity is increased. Individual productivity leads to the organizational benefit as well. This has enabled the opportunity to develop confidence, trust and the communication among the employees. Both of the theories can help in motivating the employees to achieve individual goals (Pinder, 2014). As per the Content theories it is important to identify the needs of the employees and they can be motivated according to their needs. There are several employees who have been harassed and bullied, therefore, it is important to provide health and occupational safety to the employees in order to meet their needs. Security of health and safety can be motivating for the employees and they can perform as per their delegated roles.
The employees can be motivated through monetary rewards as well. Incentives and bonus often serve as important rewards that can meet their motivational needs. Such rewards can be essential in motivating the employees to perform better.
In order to improve the productivity of different teams in the organization, the management needs to motivate the employee to effectively work in a team. Motivation is the driving force that is essential in providing the force to the employees to perform even better. As per the reports, the teamwork visibly lacked under the organization and along with that the team performance and outcome had not been satisfactory in the previous years. Therefore, it is important to motivate the employees to increase communication among them and emphasize on the importance of working effectively in a team.
Some of the other motivational theories that have been used by the company BBC are the use of the theories like the Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, two factor theory and few others in order to inspire the employees to conduct their work accurately and effectively. The use of these theories has ensured that there is the presence of emotional intelligence development and there is the use of the situational leadership, culture, and empowerment job satisfaction. This has created better impact on the improvement of the effectiveness in the teams. With the presence of these elements the work environment for the employees has been very motivating, thus allowing the employees to give their best performance in the organization. This has led to better outcome from the team which means that proper teamwork has been maintained. The use of such theories has undoubtedly helped the company BBC to attain the required level of enthusiasm from the employees to work more efficiently in the company.
Behavioral model and OBM or Organizational Behavior Modification have been applied by BBC in order to improve the productivity of the employees. Behavioral model is applied in the organization in order o improve the communication among the higher authority and the subordinates in order to understand the needs of the employees. It is important to identify the motivational needs of the employees in order to enhance individual performance. Individual performance has the credential to increase the productivity of the organization.
OBM is concerned with improving the organizational code of conduct that suits the needs of the employees. In order to change the bureaucratic power culture OBM has been a major factor that changed the working condition within BBC and improved it at the same time.
c)Improved levels of motivation to achieve organizational goals
Improved level of motivation can be helpful for the organizational success. If the employees of BBC are motivated in a right direction, it can ensure organizational success as well. The motivated employee can perform better and it ensures the productive growth of the organization. Motivation has a major role behind the employee satisfaction and satisfied employees are one of the primary components of organizational success.
Employee engagement is one of the major components of organizational success. Employee engagement indicates that the employees are devoted to their job roles and are more concerned towards organizational success rather than their individual success. Changing the workplace culture model of the organization has positive effect over the employee engagement as well. As the new culture model is employee friendly and provides much more importance to the functions of the employees, thus, the employees feel closer to the organization and they also feel to be an important part of the organization (Lazaroiu, 2015). Better management visibility, recognition of good work and coherence collaboration among the employees and the authorial body has significant impact over the behavior of the employees. Collaboration among the teams and simplification of the operational processes has a significant positive impact on the culture of the organization. It enhances the working spirit of the employees and the productivity of the employees is also enhanced due to their engagement and employee satisfaction (Lazaroiu, 2015). Therefore, they are more dedicated towards the work that they are performing and it ensures better productivity as far as the organizational outcome is concerned.
One of the goals of BBC is that the company aims in bringing in employees from different culture to work together in their workplace. In order to achieve this goal and the other organizational goals of the company BBC, there can be the use different motivational theory like the use of two factor theory or the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. With the help of these theories the company will be able to provide the employees with different approaches to initiate better teamwork and coordination among the different employees.
In the light of the above study, it can be stated that organizational strategy and management have a significant impact over the organizational culture and any organizational culture that encourages employee motivation and engagement prove to be potentially helpful for the organizational success. It is seen that with the use of different motivational theories the company will be to achieve the objectives of the company by influencing the employees to give better performance by motivating them.
a) Explanation of the different types of teams- functional, problem solving, project team and virtual team within the BBC and the importance of the different types of teams.
The different types of teams that are present within the BBC are functional team, problem solving team, project team and the virtual team. The importance of these teams is given below.
Functional team: functional team can be defined as a group of employees who are working for with the common functional expertise. In the company BBC, these employees are working towards the same goal and have objectives that are being shared by the employees and the organization. Functional team clearly permits more recognizable operational capacity since specialists with shared cutoff points and data are assembled by limits performed. Each social gathering of authorities can thusly work autonomously with affiliation going about as the motivation driving cross-correspondence between utilitarian locales.
Problem solving team: These teams in the company BBC are working towards the same goals but their work is different as different task has been provided to the employees. These tasks are based on the problems that are arising in the company, thus the main focus of these employees is to resolve the various issues that are present in the functions and operations of the organization.
Project team: project team can be defined as a group of people where the member of the group belongs to different groups and functions and are handling different projects that BBC has undertaken.These members are then given various tasks. These tasks belong to the same project on which the employees are working based on the needs of the organization. The management team of the company BBC again divides the team into sub teams, which are done according to the various functions of the project. These types of teams are used for a definite time period. If the project has been completed then the group is dismissed.
Virtual team: these teams are present in the company BBC which are distributed and divided into different parts. These teams can be referred as a group of individuals who work together in the same organization. The company undergoes various projects where the employees are located in different locations but are working the same team and company for a single project. These team members communicate among themselves with the help of various mediums like email, FAX, or communicating among themselves with the help of voice or video through the medium of conferencing services. This is done in order to collaborate with the people belonging to the same group.
These teams are important within the BBC so that the company can get better ideas and better level of work as the employees will be working efficiently even in difficult circumstances. All these team structure are used in BBC so that the grouping of the team is done effectively. It helps the organization to build their business and grow in terms of profit and other benefits.
b) Explanation of an effective team in the BBC in relation to Tuckman and Jensen’s model of team development
In BBC an effective team can be described with the help of the various team theories that are available in the business market. One of such theories is the Tuckman’s Theory of group development (Lehmann-Willenbrock, 2017). This theory is based on various stages. The stages of the Tuckman theory can be described below in order to develop a group are given below.
Forming: In BBC, the use of Tuckman theory is quite prevalent as the group of team members are initially formed as is counted to the first step in the development of the Tuckman’s theory. This is the initial stage of team development in the theory and also in the organization. In this stage or position, the employees usually work in order to find their place in the organization. This finding of the place in the workplace is based on the sizing of the group, evaluating their needs and demands.
Storming: this is the second stage of the Tuckman’s theory that is being applied in the workplace of BBC. In this stage the team members of the BBC challenge one another so that they work as a team. The team members also compete with the team leaders about various topics that are related to the working structure of the team and the success of the various stages of the procedures of working of the team
Norming: it can be defined as the phase in the Tuckman’s theory where the team members gather information regarding in accordance to the ground rules and processes that are on development.
Performing: it is the final stage in the theory where the team members effectively start working in the tasks and building of the teams relationship helps in maintaining the synchronization among the various team members of BBC (Gabelica et al, 2016).
At the same time the sue of this theory will be influencing the overall performance pofn the employees as there will be influences in the role of the leadership in the company, there will be the presence of better communication in the teams and development in the personality of the employees. These changes in the employees will be more effective in improving the teamwork of the company.
The effective use of the Tuckman theory will be helping the company BBC to develop an effective team as the team members will be getting guidance in the appropriate form. The use of the theory will be effective as the team members will be analyzing the situations and the managers or the leader of the team will be leading the team in accordance to the theory process, thus benefiting the company BBC in providing the best performance as the team will be leaded in the appropriate manner.
a) Team performance and productivity improvement within BBC using path goal theory
The use of path goal theory in the BBC indicates that the performance of the team is vital for the organization. This is because the BBC uses a path goal theory which is based on the behavior of the employees and the working environment of the organization. With the help of this theory in the organization, the achievement of the goals of the organizations is attained. The main aim and goal of such kind of information is the increment in the motivation of the employees, their empowerment and the employment satisfaction so that the employees become more productive and help the organization to grow (Konradt et al, 2015).
Path goal theory can be defined as the theory that involves the specifying of the leader’s style and behavior that will be best suited for the employees and the current work environment in order to achieve the goals of the organization. It is a process where the behaviors of the leaders are selected which will be best suited for the fulfillment of the needs of the employees. The use of this theory will be effective and can be linked with the use of the goal setting theory.
In order to understand the team performance and improvement the use of the situationalleadership will be effective in understanding the nature of the goal complexity and the maturity of the group that is present in the team. It is seen that to understand the value of situational leadership, there is the necessity to analyze the leadership theory. Situational leadership theory is a theory that is based on the four styles. These styles are:
The use of this style of leadership will be allowing the leaders to understand the complexity that is present in the team in terms of achieving the goals of the company. This is due to the fact that situational leadership contains different set of leadership style which can be used to analyze the team working. This form of leadership will allow the leader to interact with the team members in accordance to the situation that is prevalent in the team, thus helping the leader to get an idea of the uniqueness of the team members and the issues that are present in the personality of the individual that will be affecting the company functions. By using this leadership theory there will be better understanding of the ways that can be sued in order to resolve the issues that are present in the company especially in the team.
b) Main barriers to effective performance within BBC
There are various barriers that are being effective in the performance of the employees in the BBC is the use of proper teamwork theory and the maintenance of the teamwork. It is essential for any company to keep the issues that are related to the employees and their relationship with the organization intact. But the use of improper management of managers of the organization affects the performance of the BBC (Martin et al, 2017).There are various other barriers like the culture of the environment of the company, the organizational culture, improper communication in the company and improper feedback from the customers.
In the company BBC the different barriers that are prevalent due the existence of diversified employees will be affecting the performances of the teams in the company. It is seen that the barrier like the improper communication which is quite prevalent in the company BBC due to diverse culture existence among the employees has been affecting the performance of the teams. This has led to issues being occurring among the team members.