Critical Analysis of learning and teaching in the early years linked to
1. Biblical principles
2. Constructivism, Humanism or Post-Modernism and its impact on early childhood teaching and learning 3. Developmental characteristics 4. Learning connected to the brain's learning processes
EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
1. Aspect of learning and teaching early children
The learning and education process has undergone significant changes in the present times. There has been a continuous effort by the teachers to inculcate the skills among children to prepare them for further challenges in life and higher studies. It is essential that students must be instilled with learning techniques that are harmonious to the changing technologies that are readily adapted by them.
The learning techniques that will be incorporated into my teaching aspects will be to involve the children to play in the band. The music helps in improving the sensory development of children. The different types of music help to stimulate the brains of the children and assist in building coordination. The effect of playing in band will expose them to different kinds of sounds that will help nurture their ability in decoding sound and hence building their literacy and numeracy skills. This is a physical skill that will act as mood lifter for children and also enhance their cognitive learning skills. The activity of children participating in the band also provides them with the skills to enhance their vocabulary through enabling them to learn the lyrics of the songs which opens them to new words (playgroupnsw, 2019).
The children must also be introduced to sand and water play specifically young students in the age bracket of two to three years. It is better way of inculcating sensory play and helping child to explore their sensory centres which helps them builds their skills. The physical development is also achieved by introducing the children to sand and water play as it helps to build eye hand coordination. It also teaches children the use of their fine motor skills by scooping, sifting, pouring and so on. The central idea behind sand and water play provides opportunity to the children to practice sharing and cooperation while playing. It helps in exploring and enjoying sensory experiences while manipulating wood material along with digging in the sand. The play also helps in reducing the energy level of children who are over excited and provide an acceptable way for venting their anger (Slavin, 2019).
The creative aspects of learning and teaching are also dependent on the involvement of teacher while engaging in the activity. The observation and monitoring is while helping children in developing their skills is also one of the important aspects of teaching.
2. Religion affecting the work
It is essential that teachers foster a learning environment for students that enables the student to appraise their creative and critical thinking, enhances their techniques for problem solving, brings them a sense of global awareness and make them aware of their social responsibilities. It is important that religious and social principles are introduced to them as an early childhood interventions (Irving & Carter, 2018).
I practice to pursue the religious principles of Hinduism as I believe it has a rich heritage and culture that is dominated by the feeling of love and respect for everyone. The important tenets of Hinduism is based on the moral codes that fosters the self-control in people and socially competent. Hinduism lays priority to building of soft skills that emphatically spreads to the education. My working to a large extent is driven by the Hindu principle that consider each child as a part of god and nurturing them with love and care is like showing your affiliation to god. The true embodiment of adopting Hindu principles in my working has taught to work closely with nature and helping to bond with children to fulfil their development. Every religion teaches working with unity and in harmony with each individual forming a connected bond with the god. The principles of Hinduism of working together have a positive long term impact and bring a sense of fairness in the working environment. The essence of nurturing a sense of discipline also a direct outcome of influences of Hindu principles as the Hindu culture itself promotes self-control and concentration (Brainerd & Menon, (2015). The Vedic scriptures that form the basis of Hinduism, has always placed emphasis on the student teacher relationship and instructs to maintain equality while teaching. The dynamism and principles of Nonviolence brings in the sense of tolerance and promotes a feeling of growing together like a single family.
The application of principle of Hinduism is very identical to those propagated in Bible and the ultimate motive is to achieve development of values, building of beliefs that influence cognitive perceptions, foster psychological evolution and promote mental and logical development. The existence of feeling of broad tolerance and spirit of acceptance as central understanding of Hinduism has helped to develop teaching practices that helped me to bring dignity to my working and also respect the needs and individuality of my students.
3. Theories to guide learning strategy
The two theories that guide my learning strategy are Constructivism and humanism theory.
Constructivism is a Theory helping the children to develop the knowledge true experiences they have had in their lives and engaging opportunities in the environment they live in. Constructivism forms main learning theory in the modern education system providing ideas to teachers to teach things corresponding to the reality (Ogunyemi, 2015). Constructivism promotes the idea that children learn best through encouragement to construct meanings of their own experiences. The activity involving drawing or colour play is good constructive ideas meaning for the purpose of teaching enhancing teaching contents and approaches to focus on the process of program evaluation. This is to be noticed that children today are exposed more to visual symbols and jingles through technological devices that they have not been able to develop a sense of difference between reality and virtual fantasy. Hence through application of constructivism in education can provide principles that can help in providing foundations to help children interact according to their experiences. With situated knowledge, multiple readings and engaging with images can prove to be helpful in expanding and improving the knowledge base of children. Constructivism focuses on creative learning emphasizing on gaining knowledge to improve skills in the teachers to improve their professional competence and practices. It also helps in encouraging the risk taking capacity among teachers to accommodate organisational structure that helps in fulfilling the all-round development of the student along with showing importance to the innovations. It also emphasizes on learning from the past and drawing lessons from the past experiences and engaging in shed responsibilities and trust.
The Humanism theory propounds that it is essential for people to act with intentions and value and study the person as a whole. Humanism focuses on the idea of study of self-motivation and facilitates effective and cognitive needs (Berk & Meyers, 2013). Humanism focuses on the development of self-actualization in a cooperative and supportive environment and learning is student centred and personalizes where the role of educator is that of a facilitator. Humanistic principles focus on human dignity respecting life and cultural diversity which instance a commitment for international solidarity. The humanist theory can be applied on activities that helps the children to rebound together and also participate in activities that with cooperation. My role as facilitating an environment for instilling equality and cooperation among students is one of the highest priorities of my learning strategy.
It is essential that learning strategies are deeply rooted to promote development and self-actualization in order to bring about all round development of the child.
4. Developmental task
The scope and intensity invite the learning process during the early childhood learning is very essential for development and providing a healthy atmosphere for social and cognitive development. The cognitive skills can be acquired by children by meeting developmental milestones and engaging child of any ability through promotion of activities active learning (Irving et al. 2018).
The cognitive skills development can be achieved by involving children in sing along activities and encourage children to sing favourite songs. This will help in promoting memory and identification of words. The identification noises heard by them on an everyday basis like birds singing and so on helps them to relate to objects in their environment. The children must be encouraged to ask questions so that he can learn to think for himself and that will inculcate problem solving abilities and skills and provide him with a better understanding of working of the environment. A visit to interesting places like local children's museum, farmers market will help in stimulating curiosity and provide them with hands on experiences. It helps in encouraging learning experiences and provides responses and reactions that can be beneficial to understand ability of child. The choices must be offered to children regarding their preferences for colours or food items which will provide them feeling of Independence and help to develop skills to make him take confident decisions in future.
The developmental tasks to enhance social development skills involve engaging children in expressing their feelings in an age appropriate way. The tasks involving acceptable ways to express their strong feelings like throwing foam ball to vent anger. Children must be encouraged to be involved in only friendships and need to practice learning how to share take turns or resolve conflicts while experiencing the joy of having friends around them (Berk 2013). Children developed important skills buy paint together and must be provided with supportive environment for playing. The guided activities like play activities with sand and water can help in keeping conflicts minimum encourages compatibility and sharing. This helps the children to understand and see others point of view can also help the children who developed the social skills. The activities involving discussions with children asking them to imagine how the behaviour of other children might affect others is also one of the encouraging developmental tasks that can help in building social development in children.
5. Brain theory and lesson preparation
The brain theory essentially focusespositive and negative experiences that add up in shaping the development of the child which can have a lifelong effect. It is therefore necessary to nurture and provide responsive care to the child in the early stages of childhood to promote a healthy brain development (Bergen & Woodin, 2017). It is essential that the right care is provided to the children in the early learning stages so that the brains can reach their full potential and protected from extreme or chronic stress.
The lesson plans must be made nurturing the child understanding the needs and sensitive protecting the children from any stress. Speaking to children and improving the Communications by exposing them to books songs helps children to learn languages and put them in the path towards Higher Learning.
The physical skills can be fostered in children by devising lesson plans that what opportunities to the students to interact with the natural environment and exposing them to their natural surroundings. The effect of vision and sound on the development of the brain is substantially high in the early ages of childhood. The visit to farmers market or visiting interesting places will help the children to be swear of their natural surroundings and help them to understand the difference between reality and fantasy.
The social skills acquired an important pedestal while devising a learning plan. The brain theory guides the fact children are fast learners and early intuitive awareness can help in becoming more reflective and explicit (Slavin & Davis, 2006). The lesson plans are built to promote a sense of cooperation among children and engage together in activities that involve sharing. This helps in inculcating awareness regarding thoughts wanton feelings among children in a natural stick situations which will help in developing the attitude of the child in the future course of life.
The cognitive skills can be developed by training the brain from early on relating to the influences that social environment will have on them. The awareness regarding the mental States influences the rate of development and child's participation pretend play, story book reading sessions, talking about past experiences. This internal factors help influence the rate of development of children including the language abilities and cognitive abilities and also regulate and control the behaviour of children accordingly. The lesson plans focusing on the cognitive factors incoherence with theory of brain development accident effective intervention for children enhancing their intuitive social skills and reflective cognition development.