Analysis on Effect of Waste Tire Chips
Effect of Waste Tire Chips on The Shearing Strength of Sand
In the year 2005, USA disposed-off 299 million waste tires are disposed of in the environment causing extreme damage, according to a report published in 2009. Disposed tires in other countries was 103 million-Japan; Canada- 28 million; South Korea- 20 million and approx. 15 million in the United Kingdom.
These waste materials of especially the rubber product, is a complex threat to all livings beings and the environment. Insects breeding grounds usually are seen to be the waste tyres ,as they have the capacity to hold water for thousands of years.
This is also a disturbing sight to see, as a pile of stinking tyres can be a real eye sore. Only 30% of the waste tires are legally recorded to be disposed of by the residents, rest all others prefer to ward them off in the open natural setups. Therefore, the concept of using these tyres in constructing structures has proved to be of immense help to the mother nature and the countries who have been fighting this problem for long. This method of waste management is also very cost efficient .
Thermal insulators retaining walls road construction light materials landfill drainage etc. Can all be made out of the scrap tyres and that was Technologies can help in setting them in different shapes and sizes according to the requirement after constructor. The quality of geotechnical project is enhanced by the use of this tyre material to give it more strength, compatibility, durability and resistance for long period of time (Zhang, Cai and Duan, 2018). Once these material of waste tires is mixed with soil it becomes a very strong hold in ground for geotechnical problem solving for the benefit of the environment, as the engineers keep struggling with such issues for long. They are also cost efficient and do not require a heavy investment.
The research will be conducted to analyse the strengths and the quality of characteristics that is been added when the sand is mixed with these tread shredded tires mixture to make it more robust in nature. And it has been concluded by researches across the globe that rubber adds strength to soil. However the consistency of the mixture depends upon the various features such as the requirement for the mixture is being made, the durability factor, resistance factor, and the weight requirement.
Waste tyre disposal has become a very big problem in the United States for the past two decades, as on an average every single American disposes at least one tire per year which has been noted by the Federal government in the year 1991. As per the inter model surface transportation efficiency act(ISTEA) which was levied in the year 1997, highway projects were instructed to include at least 10 kg of recycled rubber per mega gram in there one fifth of Highway project assignment which was mixed with hot Asphalt concrete and then the remaining 150 kg of the recyclables tyres should be mixed with sprayed Binder for per mega gram. There is a major possibility of spreading of diseases through Mosquito breeding in tires and creating major Havoc in the entire country. As these waste tyres become major breeding grounds for such mosquitoes and other virus. Therefore, it was recommended that the tires should be either shredded, fumigated, shipped across as scrap, or making holes so that water logging does not take place in these waste tires or by turning the waste old tyre upside down so that there is no place for water to be stagnant. Shredding of old tires and then burning them was an easier way out. These piles of waste tires cause a lot of air pollution as they are not easy to defuse once burnt, and keep on releasing smoke for a long period of time along with other chemical and pollutants. These include extremely harmful toxic gases such as polyromantic hydrocarbons, Sulphur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide etc.. There are other oil based products in the tire that are released in the air creating a blockage in the groundwater and polluting it for years to come. which requires a very heavy investment for cleaning purposes. Illegal dumping of waste has been increased because the disposable cost of such waste tires has increased noticeably over a period of time, and the people want to avoid that cost.
Void tyres comprise of approximately 75% of the entire tyre weightage which increase the freight charges and become costly. Therefore, as a result when these tires have to be disposed of, the freight costs are too high for a person to bear. Thus, they decide to go for an illegal way of dumping them in a secluded area.
The Other problematic area is that burning of these tires requires a very big empty space which is away from the residential locality. So, that the gases that are released in the air do not cause a health issues for the citizens and the fire does not spread to other protected areas. It also happens at times, the tire rises to the top of the landfill and break through the covering of the disposed material. Therefore, these landfill operators want the tires to be shredded off before burning them, so that it is much more easier to dispose them off .However, it should be noted that shredding of tires is one way to reduce the mosquito problem along with toxins getting chased up in the air, it also sometimes exposes the Steel material and wires inside the tires which can cause the tire to catch fire in extremely hot temperature leading to burning the entire chunk of disposable waste on its own. The cost of shredding as reported by US EPA rates upto 500 tires per hour respectively, at a cost of approximately 25 cents per tyre.
Researchers have found out that the sand tire chip mixture can be used as an alternative to fill the back space of the tire and using these sand tyres can counter the problem of global warming and other environmental disturbances (Ravichandran, et.al.,2016). Along with giving a handy solution to all the geotechnical issues related to high dilatancy and soil holding strength. Therefore, we are about to research on the soil strength and dilatancy behaviour of such sand filled tires as a basis of Investigation. There have been many ways that have been carried on to investigate how these sand filled tires affect the shear strength of sand tyre chip mixture and its dilatancy.
Whereas, densities of mixtures have been tested with these sand filled tires so that more and more research can be done on its durability and relative strength (Anbazhagan, Manohar, and Rohit, 2017). Henceforth, a result of the experiment was that the dilatancy model for sand tyre mixture got validated and can be used in future.
Today’s modern engineering demands more soil stabilization. Soil stabilization refers to adding more to the soil properties to make it stronger for the specified engineering. Waste tires which can be extremely harmful for the environment can be used for the stabilization of soil. To study the same, the use of solid waste materials for soil stabilization is reviewed here and the performance of the soil will also be studied.
In a research, samples of fly ash and clay mix are taken and use them with the waste tires. In a hydraulic conductivity test of samples, it is found the strength of the soil decreasing if the percentage of tire material exceeds 30%. In other words, it can be said that the sample from waste material collected industry and hydraulic conductivity test conducted and result of mixed clay and fly ash sample are less than tyre whereas tyre goes to 30% high (Kumar, Goel and Yadav, 2017).
It was observed that in a falling head permeability test that when water is pervaded through rubber mixed soil, the hydraulic conductivity was slightly increased (Yaghoubi, Shukla and Mohyeddin, 2018). (Mr) test is conducted to determine plastic and elsatic strain. The tests were conducted under flexible pavements where he researched on subbase soils blended with varying amounts of shredded scrap tire chips. The used ratio from 0.1 to 0.5 tire chips to dry soil. This blend was compared to the natural virgin soil used in New Jersey in terms of performance. He concluded that if chip is mixed with soil, it enhance the soil strentght and no specific issues was faced. On the contrary, It becomes source of problems due to the presence of steel wires in chips. Tire chips of 50mm size were appropriate and had no negative impact on soil strength. If the chips are added they reduce the density of the soil as well as strength.
Triaxial tests and Compressibility test were conducted on a mixture of sand and rubber chips by Rao and Dutta, (2001). The stability was studied on the parameters of strength and stress strain relations. The observation told that with the addition of rubber up to 15% there was an increase in the value of effective cohesion and internal friction of sand.
Ghazavi (2004) studied the use of 70% rubber blend using it as a lightweight material for backfill. He checked whether the recycled granular rubber is suitable for the same. The finding of research concluded that unit weight of soil is changed. He gave the following conclusions:-
- The increase in the rubber percentage decreases the initial frictional angle of the soil.
- No shearing resistance of blends is improved by mixing the rubber to the sand.
- When rubber is added in the soil it decreases the unit weight of the blend.
- Approximately 10KPa moisture film cohesion can be obtained from the rubber grain blends.
A study was conducted by Ventappa and Dutta (2006) to check the suitability of sand mixed with tire chip using it for the embankment. They set an objective to determine the strength and compressibility of the mixture. The study concluded that interenal frictional angle Ic changed from 38 degree to 40 degree alongwith the production of coheseion between 7 to 17.5 Kpa
In an another research, researcher mixed GTR with other two different soil sample from different geologic formation. These formations were Ceyhan Sand and Leighton Buzzard. The basis of selection of sand is different enginnering and stuctural properties. LBS has sub angluar particles whereas CS has angular particles. Simiarly, LBS is in coarse form and CS is in finer form. The reserahcer didn’t mention about the size of rubber particles but mentioned them as flaky. The flaky rubber particles were mixed with both sand sample in the ratio of 5:10:20:50 in weight criteria. Each mix had gone through from sheer stress. The study concluded that rubber mix sand was more useful than alone sand because rubber provided lightness to the mix (Cabalar, 2010).
Earth retaining and erosion control structures
Erosion control for new structures is now being done by individual tires or the entire Bales of them for strengthening the construction of walls in the states like California, Mexico, Minnesota, and in other major countries such as Australia and Taiwan.One huge block is created by compressing many tires together in composed or shredded form which can be used in construction (Vinod, et. al.,2015).
The experts create artificial form of reefs on these tires and put them in the ocean. So, that the marine life such as fishes and other animals feed on to them and eat the tires and they can be naturally decomposed. These artificial reefs give an Illusion of algae and fungus which are a staple food for marine life. The EPA created a study which showcased various designs of creating such artificial Reefs, so that the waste Tyres can be scraped off in a natural way through the ocean marine animals.
On shore line protection
There was a protection wall which was created on the shores to ensure safety right from early 1970’s era, as the first being on the eastern shore of Maryland in such a way that the tires were anchored together to the ground in a group of 4. These constructed structure was then filled with soil and plants for grown in it so that it can be used for construction purposes also. This helps in reducing the cost of construction marginally as about $40 was the cost for the tire structure as compared to the other conventional methods of plantation.
Various types of soils are collected from locations such as Lahore, Multan, Thokar, Eden value, Niaz Baig and the river Ravi. The tires were purchased from the railway station at Lahore at a cheaper price as scrap material. The quality of tyres was collected in a variant proportion so, that the sample could accumulate more index properties and characteristics of different types of tyres and sand feeling results on them.
Different types of soils were collected from Lahore so, that a wide variety can be used to figure out the vegetation qualities and capacity in them, OMC, MDD, and the holding strength of the soil with the mixture of tyre chips in different proportions.
The above mentioned test will be performed in different specimen of soil. These samples will contain chip from 0 to 15%. The relative results will help to conclude about the impact of stire chip on sheer and compressive strength of soil. After preparing soil with tyre chips in various ration, 3 experiments will be done. These tests will be sieve analysis., modified procter test, unconfined compression test.
In sieve analysis, grain size of soil will be done. Grain size determination is very important to analyse the sheer strength of soil. It also determine soil water movement and frost action susceptibility. For sieve analysis, mechanical experiment will be done. In this mechanical test, sieves will be stacked on each other. Now sand will be pored from top most sieve and whole set of sieve will be shaken so that sand can be pass through from stack. In the nest of stack, the largest screen opening is kept on top and smallest screen on last number. A lid is used to close the nest and pan is kept under last sieve to catch the residual sand. Now, after removing nest, sand on each sieve will be collected and record the weight of sand in each sieve. The % sand will be calculated by dividing the sand weight in sieve by original sieve weight.
Modified Proctor test
In this test, 1000g sand will be dried and passed through the number 4 sieve. Water will be added to sample to get 12% moisture. After that, soil will be compacted in five layer by 10 pound hammer. After that, weight of sample will be recorded. Now the experiment will be repeated with different water content.
Unconfined Compression Test
Different sample of soil will be tested for compression by giving constant strain.
Preparation of sample for testing
- The weight of dry soil is calculated.
- Water is added to the soil
- Mixing the soil with water
- Now keep the wet soil in polythene bag. Bag should be tight and thick.
- Place the soil in constant volume mould. The mould should have internal height of 7.5cm with 3.8cm internal diameter.
- After 24 hours, take soil out from humidity chamber and place it in constant volume mould
- Apply the compressive load until the 7.5cm height of specimen
- Take out specimen from mould
- Record weight, diameter and height
Soil material which meets the engineering necessity is called soil stabilization. Tyres are most important to dispose as it involves various reasons which can harm the environment. It can be concluded that the use of waste material for soil stabilization should be used for the benefit of all stakeholders.
Many earlier researches are conducted on wasted tyre mix with under soils base. For plastic and elastic waste resilient modulus was used. In present research, test was done on cohesion low soil mix with wasted shred tyre chips. Tire chip weigh from 0.1 to 0.5 mix in dry soil. The result shows that the mixing of tire chips in soil has provided no indication as comparison to lot of steel wires taken out of chips. The tire chips lessen the density and hard the soil however tire chips with 50mm has lessen negative impact and not very costly to use. Hence, by utilizing different ratio of tyre chips in sand can enhance its sheer strength.