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Analysis on Effect of Waste Tire Chips

Research Proposal

GSOE9010 Assessment Task

Key Details

Motivation

The research proposal is the major individual assignment in this course, and aims to bring together in a single document many of the ideas covered in the lectures and workshops. Students continuing on to undertake a Research Project in their MEngSc program can use it as a way of developing a proposal to show to potential supervisors. Students who have been exempted from the Research Project can use it as practice for developing research proposals in an industry setting. Whichever focus you take, the document must satisfy the requirements described below.

The proposal should be developed by you individually, based on work carried out by you over the course of the semester to think about an engineering research problem in your own discipline.

Researchers frequently need to write applications for funds to carry out research projects. A typical research funding application would contain: a high-level introduction, some context for the work, a description of the project, and a budget. Your research proposal will be structured somewhat like such an application, but without the need to provide a budget or budget justification.

What is required?

During the semester, you should identify an engineering research problem in your discipline that you find interesting, and plan a research project to investigate a solution. This research problem should not be related to your team project topic - you must select an independent research topic.

You must first select one of two scenarios for your research proposal:

  1. A proposal for a 12-month research project to be undertaken at a university, e.g. a masters thesis project. The ‘target audience’ is your desired academic supervisor (however, you must write in a way that a non-expert could also understand your proposal). Assume they have many students applying to do projects with them and you need to convince them to choose you.
  2. A proposal for a 12-month research project to be undertaken in an industrial setting. The target audience is your boss (however, you must write in a way that a non-expert could also understand your proposal). Assume you are working in a company in an R&D team that has a certain budget for projects for the year. You want to convince your boss that your project idea should go ahead.

In either case, you want to show that you have a good idea and a solid plan, that you know what it is you need to do and how you will approach it.

The full word count of your proposal, including the bibliography, must not exceed 3500 words.

The following paragraphs explain the structure and content that is expected. However, even more detail is provided in the assessment rubric at the end of this document.

Abstract

The abstract is essentially an executive summary, which gives a brief overview of the entire document. It is different from an ‘introduction’. An abstract should not include any material that does not appear also in the body. No figures or tables, and no referencing (include the references in the body). You should explain briefly, in non-technical terms what the project is, why it is important, how it will be approached and what could be the possible outcomes. It should be only one or two paragraphs in length (around 300 words).

Literature Review

The literature review needs to set the context for the project and describe the problem you plan to address in detail. You should describe the various aspects, trade-offs, etc. of the problem, and should describe and analyse any prior work either in this particular problem (or a closely-related problem, if your problem hasn’t yet been addressed). The strengths and weaknesses of prior work need to be identified and you need to “carve out” the precise problem as an approach to address existing weaknesses. You should also, in this section, include discussion of the experimental techniques that are relevant to this problem, especially those techniques that were used in prior work. This section clearly requires careful referencing of the literature. A comprehensive background should be around 1200 words.

Experimental Plan

You need to describe a potential research project to investigate your problem, and maybe develop a solution. Explain in detail the research work that is “planned” (hypothetical) to investigate the problem. Identify all of the factors that might affect your results (e.g. using a fishbone diagram as shown in the videos on ‘experimental design’) and clearly specify which factors are under investigation, which factors should be controlled and which factors should be measured. Include discussion of what resources are required and what experimental techniques will be used. It is probably only realistic to have a concrete (i.e. certain) plan for the first round of experiments because the design of subsequent experiments usually depends on the outcomes of initial experiments, but you may be able to suggest possible directions, or at least goals, for the entire project. Remember, your goals should NOT be goals for what results you want to achieve, or what you want to ‘prove’ because that introduces bias. You can only set goals for what you want to test/investigate, or a high level goal to achieve a solution to a specific problem. If you have done any preliminary analysis to check the feasibility of the project, you can present that to make your plan more convincing. This plan section should be around 700 words in length.

Data Analysis Plan

It is not sufficient to only have an experimental plan because before you start any experimental work, you must be sure that you know how you will analyse the results. Start by explaining what type of data you will generate from your experimental work, and what quantity of data you will have to deal with. Do NOT include any results, ‘pretend’ or otherwise – remember, you have not done the experiments yet, it is just a proposal! Explain how you will assess whether the data is valid (i.e. how do you know there wasn’t a problem with the experiment which makes your data useless?), how you will analyse the data to find any meaningful results, and how you will draw conclusions from the results. This analysis section should be around 500 words in length.

Conclusion

A brief conclusion to draw together the key points of your proposal. (100 words)

Hints and Tips

DO:DO NOT:


Write the proposal as a formal document. Write inUse verbose or “flowery” language.
a precise and concise style.


Describe your ideas in your own words.Use long quotes from other people, and especially

without proper citation.


Use solid references (articles from good journalsUse any material (e.g. diagrams, graphs, formulae,
and top-tier conferences).text) without referencing the source.


Follow the structure given above.Write a report rather than a proposal.


Keep close to the specified word ranges.Exceed 3500 words total for the whole proposal.



Research Proposal Outline

By week 5 of semester (refer to ‘key details’ above), you should have made a good start on your literature review and be exploring ideas for the experimental and data analysis plans. At the very least, you must have identified the research problem that your proposal will investigate.

On Monday of week 6 you must submit a brief Research Proposal Outline that identifies your chosen topic and provides your tutor with an overview of your proposal. The purpose of this submission is for you to get some timely feedback from your tutor to ensure your ideas are on the right track.

At minimum, this outline should answer the following questions (max. 500 words):

  1. What is the broad and narrow research field? (e.g., Electrical Engineering / Transformers or Civil Engineering/Concrete Foundations)
  2. What is the research gap/question that your proposal aims to address?
  3. What is/are the experimental hypothesis/es?
  4. What are the main steps in your experimental methodology to test the hypothesis and obtain the required results?
  5. How will the experiments be conducted (e.g., in the lab, in the field, physical models, digital models/simulations, a combination of the above)?
  6. Provide a brief timeline of the major milestones of the proposed research, demonstrating that it is feasible to complete within a year. (How long will it take to gather data, prepare the equipment, carry out a sufficient number of experiments, analyse the results, write the reports etc.?)
  7. Which statistical/qualitative techniques will be used to analyse the results and provide evidence to accept/reject the hypothesis? (e.g., t-tests, chi-squared tests, visual observations, hypothesis testing for averages, correlations etc).

While no mark is associated with this task, your tutor will assess your proposal outline against the following rubric and indicate whether you should proceed (“green” or “amber light”) or contact the tutor for help (“red light”):

Research Field
Acceptable field for

Not exactly engineering

Not at all engineering

engineering study













Problem/Gap
Clearly identified and

Partially (or vaguely) identified,

Unacceptable or not

well-developed

or underdeveloped

identified







Experimental Hypotheses
Clearly identified and

Partially (or vaguely) identified,

Unacceptable or not

well-developed

or underdeveloped

identified









Gives a clear, realistic

Experimental methodology

Unacceptable or not
Methodology
and complete







vague, unsuitable or incomplete

identified


methodology













Experimental Details
A clear and detailed

Somewhat vague

Unacceptable or not

plan



identified










Suitable for a one-

Might be suitable for a one-year

Far too little/too much for
Timeline/Feasibility


project but some modification



year research project



a one-year project




needed













A well-developed plan

Provides some sense of

No discussion of analysis,
Analysis
that identifies

analytical approach but perhaps







or very poorly defined


analytical approach

not specific enough










Technical Level
Just right

Too specialised or not technical

Not technical at all



enough











Proceed?
Yes

Needs some work: contact tutor

No: contact tutor



if more feedback needed

immediately










Answer

Effect of Waste Tire Chips on The Shearing Strength of  Sand

Abstract

In the year 2005, USA disposed-off 299 million waste tires are disposed of in the environment causing extreme damage, according to a report published in 2009. Disposed tires in other countries was 103 million-Japan; Canada- 28 million; South Korea- 20 million and approx. 15 million in the United Kingdom.

These waste materials of especially the rubber product, is a complex threat to all livings beings and the environment. Insects breeding grounds usually are seen to be the waste tyres ,as they have the capacity to hold water for thousands of years. 

This is  also a disturbing sight to see, as a pile of stinking tyres can be a real eye sore. Only 30% of the waste tires are legally recorded to be disposed of by the residents, rest all others prefer to ward them off in the open natural setups. Therefore, the concept of using these tyres in constructing structures has proved to be of immense help to the mother nature and the countries who have been fighting this problem for long. This method of waste management is also very cost efficient .

Thermal insulators retaining walls road construction light materials landfill drainage etc.  Can all be made out of the scrap tyres and that was Technologies can help in setting them in different shapes and sizes according to the requirement after constructor.  The quality of geotechnical project is enhanced by the use of this tyre material to give it more strength, compatibility, durability and resistance for long period of time (Zhang, Cai and Duan, 2018).  Once these material of waste tires is mixed with soil it becomes a very strong hold in ground for geotechnical problem solving for the benefit of the environment,  as the engineers keep struggling with such issues for long.  They are also cost efficient and do not require a heavy investment.

 The research will be conducted to analyse the strengths and the quality of characteristics that is been added when the sand is mixed with these tread shredded tires mixture to make it more robust in nature.  And it has been concluded by researches across the globe that rubber adds strength to soil. However the consistency of the mixture depends upon the various features such as the requirement for the  mixture is being made, the durability factor,  resistance factor,  and the weight requirement.

Literature review

Waste tyre disposal has become a very big problem in the United States for the past two decades,  as on an average every single American disposes at least one tire per year which has been noted by the Federal government in the year 1991. As per the inter model surface transportation efficiency act(ISTEA) which was levied  in the year 1997, highway projects were instructed to include at least 10 kg of recycled rubber per mega gram in there one fifth of Highway project assignment which was mixed with hot Asphalt concrete and then the remaining 150 kg of the recyclables tyres should be mixed with sprayed Binder for per mega gram. There is a major possibility of spreading of diseases through Mosquito breeding in tires and creating major Havoc in the entire country. As these waste tyres become major breeding grounds for such mosquitoes and other virus.  Therefore, it was recommended that the tires should be either shredded,  fumigated,  shipped  across as scrap,  or making holes so that water logging does not take place in these waste tires or by turning the waste old tyre upside down so that there is no place for water to be stagnant.  Shredding of old tires and then burning them was an easier way out. These piles of waste tires cause a lot of air pollution as they are not easy to defuse once burnt, and keep on releasing smoke for a long period of time along with other chemical and pollutants.  These include  extremely harmful toxic gases such as polyromantic hydrocarbons,  Sulphur dioxide,  hydrochloric acid,  carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide etc.. There are other oil based products in the tire that are released in the air creating a blockage in the groundwater and polluting it for years to come. which requires  a very heavy investment for cleaning purposes. Illegal dumping of waste has been increased because the disposable cost of such waste tires has increased noticeably over a period of time, and the people want to avoid that cost.

Void  tyres comprise of approximately 75% of the entire tyre weightage which increase the freight charges and become costly.  Therefore, as a result when these tires have to be disposed of,  the freight costs are too high for a person to bear. Thus, they decide to go for an illegal way of dumping them in a secluded area.

The Other problematic area is that burning of these tires requires a very big empty space which is away from the residential locality. So, that the gases that are released in the air do not cause a health issues for the citizens and the  fire does not spread to other protected areas. It also happens at times,  the tire rises to the top of the  landfill and break through the covering of the disposed material.  Therefore, these landfill operators want the tires to be shredded off before burning them, so that it is much more easier to dispose them off  .However, it should be noted that shredding of tires is one way to reduce the mosquito problem along with toxins getting chased up in the air,  it also sometimes exposes the Steel material and wires inside the tires which can cause the tire to catch fire in extremely hot temperature leading to  burning the entire chunk of disposable  waste on its own.  The cost of  shredding  as reported by US EPA  rates upto 500 tires per hour respectively, at a cost of approximately 25 cents per tyre.

Researchers have found out that the sand tire chip mixture can be used as an alternative to fill the back space of the tire and using these sand tyres can counter the problem of global warming and other environmental disturbances (Ravichandran, et.al.,2016). Along with giving a handy solution to all the geotechnical issues related to high dilatancy and soil  holding strength.  Therefore, we are about to research on the soil strength and  dilatancy behaviour of such  sand filled tires as a basis of Investigation.  There have been many ways that have been carried on to investigate how these sand filled tires affect the shear strength  of sand tyre chip mixture and its  dilatancy.

Whereas, densities of mixtures have been tested with these sand filled tires so that more and more research can be done on its durability and relative strength (Anbazhagan, Manohar, and Rohit, 2017). Henceforth, a result of the experiment was that the dilatancy model for sand tyre mixture got validated and can be used in future.

Today’s modern engineering demands more soil stabilization. Soil stabilization refers to adding more to the soil properties to make it stronger for the specified engineering. Waste tires which can be extremely harmful for the environment can be used for the stabilization of soil. To study the same, the use of solid waste materials for soil stabilization is reviewed here and the performance of the soil will also be studied. 

 In a research,  samples of fly ash and clay mix  are taken and use them with the waste tires. In a hydraulic conductivity test of samples, it is found the strength of the soil decreasing if the percentage of tire material exceeds 30%. In other words, it can be said that the sample from waste material collected industry and hydraulic conductivity test conducted and result of mixed clay and fly ash sample are less than tyre whereas tyre goes to 30% high (Kumar, Goel and Yadav, 2017).

It was observed that in a falling head permeability test that when water is pervaded through rubber mixed soil, the hydraulic conductivity was slightly increased (Yaghoubi, Shukla and Mohyeddin, 2018). (Mr) test is conducted  to determine plastic and elsatic strain. The tests were conducted under flexible pavements where he researched on subbase soils blended with varying amounts of shredded scrap tire chips. The used ratio from 0.1 to 0.5 tire chips to dry soil. This blend was compared to the natural virgin soil used in New Jersey in terms of performance. He concluded that if chip is mixed  with soil, it enhance the soil strentght and no specific issues was faced. On the contrary, It becomes source of problems due to the presence of steel wires in chips. Tire chips of 50mm size were appropriate and had no negative impact on soil strength. If the chips are added they reduce the density of the soil as well as strength.

Triaxial tests and Compressibility test were conducted on a mixture of sand and rubber chips by Rao and Dutta, (2001). The stability was studied on the parameters of strength and stress strain relations. The observation told that with the addition of rubber up to 15% there was an increase in the value of effective cohesion and internal friction of sand.

Ghazavi (2004) studied the use of 70% rubber blend using it as a lightweight material for backfill. He checked whether the recycled granular rubber is suitable for the same. The finding of research concluded that unit weight of soil is changed. He gave the following conclusions:- 

  • The increase in the rubber percentage decreases the initial frictional angle of the soil. 
  • No shearing resistance of blends is improved by mixing the rubber to the sand. 
  • When rubber is added in the soil it decreases the unit weight of the blend. 
  • Approximately 10KPa moisture film cohesion can be obtained from the rubber grain blends. 

A study was conducted by Ventappa and Dutta (2006) to check the suitability of sand mixed with tire chip using it for the embankment. They set an objective to determine the strength and compressibility of the mixture.  The study concluded that interenal frictional angle Ic changed from 38 degree to 40 degree alongwith the production of coheseion between 7 to 17.5 Kpa

In an another research, researcher mixed GTR with other two different soil sample from different geologic formation. These formations were Ceyhan Sand and Leighton Buzzard. The basis of selection of sand is different enginnering and stuctural properties. LBS has sub angluar particles whereas CS has angular particles. Simiarly, LBS is in coarse form and CS is in finer form. The reserahcer didn’t mention about the size of rubber particles but mentioned them as flaky. The flaky rubber particles were mixed with both sand sample in the ratio of 5:10:20:50 in weight criteria. Each mix had gone through from sheer stress. The study concluded that rubber mix sand was more useful than alone sand because rubber provided lightness to the mix (Cabalar, 2010).

Earth retaining and erosion control structures

Erosion control for new structures is now being done by individual tires or the entire Bales  of them for strengthening the construction of walls in the states like California,  Mexico,  Minnesota,  and in other major countries such as Australia and Taiwan.One huge block is created by compressing many tires together in composed or shredded form which can be used in construction (Vinod, et. al.,2015).

Reefs

 The experts create artificial form of reefs on these tires and put them in the ocean. So, that the marine life such as fishes and other animals feed on to them and eat the tires and they can be naturally decomposed.  These artificial reefs give an Illusion of algae and fungus which are a staple food for marine life.  The EPA created a study which showcased various designs of creating such artificial Reefs,  so that the waste Tyres can be scraped off in a natural way through the ocean marine  animals. 

 On shore line protection

 There was a protection wall which was created on the shores to ensure safety right from early 1970’s  era,  as the first being on the eastern shore of Maryland in such a way that the tires were anchored together to the ground  in a group of 4.  These constructed structure was then filled with soil and plants for grown in it so that it can be used for construction purposes  also.  This helps in reducing the cost of construction marginally as  about $40 was the cost for the tire structure as compared to the other conventional methods of plantation.

Experiment Plan

Field visit 

Various types of soils are collected from locations such as Lahore,  Multan,  Thokar,  Eden value,  Niaz Baig and the river Ravi.  The tires were purchased from the railway station at Lahore at a cheaper price as scrap material.  The quality of tyres  was collected in a variant proportion so, that the sample could accumulate more index properties and characteristics of different types of tyres and sand  feeling results on them.

Soil sampling

Different types of soils were collected from Lahore so, that a wide variety can be used to figure out the vegetation qualities and capacity in them,  OMC,  MDD,  and the  holding strength of the soil with the mixture of tyre chips in different proportions. 

Data analysis

The above mentioned test will be performed in different specimen of soil. These samples will contain chip from 0 to 15%. The relative results will help to conclude about the impact of stire chip on sheer and compressive strength of soil. After preparing soil with tyre chips in various ration, 3 experiments will be done. These tests will be sieve analysis., modified procter test, unconfined compression test.

Sieve Analysis

In sieve analysis, grain size of soil will be done. Grain size determination is very important to analyse the sheer strength of soil. It also determine soil water movement and frost action susceptibility. For sieve analysis, mechanical experiment will be done. In this mechanical test, sieves will be stacked on each other. Now sand will be pored from top most sieve and whole set of sieve will be shaken so that sand can be pass through from stack. In the nest of stack, the largest screen opening is  kept on top and smallest screen on last number. A lid is used to close the nest and pan is kept under last sieve to catch the residual sand. Now, after removing nest, sand on each sieve will be collected and record the weight of sand in each sieve. The % sand will be calculated by dividing the sand weight in sieve by original sieve weight.

Modified Proctor test

In this test, 1000g sand will be dried and passed through the number 4 sieve. Water will be added to sample to get 12% moisture. After that, soil will be compacted in five layer by 10 pound hammer. After that, weight of sample will be recorded. Now the experiment will be repeated with different water content.

Unconfined Compression Test

Different sample of soil will be tested for compression by giving constant strain.

Preparation of sample for testing

  1. The weight of dry soil is calculated.
  2. Water is added to the soil
  3. Mixing the soil with water
  4.  Now keep the wet soil in polythene bag. Bag should be tight and thick.
  5. Place the soil in constant volume mould. The mould should have internal height of 7.5cm with 3.8cm internal diameter.
  6. After 24 hours, take soil out from humidity chamber and place it in constant volume mould
  7. Apply the compressive load until the 7.5cm height of specimen
  8. Take out specimen from mould
  9. Record weight, diameter and height

Conclusion

Soil material which meets the engineering necessity is called soil stabilization. Tyres are most important to dispose as it involves various reasons which can harm the environment. It can be concluded that the use of waste material for soil stabilization should be used for the benefit of all stakeholders.

Many earlier researches are conducted on wasted tyre mix with under soils base. For plastic and elastic waste resilient modulus was used. In present research, test was done on cohesion low soil mix with wasted shred tyre chips. Tire chip weigh from 0.1 to 0.5 mix in dry soil. The result shows that the mixing of tire chips in soil has provided no indication as comparison to lot of steel wires taken out of chips. The tire chips lessen the density and hard the soil however tire chips with 50mm has lessen negative impact and not very costly to use. Hence, by utilizing different ratio of tyre chips in sand can enhance its sheer strength.

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