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Answers to Biochemistry Homework on Chemotherapy and drugs

Homework is to be presented as a short (100-word) paragraph response for each question. The assignment is to be submitted as a Microsoft Word document electronically to the instructor.

Why are drugs classified in the categories they are?

Give a description of the actions of drugs in each category.

What is chemotherapy and which diseases are treated this way?

Give examples of how contrast media are used to produce an image.

Compare ionic and non-ionic contrast media.

Answer

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

Why are drugs classified in the categories they are?

Drugs are classified based on their chemical similarities so that the similar compositions are often used for the same risks and impacts. In case of a drug-addicted person may abuse by addicting with another drug which has a similar composition. Additionally, in the same way, one can be treated easily by substituting the drug which is chemically similar. Due to some circumstances, this drug classification can be done legally to verify its proper manufacture, possession, and distribution in the market (Liu et al. 2015)Drugs are thus classified due to their similarity in terms of impact, chemical structure and usability.

Give a description of the actions of drugs in each category.

Stimulants 

These are the types of drugs which speed up the activities in the central nervous system. These stimulants make an individual feel focused, active and alert and can make even angry, paranoid or tensed.

Inhalants 

These drugs are generally used during inhalation. The substance present in the drug can remain in vapor form.

Depressants 

These types of drugs reduce the activity level of the brain and the nerves. It directly acts on the central nervous system to provide a calming effect (Parmar, Forrest & Freeman, 2016). Depressants are generally used for relieving anger, to make someone sleep and to control the activities related to the seizure.

Hallucinogens

This type of drugs acts on the central nervous system to change someone’s idea or vision on reality, space and time. It creates hallucinations which are not present in the real world.

Opioids

These drugs are used by the help of opioid receptors. It is very commonly used for the treatment of cough and pain.

What is chemotherapy and which diseases are treated this way?

Chemotherapy is a kind of treatment which is used to treat cancer. It is the drugs which prevent the cancer cells from further growing and dividing. Chemotherapy uses radiation that kills or removes the dividing cancer cells. It is also used to control the growth of a tumor when there is no possible treatment available for it. These drugs can be harmful to the healthy cells which also creates side effects (Sikic, Rozencweig & Carter, 2016). Diseases such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia, adenoid cystic carcinoma, bladder cancer, brain tumor, cervical cancer, leukemia, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, and such diseases are treated through chemotherapy. 

Give examples of how contrast media are used to produce an image.

Contrast media are the chemical components which are used in angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, medical x-ray, and ultrasound imaging. These agents are the substances used for viewing the internal body parts and their structures (Beckett,Moriarity & Langer, 2015). In these methods agents based on gadolinium which is entered through veins for producing MR images and iodine is injected to enhance CT and x-ray images. Contrast material temporarily changes the way of interaction that normally imaging tools or the x-rays do with the body. It makes certain changes in the structures and tissues which appear differently if it is used without the contrast material. Contrast materials increase the visibility of organs through contrasting the particular area of the body through surrounding it with tissues and thus help in producing the image.

Compare ionic and non-ionic contrast media

Ionic contrast media is used in radiography with the presence of iodine in it to clarify the image more appropriately whereas non-ionic contrast media is an organic compound with a less osmolarity presence in it. Ionic compounds can easily be separated in water and non-ionic cannot be separate in water. There are mainly two types of iodinated contrast agents as low osmolar and high osmolar (Abe et al. 2016). Non-ionic has a low rate of side effects whereas ionic has a higher rate in serious reactions. While using non- ionic contrast media there is a possible risk of increasing aspiration and rising anxiety.

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