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Answers to Given Homework Questions: Pharmacology Assessment Answer

Homework is to be presented as a short (100-word) paragraph response for each question. The assignment is to be submitted as a Microsoft Word document electronically to the instructor.

1.      Which dosage forms are most appropriate for administering drugs to pediatric patients? Adults?

2.      Examine the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and explain why they occur in this order.

3.      What determines the absorption ability of a drug?

4.      Give a definition of the term pharmacodynamics.

5.      Compare the different ways drugs can interact with the body, depending on their mechanism of action.

6.      What relationship is there between drug response relationships, serum-concentration profile, and drug manufacturing?

7.      How does an adverse effect of a drug occur? What are the causes of some drug-drug interactions?

Answer

HOMEWORK


What kind of dosage administrated are suitable to Children and as well as Adults?

Pediatric formulation of medicine must be done in a sensitive way with the understanding of developmental pharmacology because childhood is a maturation phase and most significant for future growth. Pediatric dosage is done according to the varying age and height of the children. In general, the oral route is preferred for children dosage but in critical cases, the intravenous route can also be followed. Adult dosage forms of medication such as orodispersible tablets, buccal gels, transdermal patches may be applied to children if needed in special cases (Wang et al. 2016). Sweetened liquid medicines are used instead of swallowing of conventional tablets.  

Describe and discuss the various process of Pharmacokinetics and state the importance stepwise. 

Pharmacokinetics comprises of four processes after the drugs enters the body, which are Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and excretion (Dudley, 2018). These steps describe the movement of the drug through the membranes. 

  • Absorption: It is the process through which drugs administrates into the blood. In general, it is done passively but can be carried by intermediate transport.
  • Distribution: The movement of the drugs, which is influenced by blood flow of the body and through this system, drug enters the vascular system. Liver plays an important part in the process.
  • Metabolism: In this process, the drug inside the drug is transformed so that it can be excreted through Kidney. 
  • Excretion: Through this process, the substances are removed by the body. 

Which are the factors affecting the absorption ability of a drug?

Absorption ability of a drug refers to the movement of a drug from the application site to the bloodstream. This process can be affected by various factors including pharmaceutical and Patient-related factors; pharmaceutical factors such as chemical factors to improve the stability and administrates the improved solubility of salts present in the drugs. Physiochemical factors such as drug rate of dissolution, size of the particle, surface area of the target can affect the absorption rate (Chillistone & Hardman 2017). Apart from this physiochemical property of the drug, character of the drug product, physiology of the target site and most importantly gastric emptying rate of the patient affects the drug absorption.

 Define the term Pharmacodynamics

As stated by Rosenbaum (2016), Pharmacodynamics (PD) is the study by which the effect of a drug can be measured. Specifically, it is the study of various drug response and  it helps to relate the serum concentration with drug respone. Pharmacodynamics is the key to determine the time required by the medicine to effect on the body and the duration of effectiveness of the medicine of the body. Pharmacodynamics is the key factor through which a physician can properly prescribe medicine to the patients and determine the dosage frequency to ensure the safety of high-level drugs during the treatment.

Which are the ways of interaction of Drugs with our body? Explain.

Interaction of drugs with the body can happen in different ways, it can be taken at the same time or separately, and the interaction can be affected by the application site of the medicine. While a drug is absorbed its interaction can be different such as while it is being absorbed in the stomach and intestines, while the drug is acting in the liver, while the drug is flowing through the bloodstream, action of the medicine within a cell or action of the drug while it is being excreted by the kidneys. Drug interaction can be categorized into four types:

  • Antagonism
  • Synergism
  • Potentiation
  • Interaction with metabolism

Relate drug response relationship with serum-concentration profile and its discuss its effect on manufacturing of drugs? 

Serum concentration is the amount of drug present in the bloodstream, which can be either bound to proteins or unbound. The proper serum concentration factor affects the drug therapy so there is a substantial interplay between the response received and the required concentration (Ménétré, 2018). Proper concentration is needed to match and the correlation between the dose-administrated affects the serum concentration and thus it affects the desired outcome in clinical effect and the medication. The response thus reflects to the drug manufacturing and the concerned company. SO this can be said that proper serum concentration with prescribed and required dosage can result to company’s reputation as well as the manufacture of the product.   

What is the Adverse Drug Reaction? What are the effects? 

ADR or Adverse drug reaction is often termed as side effects, which are the unintended harm done by the medicine consumed. The adverse effect of drug can be measured as a form of toxication, which affects the body in various internal and external ways, so it is important for a medicine to be balanced accordingly its theuraptic advantages against the adverse effects by the prescribers (Scheen, 2015). ADR or Adverse Drug Reaction give rises to the toxication level of the drug due to the high plasma concentration than required, which is termed as overdose. ADR can be caused by theuraptic drugs as well as recreational drugs and it can lead to serious physical injuries such as effect to kidney, lungs, heart, liver or sustainable behaviour pattern such as memory loss, various mental disorders or even Death. 

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