Application Of Rational Choice Theory To Cocooning Assessment Answer

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Question :

Length: 1,700 words (excluding reference list), margins set to 2.54cm, double-spacing, in 12-point Times New Roman cocooning is a crime prevention strategy to protect against repeat residential burglary. One of the theories inspiring cocooning is the rational choice theory.

Explain rational choice theory. Discuss the application of rational choice theory to cocooning and whether cocooning is an effective strategy in preventing repeat residential burglary.

This would mean that you have to address the following:

1. Explain what cocooning means as a crime prevention strategy in relation to residential burglary

2. Explain the rational choice theory

3. Discuss how rational choice theory is useful in understanding cocooning

4. Conclude whether cocooning is a successful crime prevention strategy in preventing repeat residential burglary

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Answer :

“How Cocooning is derived from the concept of rational choice theory as a defensive measure in detecting residential burglaries?”

Cocooning is an impulsive strategy for reducing the amount of repetitive burglary taking place in residences. In fact, the concept of ‘cocooning’ has been used for a long time back in the prevention of diseases of infants. Later, the term has been modified to form a strategy that can be applied as a preventive policy, as the number of residential burglaries has increased in high rates in society. In other words, the strategy has been invented in the mid-Nineties. The implementation of this strategy is monitored by the neighbour volunteers assisted and guided under the Police observation to the victims of burglaries, as studied from an online article, (Drew, 2019). The essay will establish strategic execution of rational theory as an effective measurement for defending residential burglary.

Thesis statement: Accomplishment of ineffectiveness in the delivery of rational choice theory in detecting residential burglary.

By applying the theory of rational choice, it can be recognised whether Cocooning strategy can be a successful strategy in catching the burglars from specific locations that are mostly targeted by the burglars. Stokes & Clare, (2019) stated that conducting the right process of preventive measures taken by an authorised institution can be useful in finding the convict. Besides, Morgan & Mattson, (2018) argued that it is not always the right process of defensive measures that helps in identifying the right offender against burglary.  The authors tried to point that during the colonising governance took place due to racism created violence in a community that tends to destroy the mindset of people. In relevance to these contexts, such type of strategic direction for securing public residences can be a suitable one. For example, it can be assumed that most of the burglars are much aware of time management. Further, it can also be estimated the nature of burglars is often intending far off residences in a similar street or targeting a variety of streets in a familiar locality or a community. 

Later, Hoppe & Gerell, (2019) stated that cocooning could be used as a strategic instrument by raising a number of community awareness programmes that can be suitable for taking appropriate measures of protecting the residences. Considering the two arguments, it is evident for a burglar to stay nearby any residences which are not familiar of a particular area and waiting for a potential chance of unlocked doors or spaces of entry to such houses. For example, it can also be believed that within specified area burglars points the right house as a significant target. The rate of near-repeat victims can be saved from such type of burglars. Hence, cocooning is successful using it within the time frame between twenty-four to forty-eight hours post the incident has taken place. 

Based on the above implication of the Cocooning strategy, it can be better analysed by understanding the theory of rational choice. According to the concept of rational choice theory, it can be analysed that human nature is comprised of multiple complexities that are inbuilt and innate. Simpson & Paternoster, (2017) opined that human behaviour tends to be advanced in the way of thinking with rational and logical perception. In other words, the rational choice theory has specific goals and objectives that vary from one individual to another. For example, if an individual has thought of a plan of slaughtering a person due to some definite reason, then psychology says it is the act of thinking and perception that makes that individual satisfied and fulfils the desire by killing some other person. Contrasting with the above statement Sen, (2017) argued that it is the social and economic behaviour of a man or a woman to prefer among the available choice or go for an alternative option for fulfilling the individual choice of living a life. As per the study of criminology, every crime is committed in society is free of choice and the individual notion that force to develop in the human mind. For understanding drawing an example, while pursuing a burglary in residence, if a burglar fulfils the mission of taking revenge or teaching a lesson, then it is ultimately the burglar's own conscience guided to act or think in that way. Hence, the theory of Rational Choice can be understood as an actor manner of individuals directly or indirectly provokes to take vicious decisions in life.

Following the above arguments and analysis, cocooning strategy demonstrated the fact that the strategy can be used as situational prevention of crime. Wang & Liu, (2017) commented that In other words, the usefulness of this theory in relevant with the strategy of cocooning depicts that it is the logical choice of a burglar taking a strategic decision to either committing a crime or not. As evidence, some of the hot-spot locations of Southeast China have been investigated for identifying the number of near-repeat victimisation in such hot spot areas. Therefore, it has been recorded that most of the hot spot areas consist of the regular occurrence of crimes. In addition, some of the hot spot locations have the active presence of offenders looking for nearby locations as well. Moreover, there is a long gap between two burglary plans in the hot spot locations. Earlier, Santos & Santos, (2016) stated in an evidence-based method that applying a useful tool can also detect the mind of an offender in a specific location. Considering this evidence-based approach made by the police intervention helps in identifying the primary cause of the crime committed by an offender. For example, it includes multiple types of examination consisting of standard medical treatment to discover the dosage of crime and lawbreaker recidivist. Groff & Taniguchi, (2018) contradicted that evidence-based method has some limitations as well. In fact, micro-level policing is necessary for preventing the residential burglaries from expansion. In consequence of this context, such a level of policing stops repeat burglary from an offender in residence. For example, applying the micro-level policy, it has been identified that near about 80% of the repeat burglaries took place in a similar area of the UK. Further, the area of East Midland of the UK is the highest alert location, as per data and investigation method. De Brito & Ariel, (2017) stated that tracking is an indispensable method of enhancing the hot spot patrol acquiescence. In other words, it can be a suitable technique for uninterrupted improvement. For example, based on some specific tests as per the instructions provided by the supervisors of the British Transport Police, it was mandatory to check the access of patrol cards for testing legalities. It is generally tested by the BTP analyst for identifying the transport hot spot locations of crime that is access to the residential places. Therefore, it can be useful in understanding by the help of such a theory of reason.

Pegram et al., (2018) argued back that the system tracking and feedback implementation method works more effectively on the cocooning program. In accordance with this statement, it can be understood that not only the policy-making or an evidence-based method but keeping a track is an essential aspect of rationality. The theory can be applicable in case of the appliance on the appropriate method of scrutiny. For example, based on a quantitative method of data tracking system by the Police Community Support Officers to all the highly alert targeted residences of mainly UK, it has been encountered near about 230 lodgings of which 154 residences were detected of being victimised. Therefore, it was possible to detect and track the record and receive the feedback post consulting with the victims with face-to-face interview process conducted by the trained PCSO. 

Wells & Xenias, (2015) commented that the Rational Choice Theory is useful in many ways in understanding the strategy of cocooning as a preventive crime measure. However, it is theoretical in an application for recognising an offender in practical life.  Based on the overall analysis and understanding of the concept of cocooning strategy above it can be concluded that the strategy has some significant limitations in its work process. Sleboda & Sokolowska, (2017) argued that it depends on the measurements of rationality and individual differences to accept a theoretical strategy as an application process. In other words, it has impractical demonstrations in real life although supported by the Government of any country or state. For example, every residential people may not be ready to accept the demonstration as a successful one due to unrealistic base. 

On the other hand, as per brain science analysis stated by Vlaev, (2018) psychology of human behaviour it depends on the public self-interest to be part of a community awareness program that demonstrates cocooning strategy. For example, if there is no interest in an individual’s mind to be active in terms of identifying any impending crime in the society, then it is not possible for the department of police to provide awareness program. Hence, it is considered as a long term process having no essential practicality. Further, Burns & Roszkowska, (2016) in support of the psychology human choice behaviour, commented that there is a communication barrier between the trainer and the listener of any awareness program. This tries to depict that if the local residential people of the hot spot locations are unable to interpret the language of the training provider of such type of strategy, then it remains a long-term barrier. Therefore, it cannot be acclaimed as a successful strategy for all the residential burglaries taking place in various countries. 

Moreover, miss-mapping is another reason that limits the strategy as one of the potential strategies for preventing burglaries in society. Chamberlain, (2018) stated that appliance of tele- cocooning cannot be a suitable technique in practical life. In other words, tele-cocooning demands the accessibility of secure network and channels in the society or the local area that is targeted to be cocooned by the police authority well. For example, if an individual in a locality has lack of internet efficiency, then training or development program is not sufficient for providing access successfully. Another example focus that if an individual has a reduced standard of living for accessing internet cost, then it remains one limitation from the part of a trainer to provide such strategic appliance practically. 

Therefore, based on the discussion of the limitations and impracticality of applying this theory above, it can be understood that the purpose of rational choice theory tries to demonstrate cocooning, as a potential strategy for detecting criminals or burglars in a society through with a number of misconceptions and impracticalityHence, it establishes the concept, as an ineffective tool used for the identification of burglars in a society.