Article Review on Cultural Linguistics Assessment Answer
The primary definition of cultural linguistics is often termed as the integrated inclusions of the cultures into the languages of the area. This relationship between the cultural dimensions and the language of the area is actually studied in it. According to Greenberg (1948), the basic idea is that the culture of the area often includes experiences which are associated and inducted in the languages which change and moulds the variation of the language in such a way as to identification of the culture and the variation can be studied through the examination of the languages as well. This has offered extensive advantages to researchers around the world to articulation differences in the conjugate use of words for the expression of emotions or experience. The generalized perceptions have varied impacts on the language which this article intends to investigate through the literary review of various articles. It would shed light on the cultural linguistics and help us understand the subtle variation of the language.
According to this article by Xu (2014), the cultural perceptions of the students of the Asian continent also have a defined and pronounced association of the culture in their learning of the language English. Hence, the teaching of English also differs slightly than in other English speaking countries like Australia, UK or USA. Xu (2014) opined that the primary difference which has been drawn by the article is that the culture of the Asian continent largely weighs down and waters down the approach which must be considerate of the culture of the area and offer a critical depiction of the culture in the expression through English. The first point of motivation which has been identified by the writer is the understanding of the learners to express the same feelings as described by their mother tongue and the motivation of the learners to learn a new language which can also take advantage of the English as well. According to Xu (2014), the inclusion of the meta cultural competence also enriches the English language which is not generally similar to the English speaking countries and yet a complete use of the language enables the speaker to express themselves. Thus, intercultural communication varies and yet is also advocated and converges to the same meaning through the same language with the help of merely different instruments.
The article by Rosch et al. (2004), expressly tries to explain the determinants of the causes which effects the change and the kind of stimulus has been largely classified by the biologists of the world who have often resulted in the variation of the languages which can be definitely seen and can be studied to understand the evolution of the people as well. The need for the biological inclusions in the language also helps in the identification of the changes which the languages have endured in order to arrive at this position. Rosch et al. (2004) have provided examples such as the changes in the name of the plants which have also resulted through the evolution of the languages, and this article accepts the limitation while recognizing the fact that the taxonomy of the scientific language has also evolved with time. This has resulted in distinct origins of the subordinate words of the original words and resulted in a complete revolution of the English as a language.
According to Eleanor Rosch (1975), the priming technique has been used in this research to understand the impact of the formation of the idea in the minds of people for a description of the stimulus. It was expected that the dimensions and the physiological characteristics of the stimuli would be better expressed in the languages for the description and yet a free-flowing picture of the stimulus was much easier. It was observed that the stimulus of the various groups of the study was more art like and the inclusion of the semantics in the languages of the experiments was much easier, and the geometrical and symmetrical dimensions of the stimulus were not found. Rosch (1975), claims to prove that the generation and the formation of the semantics of a language which is often determined by the stimulus and not by the description of the stimuli. The effects and the various levels of the processing are also observed in the experiments, and the depth of the meaning of the expression is often coded with the help of pictures. The format of the pictures and the words being formed is slightly different in cases of different people, and so is the formation of the words.
Relationship of Language Variation and Culture
The article by Rusho (2018), intends to describe the relationship between the multifaceted culture of the people and the language used by the indigenous people of Australia. The article specifically focuses on the cultural markers as a means to track and examine the applications of the cultural schemes as a means of developing the languages which have been carrying on from the old age times as is exhibited by the people and the language of the indigenous people of the country. According to Rusho (2018), acknowledges that the culture of an area actually impacts the language of the area and as such a shift of the focus for the investigation is regarding the process and the mechanisms for the integration of culture in the languages of the indigenous people of the country. The mechanisms which has encompassed and penetrated the language barrier to be included in the daily evolution of the languages resulting in the cultural linguistics and the shared cultural heritage of the people of the country which also argues that the present difference in the influence of the culture to shape the evolution of the language may also have been present in the early years of the cultural differentiation which has ultimately led to the English as we know today in Australia.
This article by Sharifian (2017), argues that the premise of the claims which has been made by previous advocates of the culture and its effects in the languages of the country is often construed as mechanisms which have pervaded the general perceptions of the people of the culture which has pronounced effects on the changes undergone by the languages. This article explains that the cultural perceptions of the people of Australia are often the premise, and the languages have definitely been entrenched in the cultural nuances as the speakers of the languages has experienced them and made subtle changes to the language to align their language with the picture which has been formed in their minds about the event. The cultural metaphors, cultural schemas and the cultural categories are often the driving engines of the changes that a language undergoes. Sharifian (2017) argues that the cognitive understanding and the experiences which interpret their experience aptly is included in the language and subtle changes over time specifically exhibit shifted and different language specifications altogether. Sharifian and Jamarani (2011), in their article, explore the various uses of the same word which has different cultural meaning and used for several purposes which are diabolically separate. The choice of the word is 'sharmandegi' which specifically has not a single context of use in the Persian culture. The investigation and the exploration offer the researchers the concrete evidence that the use of the language as a culturally dependent phenomenon is achieved. The word ‘sharmandegi’ literally translates to ‘being ashamed’ in English and yet the use of the word in various situations offers a very sensitive and varied response being induced the speaker as well as the listener. According to Sharifian and Jamarani (2011), the use of the word while welcoming a guest in the house is to elicit a positive sense of the appreciation and politeness in the guests by highlighting that their presenting ‘sharmandegi’ through the use of the word in the sense that the food prepared by the host is unworthy of the guests and thereby elevating the presence of the guests into an ethereal respect for them. Aside from the general use of the word for the expression of the gratitude of the host is also another example which is expressed through the use of the word in the Persian culture.
Linguistic Relativity Theory and Prototype Theory
The cultural linguistics by Sharifian (2014), offers the explanation and the inclusion of the "linguistic relativity hypothesis" which is particularly focused on gaining a better understanding of the relationship between cognition and language. Although there were some disagreements and yet the replacements of the cognitive with the general 'thinking' of the people offer the understanding with the language. This has resulted in the classification of thought as a component of language which has a significant influence on linguistic characteristics. It also proposes language and thought as a parallel paradigm and proposes that the use of the language has developed to act as a meddler, augmenter, spotlight and inducer. This understanding of the focus of the language as a positional influence of the cultures has often been interpreted with the thought and the depiction and description of the events as a possible unison with the language. According to Sharifian (2014), the main idea of the formation of the minute deviations from the perspectives of the speaker to better explain and associate a personal degree of feelings has resulted in the language being diverse and yet fundamentally the same. However, the article also explains that although no direct relationship between the thoughts and the coherence of the choice of the words can be found, yet the investigation suggests that the use of the language to fulfil the mental picture and the thoughts of the people often is demonstrated as a linguistic, cultural difference.
George Lakoff (2008) explains the use of the prototype theory as the basis of the formation of the categorization technique which does not agree with the classical theory and argues that the specifications pointed out, in theory, does not sufficiently explain the factors. The writer states that the basis of the classical theory is based on the arrived conclusions which have not been formulated on any research and rather only on the assumptions which have been made by the abstract containers. The studies undertaken by the writer is often demonstrated in the role of the human capacities, which often determines the categorization process. It is exhibited in the article that the categorization on the basis of logic is inculcated in human beings long after the use of the categorization techniques at early stages of life.
The article by Sharifian et al. (2008), has taken up the linguistic marker of the heart, which represents different cultural meaning in several different areas. The general description of the understanding of the universe to understand and associate the literature with the internal organs of the human body which is characterized by the mind which differentiates humans from other lower species is also often the determinant of the variation in the understanding of the universe in itself. The cross-linking of the rationale of the human mind with the apparent divergent understanding of the mentality which is observed in history and across cultures. The diachronic developments and the synchronic variation of the perceptions of the meaning of the heart have contributed differently in the culture due to the feeling, knowing and thinking as being the most probable and frequent use of the word in different cultures around the world. While the most basic uses of the heart as an internal organ is internationally recognized and yet the use of 'heart' as a word also has some other meanings to it which is influenced by the cultural perceptions of the people. Sharifian et al., (2008) has credited them as possible definitions which have been formed based on the understanding of the cultural perceptions. The article by Eleanor Rosch (1977) nudges on the fact that the belief of the formation of the principles of the classification has not been born out of the whim of a person or a poet or as a result of an accident. The article has been divided into five sections, and each of these sections deals with a different perspective issue of the classification system.
The writer argues that the basic form of the principles of taxonomy may not suffice and yet a need for the formation of the classification principles is required to develop prototypes for the languages. The writer argues that the prototypes are not the major influencers of the language evolution which is suggested and the cognitive representations, processing and the learning is not supported by enough evidence. According to Rosch (1977), a need for further investigation and research is also conducted by the researcher in order to develop a prototype. The first of which is the cognitive economy of the individuals which impacts the information processing methods in the environment and the other is the use of the concept of the world as being a uniform entity has resulted in the changes which are notably included in the language of that area.
The article by Xu and Sharifian (2017), is a comparative study about the critical review of the difference in Chinese English and International English. The writers set out to develop a critical understanding of the Chinese English which is used by the Chinese people who are using English as a possible route of language. The comparison drawn with the international users of English has shown the cultural implications, and the differences are clearly evident. The application of the comparison also offers the divisive conclusions that the culture of the area has definitely affected the language as is exhibited by the subtle representations of the same meaning.
According to Farzad Sharifian (2017), the conceptualization of the religious and other events also determines the changes which are observed in the languages around the world. The reconceptualizations of the concepts are also responsible for the changes and the contacts of various cultures due to globalization also has ensured an exchange of the cultures of other areas and mix of cultures has resulted in the development of internationally ordained languages which is rich in culture and is also internationally diverse. The language which is used often contains words from other languages, and the overlap has caused radical changes to the languages as we know.
It is definitely exhibited through the analysis that the use of the theories and the use of the concepts of the cultural backgrounds which has a deep impact on the understanding of the events which again affects the languages. The link of the culture with the conceptualizations and the interpretations of the events are largely due to the varied use of the words and results in impacting the language itself which has sustained and a deeper connection to the concepts of the language. Largely it can be said that the use of the theories is definitely impacted the evolution of the language and also resulted in the subtle changes of the language which is definitely carried on from the past and is also visible in the present culture of the languages which continue to develop and evolve due to globalization and the overlap of the cultures.