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Body System: Anatomy and Physiology

HLTAAP003 Analyse and respond to client health information

Instructions to Students 

This assessment requires students to submit a written assessment for each of the body systems studied in this unit

  • Cells and Tissues
  • Integumentary System
  • Musculoskeletal System
  • Nervous System
  • Endocrine and Senses System
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Respiratory System
  • Urinary System
  • Lymphatic System
  • Immune System
  • Gastrointestinal System
  • Reproductive System

Students will be required to answer the following questions, according to each body system, to demonstrate your knowledge of the Anatomy and Physiology of the human body.

  1. What is the Anatomy of this system? 

What is it?

  1. What is the Physiology of this system?

How does it work?

  1. Provide a pictorial representation. 
  2. Does this body system work with other systems in the body? How?
  3. List 2 diseases (pathophysiology) of this system and how they impact on it.
  4. List 2 Medications and contraindications and contraindications and contraindications related to the diseases chosen. Include their use, drug interactions and side effects.
  5. How does this system defend itself? What is the Immune Responses related to this system?
  6. What are the main signs of aging according to this system?
  7. List types of trauma
  8. What Nursing Interventions and planning services   would you implement/action when caring for a client with the above chosen diseases? 

The following websites may assist with this assessment 

http://www.innerbody.com/ 

http://www.livescience.com/37009-human-body.html 


Cells and Tissues

  1. Anatomy 
    Cells
    Types of cells
    Tissues
  2. Physiology
  3. Pictorial Representation
  4. Related systems/ how
  5. Pathophysiology
  6. Defence and Immune Responses
  7. Medications and contraindications
  8. Degenerative Changes
  9. Types of Trauma
  10.  Nursing Interventions and planning services  


Integumentary System

  1. Anatomy 
  2. Physiology
  3. Pictorial Representation
  4. Related systems/ how
  5. Pathophysiology
  6. Defence and Immune Responses
  7. Medications and contraindications
  8. Degenerative Changes
  9. Types of Trauma
  10.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

Musculoskeletal System

  1. Anatomy 
    Skeletal – bones
    Joints 
    Muscles
  2. Physiology
  3. Pictorial Representation
  4. Related systems/ how
  5. Pathophysiology
  6. Defence and Immune Responses
  7. Medications and contraindications
  8. Degenerative Changes
  9. Types of Trauma
  10.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 



Nervous System

  1. Anatomy 
  2. Physiology
  3. Pictorial Representation
  4. Related systems/ how
  5. Pathophysiology
  6. Defence and Immune Responses
  7. Medications and contraindications
  8. Degenerative Changes
  9. Types of Trauma
  10.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

Endocrine and Senses System


  1. Anatomy 
    Sensory – GeneralEndocrine
  2. Physiology
  3. Pictorial Representation
  4. Related systems/ how
  5. Pathophysiology
  6. Defence and Immune Responses
  7. Medications and contraindications
  8. Degenerative Changes
  9. Types of Trauma
  10.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

Cardiovascular System

  1. Anatomy 
  2. Physiology
  3. Pictorial Representation
  4. Related systems/ how
  5. Pathophysiology
  6. Defence and Immune Responses
  7. Medications and contraindications
  8. Degenerative Changes
  9. Types of Trauma
  10.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 


Lymphatic System


  1. Anatomy 
  2. Physiology
  3. Pictorial Representation
  4. Related systems/ how
  5. Pathophysiology
  6. Defence and Immune Responses
  7. Medications and contraindications
  8. Degenerative Changes
  9. Types of Trauma
  10.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

Immune System


  1. Anatomy 
    Cells
  2. Physiology
  3. Pictorial Representation
  4. Related systems/ how
  5. Pathophysiology
  6. Defence and Immune Responses
  7. Medications and contraindications
  8. Degenerative Changes
  9. Types of Trauma
  10.  Nursing Interventions and planning service


Respiratory System


  1. Anatomy 
    Upper Respiratory tract
    Lower Respiratory tract
  2. Physiology
  3. Pictorial Representation
  4. Related systems/ how
  5. Pathophysiology
  6. Defence and Immune Responses
  7. Medications and contraindications
  8. Degenerative Changes
  9. Types of Trauma
  10.  Nursing Interventions and planning service

Answer

Cells and Tissues


1. Anatomy

Cells are considered as one of the basic structural, functional and biological unit of all referred to as the living organism. Cells are considered to be the smallest unit of life and are therefore called the “building blocks of life” (Chinen et al. 2015).

Types of cells

__the main types of cells that lie within a human body include the stem cells, the red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, nerve cells, neurological cells, muscle cells and the cartilage cells.

Tissues

___There lays four main types of tissues including muscles, epithelial, connective and nervous. Each of them are made up of specialise cells that are grouped together based on their structure and functions throughout the human body.

2. Physiology

____a group of collective cells which are found within a human body are often termed as tissues. The cells lying within a tissue often share a common set of embryonic origin. From the revelations carried out using a microscopic observation, it is evident that the cells in a tissue share several morphological features and are therefore arranged in an orderly pattern to meet their functions duly.

3. Pictorial Representation

cells and tissues



4. Related systems/ how

Cells being the basic units of life are further grouped together into tissues. They are further distributed into various organs which are two or more connected tissues operating together. Organs further work separately and form the organ systems in a body. 

5. Pathophysiology

_____the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammation of the connective tissues.SLE affects each organ systems thereby degrading the oral health related quality of a human. Other is the Rheumatoid arthritis which is a systematic disorder where the immune cells attack and cause inflammations in the membrane situated around the joints.

6. Defence and Immune Responses

The adaptive immune system is specifically reactive to pathogens. When the immunity system gets weakened by the virus HIV, the T cells reduce thereby making the body susceptible to infections. Reductions in T cells further develop difficulties in coordinating the fight against the pathogens lying within the tissues. The cell therefore tend to group themselves to develop tissues and organs which together help to protect the body from diseases.

7. Medications and contraindications

_Treatment for SLE follow guidance based on the individual patient’s manifestations. Some of the common side effects of their treatment include fever, rashes, musculoskeletal manifestations and serositis which are treated by the hydroxychlroquine, nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) followed by steroids at low to moderate doses in case of acute flares. Treatment for Rheumatoid arthritis include a disease modifying anti rheumatic drug (DMARDs). Their use may however lead to suppressing the immune system.

8. Degenerative Changes

___the process of aging take place when the body cells, tissues and organs get affected due to the internal changes in the functioning of the body systems. When cells tend to become larger and are less able to divide themselves, there increases pigments and fatty substances inside the cells which lead to building up of waste products in the tissues. The blood vessels, organs and airways become more rigid and experiences trouble in getting oxygen and nutrients throughout proeprly. 

Some of the soft tissue injuries include strain, sprain, bruise, trendinities and such. On the other hand, coagulation necrosis is a type of cell death that takes place on the core of dead cells which results in protein denaturation.

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  


The nursing care plans for SLE include relief of pain and discomfort, relief of fatigue, increase knowledge based on the disease and reductions in complications. 

The nursing interventions for Rheumatoid arthritis include taking care of joints and decreasing fatigue, delivery of knowledge to patients for self management decisions to better cope up with the chronic disease.

Integumentary System


1. Anatomy

_the Integumentary System constitutes of skin and their appendages which seek to protect the body from different types of damages including loss of water and abrasion from outside. This system consists of hair, scales, feathers, hooves and the nails (Mauldin & Peters Kennedy, 2015).


2. Physiology

__ Integumentary System plays a major role in maintain homeostasis. Being the outermost organ system of the body, they carry out various functions thereby creating a barrier to protect the body from the outside world and diseases.


3. Pictorial Representation

integumentry system

4. Related systems/ how

__ Body parts such as the skin and others lying with the Integumentary System work with other body systems to maintain and support the conditions of cells, tissues and other organs. The skin acts as the first defines mechanism lying within the immune system (Pang, Schiefer, & Beasley, 2017).

5. Pathophysiology

__chronic skin conditions such as acne and warts followed by other problems including skin cancer. With problems relating to the skin, the chances for bacteria and viruses increase to enter into the body easily. 

_presence of immune cells live within the skin and provide the first line of defence against infections thereby encouraging the system to uptake calcium from the diet.

7. Medications and contraindications

_Lamisil, Lotimin and Nizoral are some of the drugs that are antifungal and help to treat skin acute conditions including acne. The side effects include upsets stomach, allergies, rashes, itchiness and such. Chemotheraphy for nonmelanoma skin cancer can be helpful in its treatment. Its however may disrupt the immune system of the body and produce interferon.

8. Degenerative Changes

The stem cell production reduces with age which causes the epidermal cells to slow don their reproduction. This thins down the skin and makes it translucent thereby making it viable to skin injuries, tearing and inefctions.

9. Types of Trauma

It is susceptible to a variety of diseases and disorders thereby causing skin cancer. Skin grafts are made use of when the system gets damaged from trauma or inefctions. 

Providing a warm environment to the patients followed by warm oral and intravenous fluids. Further application of heat and cold therapy base on physician and medications to reduce sensitivity.


Musculoskeletal System


1. AnatomySkeletal – bones

_the Musculoskeletal System constitutes of bones of skeleton, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilages and other connective tissues that seek to bind them with other organs and support the body in movement (Evans & Huard, (2015).

Joints

They are a connection made between bones of the body and the skeletal system.

Muscles

They are the soft tissue that contain protein filaments and help to provide a shape of the cell.

2. Physiology

_____The Musculoskeletal System constitutes of the body bones including muscles, cartilages, tendons and such all of which help to provide support and binds the tissues and organs together, they further help to carry out movements within the body thereby protecting the vital organs (Del Grande et al. 2014).

3. Pictorial Representation

musculoskeletal system

4. Related systems/ how

__the muscular system and the skeletal system work together to provide support to the body thereby forming the Musculoskeletal System. The bones lying with the skeletal system protect the body’s organs and provide shape to the body. 

5. Pathophysiology

Osteoporosis causes the bones to become fragile and and prone to fractures. Leukemia on the other hand is a cancer that ius caused in the WBC.

6. Defence and Immune Responses

_the muscles connect to the skeletal bones of the body and with contractions, they produce movements. The muscular system helps to move the body fluids including blood and lymph which assist their immunity functions. 

7.  Medications and contraindications

_Fosamax anbd Actonel helps to prevent osteoporosis. However its long term use causes bone loss and weakening._

Using drug therapy can help to treat leukaemia however its side effects may include change in heart muscles, hair loss and such.

8. Degenerative Changes

__decline in muscle strength, loss of proprioception, and increased bone turnoiver.

9. Types of Trauma

__trauma and foreign bodies affect the Musculoskeletal System by impacting upon the body and causing major injuries in the bones, muscles, tendons and such.

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

_A holistic assessment of the patient thereby formulating nursing diagnosis and development of plans to treat patients thoroughly.  


Nervous System


1. Anatomy

_the nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system which helps to signal the thoughts action and emotions of the body. By communicating with the body cells, they offer electrical impulses which are rapid and specific thereby providing immediate responces (Fung, Olson, & Hsiao, (2017).

2. Physiology –

_the central nervous system includes  the brain and spinal cord which is protected by bony structures, membranes and fluids. The nerves constitute of cranial nerves and the spinal nerves all of which transmit signals to different parts of the body.

3. Pictorial Representation

nervous system

4. Related systems/ how

___the endocrine system works closely with the brain and the central nervous systems thereby controlling the creation of specific hormones and enzymnes.

5. Pathophysiology

Parkinson’s disease causes loss of brain cells that produce dopamine. The neurological disorder is the disorder of the nervous systems that create abnormalities within the brain and other nerves.

6. Defence and Immune Responses

_certain peripheral immune cells cross various blood barriers and respond to the pathogens that have entered into the brain. The injury macrophages and T cells of the immune system migrate into the spinal cord within the body.

7. Medications and contraindications

_Levodopa is the most commonly prescribed medication for treating Parkinson’s disease. However it causes slow movements and stiff and rigid body parts.

Haloperidfol is used to treat neurological disorders which however have painful side effects such as schizophrenia. 

8. Degenerative Changes

__Epilepsy and seizures are caused followed by Alzheimer's Disease.

9. Types of Trauma

_it includes brain tumours, neural prosthetics after post injury recovery and such.

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

For Parkinson's disease, the nurses require to increase the patient’s quality of life by minimising the symptoms and using a telephone receiver to amplify the patient’s voice. 

For neurological disorder, the nursing plans include seizing disorders thereby developing care plans for stroke. 

Endocrine and Senses System

1. Anatomy

Sensory – General Endocrine

For sensory system, elements include touch, sight, taste and smell, hearing, movement and body awareness. For endocrine system, there lies body growth, metabolism, physical and chemical processes, sexual developments and such (Fletcher, (2017).

2. Physiology

The endocrine system responds to stimulation by secreting hormones that lie within the circulatory system  that travel to the target issues. The sensory systems on the other hand provide balance and agility in movement of the body._

3. Pictorial Representation

endocrine and senses system

4. Related systems/ how

_endocrine system has a close association with the nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system. The sensory system is also closely linked with the nervous system and helps to carry out  highly functional associations with the conscious acitivty.

5. Pathophysiology

_Adrenal insufficiency and cushing’s diseases are some of the endocrine disorders. The adrenal gland releases too little of the hormone cortisol which further impacts the body functions._

Diseases for sensory system include bell palsy which causes abrupt paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face due to dysfunction of the cranial nerves and facial nerves. Other includes colour blindness. 

6. Defence and Immune Responses

The endocrine and nervous system work together on the same organ and are influenced by actions for other systems. The immune system is a network of cells and tissues which work together to attack the pathogens which try to invade the body._

7. Medications and contraindications

Medications for Adrenal insufficiency  include dexamethasone and cortisone. Mitotane acts as an effective medication for Cushing’s disease. Medications for bellpalsy include corticosteroids. However their biggest side effect includes their ability to interfere with hypothalamic pituitary which can majorly affect the endocrine system. 

8. Degenerative Changes

Nepplastic changes within the endocrine glands followed by loss of hearing andvision.

9. Types of Trauma

___injury in the eye followed by a traumatic brain with varied consequences.

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

___promoting skin integrity followed by improvements in body image, decreasing risk of injury and improvements in thought proceses.



Cardiovascular System

1. Anatomy

_it consist of the heart which is an anatomical pump followed by arteries, veins and capillaries. They help to carry blood throughout the body by a continuum of blood vessels (Pilz et al. 2015).

2. Physiology

_the human Cardiovascular System constitutes of the hear which pump blood through a closed system of blood vessels. The heart is composed mostly of cardiac muscles that primarily function to transport nutrients, water, gases and other chemical signals throughout the body.

3. Pictorial Representation

cardivascular system

4. Related systems/ how

The circulatory system and the circulatory system are responsible to carry waste and carbon dioxide out of the body thereby producing hormones within the endocrine system which gets transported throughout the blood by the circulatory systems.

5. Pathophysiology

Heart and cardiovascular diseases are most likely which cause conditions that affect the structural functions of the heart thereby making it viable to heart failure. 

6. Defence and Immune Responses

The body defence mechanisms function to protect the body against disease causing micro organisms such as pathogens. Fever is the best body’s defence mechanism against inefction.

7. Medications and contraindications

To treat the heart and cardiovascular disease, use of drugs such as ACE inhibitors, ARBs, antiplatelets and such. Its common side effect include bleeding and necrosis followed by an elevated  blood potassium level and low blood pressure. 

8. Degenerative Changes

__langerhans and degeneration of the internal organs including the cardiovascular system with changes in the heart and blood.

9. Types of Trauma

__PTSD and traumatic experiences which may rise the heart attack and stroke risks further. 

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

Engaging in self care such as diet restrictions, symptoms monitoring and medication adherance.


Lymphatic System


1. Anatomy

The Lymphatic System parallels to the cardiovascular system which is a series of vessels and nodes that collect and filter excess tissue fluids (Hogan et al. 2014).


2. Physiology

_the Lymphatic System’s main function is to drain the body fluids and return them to the bloodstream. The blood pressure that is caused due to the leakage of fluids from the capillaries result in accumulation of fluids in the interstitial space which lies within spaces between individual cells in the tissues.

3. Pictorial Representation

lymphatic system

4. Related systems/ how

___the Lymphatic System constitutes if organs, ducts and nodes which interact with the blood circulatory systems to drain fluids from cells and tissues.

5. Pathophysiology

_lymphatic disease is a class of disorder that is directly linked with impact on the components of the lymphatic system. Other diseases include Hodgkin's disease which affects the immune system of the body.

6. Defence and Immune Responses

_the Lymphatic system acts as a major part of the body’s defence against infections thereby detecting foreign materials and making use of immune cells that deal with infections. 

_for lymphatic disease, use of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma immunotherapy drugs is used which acts as immune modulators. Their biggest side effect lie in pushing the body’s immune system thereby making them hard to fight against cancer._

For Hodgkin's disease, various combinations of pills are used which are chemotherapy drugs. Its main side effects are nausea, hair los and such. 

8. Degenerative Changes

___the system is replaced by the adipose tissues which aim at protecting them body against infections and diseases.

9. Types of Trauma

__the system is subjected to injuries and traumatic experiences which may lead to venous drainage changes and post traumatic lymphatic.

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

_for lymphatic disease, focus is laid on the use of the right dose of therapeutic immunosuppressive drugs thereby elevating the body temperature with better diagnosis and treatments.



Immune System


1. Anatomy

Cells

_the lymphatic system is closely linked with the immune systems which are virtually indistinguishable. They consist of the lymphatic system, the lymphoid tissues, the lymph nodes, thymus and spleen (Moch et al. 2016).

2. Physiology

_they are comprised o interrelated functions including removal of excess fluids, lymph from the body tissues thereby adsorbing fatty acids to the circulatory system and formation of white blood cells thereby focusing on an initiation of immunity.

3. Pictorial Representation

immune system

4. Related systems/ how

___they closely work with the circulatory system for their transportation needs and the lymphatic system for production of lymphocytes.

5. Pathophysiology

Asthma and allergies are involved with the immune system.

6. Defence and Immune Responses

_the immune system protects the organisms from infection within layered defences of increasing specificity. When a pathogen breaches the barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate and non specific responce.

7. Medications and contraindications

___short acting beta agonists act as effective medication for asthma. However the inhale steroids can lead to hoarseness._

For allergies, cetrizine acts as an effective medication. Their overdose may however lead to drowsiness, nausea and such.

8. Degenerative Changes

__the immune systems in patient are related to age related macular degradation thereby changing the genetics and molecular changes in the mitochondoira.

9. Types of Trauma


They include injuries and infections within the body thereby causing increased blood inflammation and emotional and physical stress.

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

Providing aid to a patient experiencing asthma includes assessing their respiratory status by monitoring the severity of the symptoms and assessing their breathing sounds.

For allergies, the patient ate are given a positive skin test to natural lubber latex thereby identifying their symptoms and giving medications accordingly. 


Respiratory System


1. Anatomy

Upper Respiratory tract

It includes the nose and nasal passages, paranasal sinuses, the pharynx and positions of larynx above the vocal cords (Aspelund, Robciuc, Karaman, Makinen, & Alitalo, 2016).

Lower Respiratory tract

They include the portion of the larynx below the vocal folds, trachea, bronchi and the bronchioles.

2. Physiology

They are a vital organ of the human body which makes sure that the oxygen enters into the body and leaves carbon dioxide, it follows the pathway for the air from the nose to the lungs.

3. Pictorial Representation

respiratory system

4. Related systems/ how

The circulatory and respiratory systems work together and circulate blood and oxygen throughout the body.

5. Pathophysiology

Respiratory disease and respiratory failures are the main diseases that lie within this system which causes blockage in the respiratory tract and creates problems in breathing.

6. Defence and Immune Responses

The inhaled pollutants impact upon the airway innate immune responses thereby causing viral infections. These effects particularly underline the enhanced susceptibility to viral respiratory infections.

7. Medications and contraindications

For respiratory disease, a mast cell stabilizer is used named 
Mometasone furoate Nedocromil. For respiratory failures, medications include using nitrates, Xanthine Derivatives and such. Their biggest side effect includes a slow progression on the breathing conditions and control which takes a lot of time.

8. Degenerative Changes

The effects of aging on the respiratory system are similar to that of other organs which reduces their functions slowly. Thereby causing a homogeneous degeneration of the elastic fibres.

9. Types of Trauma

A pulmonary contusion leads to bruises in the longs thereby causing physical trauma such as chest pain and chest trauma.

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

For respiratory disease, several care programs are followed which provide an aggressive and supportive care using intubation and mechanical ventilation. 

For respiratory failures, focus is laid on a tremendous impact in developing the efficiency of the patient’s respiration and ventilation thereby increasing the chances of recovery of the patients.


Digestive System

1. Anatomy

The digestive system breaks food down into basic nutrients for the usage of the body. The digestive tract is a long muscular tube that extends from the mouth through the stomach and intestines to the anus.

2. Physiology

The organs in the alimentary canal include mouth, oesophagus, stomach and intestines which passes through the body (Chondronikola et al. 2017).

3. Pictorial Representation

digestive system

4. Related systems/ how

Digestive system works closely with the circulatory system to absorb nutrients and distribute them throughout the body.

5. Pathophysiology

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease occurs when the stomach acid frequently flows back into the tube that connects the mouth and stomach.

The Celiac Disease is a serious autoimmune disorder that occurs in genetically predisposed people where the ingestion of gluten results in damages to the small intestines.

6. Defence and Immune Responses

They follow an immune dynamics which involves recognition of a specific antigen and are responsive by lymphocytes thereby providing defence against invading pathogens.

7. Medications and contraindications

For the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, use of certain antacids help to reduce acid production. However its overuse may lead to diarrhea and other internal digestive problems.

For Celiac Disease, certain steroids are used which help to heal the intestine. However, its overuse may lead to itchiness, blistering skin rashes and such. 

8. Degenerative Changes

Changes in bower movements with old age followed by several digestive disorders.

9. Types of Trauma

When microbes enter into the gut nervous systems, the trauma may lead to stress and indigestion.

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

For Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, focus is led to prevent recurrent esophagitis or other complications within the patient followed by lifestyle modifications, control of gastric acid secretions using medical therapies and such._

For Celiac Disease, focus is led on a gluten free diet thereby examining the risks and deficits within the patient duly.


Urinary System


1. Anatomy

The unitary system consists of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. They are responsible to filter and eliminate wastes form the body thereby maintaining a homeostasis of water, pH, blood pressure and such.

2. Physiology

The system is a group of organs in the body that are concerned with filtering out excess fluid and other substances from the bloodstream. The substances that are filtered from the body are in the form of urine which is produced by kidneys, get collected in the bladder and excreted through the urethra.

3. Pictorial Representation

urinary system

4. Related systems/ how

The urinary system constitute of the kidneys,ureters, bladder and urethra. Their main puspose is to eliminate wastes from the body thereby regulating blood volume and blood presuure.

5. Pathophysiology

Bladder cancer and chronic kidney disease are the main diseases of this system. Bladder cancer causes the blood to collect in the urine which leads to a cancer form.

Chronic kidney disease is the gradual loss of kidney functions over a particular period of time. 

6. Defence and Immune Responses

By following an innate immune defence against pathogens by trapping them and acting as an effective immunity response to the disease.

7. Medications and contraindications

To treat bladder cancer, chemotherapy is carried out whose main side effects include hair losses, loss of appetite and vomiting and in most severe cases can even lead to kidney damage._ chronic kidney disease  requires usage of common adverse drugs including ACE inhibitors. Their biggest impact is headache, nausea, skin rashes and kidney dysfunction. 

8. Degenerative Changes

Pregnancy reduces degenerative changes within the reproductive system thereby causing an autonomic intervention of the female reproductive tract.

9. Types of Trauma

They include urinary and genital trauma, urology and such.

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

The patient is given a BCG treatment which leads to cancer progresses thereby treating their invasive bladder cancer.

In case of chronic kidney disease, focus is laid on a nursing assessment to maintain a fluid balance thereby the monitoring laboratory results.

Reproductive System

1. Anatomy

The human reproduction system functions to produce human offspring’s with the male sperm and female ovum joining together. They are a set of organs that work together o produce offspring thereby emphasising ion the non living substances such as fluids, hormones, pheromones and such.

2. Physiology

The female reproduction system is composed of the internal and external sex organs which function in reproduction of the new offspring, this systems is mature at birth and develops into maturity at puberty which then becomes able to produce gametes and carry a fetus to full term. 

3. Pictorial Representation

reproductive system malereproductive system female

4. Related systems/ how

The reproductive system is linked with the endocrine system that secretes hormones into blood and other body fluids. The reproductive hormones affect the development of the nervous system. 

5. Pathophysiology

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer which begins with the ovaries and leads to various changes within the female body both internally and externally. 

Cervical cancer is another type of cancer that arises form the cervix and spreads to other body parts thereby causing human papillomavirus infection (HPV).

6. Defence and Immune Responses

The immune system in the reductive tract requires a demanding task of providing a protective environment for a fetal allograft which confers protection against potential pathogens.

7. Medications and contraindications

Chemotheraphy for ovarian cancer act as an effective medication followed by providing a combination of drugs to treat the initial stage of the disease. It however causes physical, emotional and psychological side effects thereby weakening the healthy cells of the body._

Medications of cervical cancer include radiation, chemotherapy and surgeries. It however lowers down the ability to have children in future for women.

8. Degenerative Changes

Degenerative alteration within the reproductive organs leads to female schistosomes in relation to changes in egg laying rate.

9. Types of Trauma

Gynologic trauma includes injury within the female genital areas internally which hampers their normal day to day activites (Bahmanpour et al. 2015).

10. Nursing Interventions and planning services  

For ovarian cancer, the patients are given standard treatments thereby debulking surgery combined with platinum chemotherapy drugs to prolong the survival of the patients.

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