BUS709 Intercultural Communication Between Australian And Japanese Businessperson Assessment Answer

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purpose, weighting, due date and submission requirements, the topic of the assessment, details of the task and detailed marking criteria, including a marking rubric for essays, reports and presentations. sment information and assistance can be found in Moodle. 9 of 19 o submit their own original work in both assignments and exams, or the original he case of group assignments.

Assessment 1

Assessment Type: Individual Assessment - Essay.

Purpose: This assessment builds your oral and written communication skills, and gives you real life understanding of the challenges and rewards of running a business. It directly relates to Learning Outcome A and B. The essay is designed to develop your research and analysis skills.

Topic: Business Culture Essay

Full task details: Mary, from Dubbo, always knew that she would have a career with food, her parents are chefs and continuously experiment with new recipes for sauces and condiments and bottling them as gifts. Growing up In this food loving environment led Mary to start a small business manufacturing a variety of condiments: chilli sauces, pastes, chutneys and jams. Today she owns 'The Aroma Shop' and an attached small factory. Her products use organic ingredients, no preservatives and are very popular. Mary wishes to expand her business to Japan as she is certain that her products will sell well there! Mary intends to fly to Tokyo to meet the manager of a popular store, 55-year-old Mr. Moro. Mary isn't certain how to correctly conduct business in the Japanese culture and with an older man. She is concerned about their first meeting.

Assessment requirement: You are required to provide a 1500-word formal analytical essay. Using a minimum of five scholarly references that have been written in the last five years and are credible and reliable, you are to discuss the following in detail with references: 1. Japanese business etiquette and the steps that Mary can take to make a favourable first impression when she visits Japan and meets Mr. Moro. 2. A section on areas of potential cross-cultural miscommunication, using either Hofstede or the GLOBE Models of Culture. 3. Suggest suitable things that Mary can do to increase the success of the meeting and future business arrangements.

Assignment Format: A title page Including: Name, student number. Assessment 1: Individual Cultural Essay. For Tutors Name. Date. No table of contents page is required. The essay should have an Introduction, body and conclusion. However, these should be written without using headings. The written text should be right and left justified and double spaced throughout. Please use a single column format. The font can be: Times New Roman 12pt, Calibri 11 pt or Arial 1Opt.

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Answer :

Title: Business Culture Essay

Assessment 1: Individual Cultural Essay

The purpose of this essay is to determine the intercultural communication between an Australian businessperson and a Japanese businessperson for the expansion of condiment manufacturing. The concept of communication can be a subject of debate for people belonging to different cultural settings. The influence of culture in the development of etiquettes will be discussed using Hofstede’s cultural dimension. Further, the recommendations are provided in order to help to make the business meeting successful.  

Thesis statement: the differences in cultural perspectives can be mitigated with proper awareness for international business expansion.

Japan is an island nation in East Asia and business culture in the nation is noted to be the product of the mind. In order to better understand the corporate culture of Japan, for Mary who is wishing to undertake business to the respective nation it would be important to be aware of the difference in western and Japanese business culture.  Rothlin and McCann (2016) added that western business culture had encountered several resolutions in the corporate world; however, such revolution leading latest system of thinking have replaced old ones that often observed to be opposite in Japan. In Japan, the new system introduced from overseas or internally is mixed or added with current business etiquettes. It would be important for Mary aiming to implement favourable first impression to understand that the core of the Japanese mind relies on the fundamental notion of ‘Animism'. It is a belief that all the things have a spirit that is nature worshipped religion of Shintoism. The Japanese business individual as Mr. Moro who has spent most of his life following Japanese culture would see his company as a community that is important and more than short-term profitability. It would be crucial for Mary to be aware that as like western business in which profit is everything, under Japanese business etiquette profit is important along with collaboration that benefits nation’s citizens and their future. Teramoto et al. (2017) argued that Japanese business etiquette is misunderstood aspects of undertaking business; however key personal facet of business in Japan related to the initial meeting with senior executives. The steps that Mary might take to establish favourable initial impression at the time of meeting Mr. Moro would be bowing as Japanese individuals do not expect outsiders to be aware of bowing rules. Shaking hands that are uncommon, a foreign business person like Mary need to be aware of some basic manners in Japan. Politeness will be key to closely connect to respect for everyone and knowing some simple expressions as ‘Konnichiwa’ for Hello, ‘Konbanwa’ for Good Evening and ‘Ohayou Gozaimasu’ for Good morning can help to break the ice and also lead some positive smiles. A Japanese business person would always consider time as money. A business person from western business etiquette should understand that Japanese run on strict schedules to plan an exact agenda. It would be important for Mary to remember to be pleasant, smile and open to ask questions without related to personal life. On the other hand, while presenting a business card, it should be made sure that cards are held with both hands and initially presented to senior executives. Additionally, at the time of accepting business cards, it needs to be accepted with both hand with saying ‘Hajimameshite’ and ‘Thank You’. Reliability-based on trust would play an important role to establish favourable impression, where sticking to scheduled time, deadlines and timetables makes a western business person reliable to Japanese business individuals. 

It is important to understand the different dimensions that make cultures around the world different from other impacts the interactions and perspectives. These differences are explained using the Hofstede's Six Dimensions of Culture, which is a model, presented in the 1970s after a decade’s research by the theorist. The Power Dimension Index is defined as the degree of acceptable inequality in power between people holding an authoritative position and those without power. The Individualism Versus Collectivism is defined as the strength of the community that exists among people of a particular society. The Masculinity Versus Femininity dimension describes the role of gender and the impact of it on society. Uncertainty Avoidance Index provides information about the way in which people in different cultures develop a coping mechanism in an anxious situation. Long-Versus Short-Term Orientation this represents the display of the time horizon in a society. The followi8ng diagram is provided as a comparison between the Australian and the Japanese culture in general.  


Comparison of the Japanese and Australian cultures using Hofstede’s ModelFig 1: Comparison of the Japanese and Australian cultures using Hofstede’s Model

Source: Hofstede Insights 2019

Power Distance: the score Japan in Power distance dimension is 54, which signified that their society is hierarchical in nature. This is supported by Harada (2017) who stated that the like most other Asian countries that Japanese culture they are conscious if their hierarchical position. This makes the decision–making the process slower than most other business organizations. In contrast, the Australian culture scored 36 in the power distance analysis suggesting that the purpose of the authority hierarchy is for convenience. Contradictory to Japanese culture Weber et al. (2017) mentioned supervisors are suggestively approachable and open to suggestions within their business. This signifies that in case of conflict of interest between the employees and the managers the criticisms from the employees are taken into consideration for the betterment of the business.  

Individualism: Japanese culture was scored at a lower number of 46 showing that their society does not put individuality before the community. As per the statement of Harada (2017), the Japanese culture believes in the harmony of the group as a society over the individual needs as well as conscious about shame. In contrast, the Australian culture as supported by Weber et al. (2017) is highly individualistic. This is evident from their individualism score, which is 90 and suggests that their societies are not strongly bonded in comparison to Asian countries. Therefore, business etiquettes involve self-dependency and autonomy.

Masculinity: The high score of the Japanese culture in masculinity is suggestive of increased competition, success-driven, systemic and disciplined. Harada (2017) also supported that Japan is one of the most masculine societies in the world in a team situation.  Australia is similar to the Masculinity in their society but not as much as Japanese cultures. This suggests there is moderation in competition and obtaining gaols in business. 

Uncertainty Avoidance: The high score of this scale by is predictive of the fact that Japan suffers from the impact of many natural disasters. Their society as per Harada (2017) the preparation for uncertain situations is high. In the context of the business etiquettes, the detailed counter-measures and risk assessments are done before decision-making. 

Long-term orientation: The high score in long-term orientation suggest that business involves the growth and progress to move in a steady pace and ample investment is made in research and development, and they do not prefer a sudden increase in profit. The score of Australian culture in this scale suggests that their culture is normative in nature Weber et al. (2017). These cultures preserve the future and obtain quicker results. 

Indulgence: This score suggests that people are highly indulgent in nature and succumb to impulsive decisions. Whereas in Japan having a score of 42 on the scale suggests that, their people show restraint and have cynical and pessimistic nature. 

In light of the discussion, it is evident that the approach of conducting business in Australia and Japan are very different. In order to expand the business into Japan, Mary needs to aware of the cultural perspectives. It is recommended that Mary should try to develop an interpersonal relationship with the businessperson in Japan (Aşkun and Çetin 2017). This would help in showing cultural sensitivity, and the senior Mr Moro would feel respected. Mary is also recommended to explain the details of her business with predetermined risk assessment strategies to ensure the stability of the business. Japanese business individuals are well aware that other nations have different manner; however a basic knowledge of suitable business manners can help a new business in Japan to inefficient growth way. In order to improve the success of future business arrangement, Mary can suitably consider not using unusual dramatic movements and facial expressions. It should be considered by Mary not to pat on the shoulder or back of Japanese man as it does not fall under Japanese business etiquette. Moreover, for achieving the success of meeting a formal dress code as subdue tie and white shirt in the  period of April to October and grey suite in September to May can be helpful (Kwintessential, 2019). It can lead to making a favourable impression along with increasing better change for a future business arrangement. Punctuality is important or Japanese would believe it to be rude. It would be important to depict interest in Japanese business partners as Mr. Moro, with probably researching about company background and inquiring about projects will make business partners appreciate new business venture. Giving gifts to a new business person would lead to creating strong influence; however, gifts in 4 sets should be avoided as it related to ‘death’ in Japanese culture. Additionally, a sense of courtesy, a verbal agreement to written ones, avoiding small-talks about family, religion or politics and showing a willingness to learn about the Japanese side of business plan would ultimately contribute to the success of ‘The Aroma Shop' in Japan. 

It is noted that business etiquette helps to create a healthy working environment and to establish a stronger relationship with foreign business individuals. The maintenance of prior mentioned business etiquette can potentially contribute to profitable business venture of The Aroma Shop in Japan. The cross-cultural communications are an open-ended challenge that can be eliminated through the truthful and respectful process under business proceedings.