Business Process Modelling: Swim Lane Approach

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Question :

BC01049 Assignment 3 

Business Process Modelling (45 marks) Date Due: 16 Jun 18 


Question 1


Tapzeem Chemicals is a wholesaler who supplies independent pharmacies operating in Australia with pharmaceutical drugs. The company operates through a sales force, with each salesperson being allocated a region to look after. Each region contains a number of pharmacies, some of whom are existing clients. During the weekly visit the salesperson takes orders for the goods that the pharmacy wishes to receive in the next delivery. 

Fulfil Order Process 

At the end of each day the salesperson faxes the orders through to the sales administration team, who check the orders for completeness (name, delivery address, etc). Any orders that are incomplete are returned to the salesperson, who is responsible for returning the order to the client. Complete orders are recorded, and the sales administration team then check to see if the client is an existing client. 

For existing clients the sales administration team, send the order to the warehouse for the dispatch of the goods. 

For new clients, the order is passed to the credit control clerk who checks the client's credit worthiness. 

If the credit status of a potential client is unsatisfactory the salesperson is notified and it is their responsibility to notify the potential client that they have been rejected. If the credit status of a potential client is satisfactory the credit control clerk passes the order to the sales ledger clerk who then prepares a client file. Once the client file is prepared the order is passed to the warehouse so that the goods can be dispatched. 

Once the warehouse receives the order, a member of the warehouse team picks, or selects, the goods for dispatch. Once the goods are picked they are checked against the order by the warehouse supervisor. If the order is incomplete, the complete order is returned to the warehouse team member to re-pick the goods. The order is then rechecked by the warehouse supervisor. When the order is complete the warehouse dispatches the goods to the client. 

Once the goods have been dispatched the sales ledger clerk prepares and dispatches an invoice to the client. 

(a) Students are required to develop a process model using the swim lane approach for the Fulfillment Order process described in the above scenario. (10 marks) 

(b) Describe Four areas in which Tapzeem could improve their Fulfilment Order process and explain the impact of each improvement suggestion (10 marks) 

Question 2 

Southgate Hospital Accident & Emergency Department (A&E) provides a point of entry in to the hospital for patients. 

Patients can arrive through 2 routes: they can arrive via their own transportation or they can be brought in by ambulance. 

On entry to the A&E department patients are classified according to the severity of their condition: - those who require immediate treatment or resuscitation (such as sever road traffic accidents and heart attacks) are rushed through to treatment or resuscitation rooms as appropriate and always admitted to the hospital. 

- those who have major injury or illnesses (such as industrial accidents and elderly patients with pneumonia) are registered and prioritized. It is possible for a patient to go straight for treatment at this point if their condition justifies it. Otherwise, they wait in the waiting area for a triage nurse to become available. 

- those who have minor injury or illness (such as domestic accidents or asthma) are registered and prioritized. They need to wait in the waiting area for a triage nurse to become available. 

- children as sent to a specialist pediatric unit within the general hospital 

When a triage nurse becomes available, they select the next highest priority patient and assess whether the patient can be treated and discharged or needs admission to the general hospital. 

(a) Draw a process model in the notation of your choice for handling Southgate A&E patients. (5 marks) 

Question 3 Students are required to answer the following questions 

  1. Explain why an Organization may decide to implement a reengineering process. 

(b) Explain the different methods an Organization may adopt in implementing a reengineering process. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each method. 

(5 marks) 

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Answer :

Question 1

a. Process Model using the Swim Lane Approach for the Fulfilment Order Process

Swim lane Approach Process Model for Fulfilment Order process

Figure 1: Swim lane Approach Process Model for Fulfilment Order process

(Source: Created by Self) 

b. Four Areas where Tapzeem could improve their Fulfilment Order process

Despite the apparent efficiency of the fulfilment process employed by Tapzeem, certain areas of potential improvement can be detected upon careful observation. One of the main areas which can be improved upon is the status of the existing clients among the employees and working personnel of the organizational entity. The orders of the existing clients are sent directly to the warehouse for the dispatch of their requested goods and orders. As such, a greater monitoring of the latest status of the clients in question should be ensured, since any kind of unwarranted changes or modifications in their legal or functioning status can come to light as a result in a proper, accurate and appreciable manner. The implementation of a greater monitoring strategy for the existing clients can reduce the chances of potential losses or legal drawbacks from dealing with the existing clients to a drastic extent. Another of the areas where Tapzeem can improve is the receiving of the order on the part of the warehouse in question. Rather than just allocate a single member for the picking and eventual selection of the gods for dispatch, the allocation of multiple members for the completion of the said tasks can lead to the reduction of the propensity of any order from being fulfilled in an incomplete manner (Van Der Aalst, La Rosa & Santoro, 2016).

  The presence of multiple warehouse officials in selecting and dispatching the goods in the initial phase can lead to the reduction of the number of orders resent for checking on account of being incomplete. Another of the areas which can be improved for the fulfilment process implemented by the reviewed organizational entity is the dispatching of the client file. Rather than just allocating the main responsibilities of checking the credit status to the credit control clerk, the allocation of multiple employees can be ensured for the sake of decreasing the chances of errors and the management of the time in an even better manner. Finally, the dispatching of the order can be notified to the client in question before, during and after the said action, rather than just a dispatch of invoice on the part of the sales ledger client to the client. The initiation of these precautionary steps makes sure that the chances of the order being received by the client are high, with the presence of such steps also being beneficial in cases of mishaps or problems in the delivery aspects en route to the client (Chang, 2016). The implementation of the aforementioned improvement strategies in the relevant areas of the fulfilment order process can help in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the process as a whole in the long run.  

Question 2

a. Process Model for selected notation

Process Model for the handling of Southgate A&E Patients

Figure 2: Process Model for the handling of Southgate A&E Patients

(Source: Created by Self)


a. Reasons for the decision of implementing a reengineering process

Several reasons may be attributed to being the potential causes of the implementation of a reengineering process on the part of organizations and firms of various sectors and industries. The process of reengineering can bring forth a better means of ensuring the clarification of the future reorganized state, with the advent of the said clarification enabling the completion of the overall functioning processes and methodologies in an even better and comparatively more efficient manner. The fact that a certain degree of reorganization can be ensured through the implementation of reengineering process can be particularly endearing to the organizations in question since the presence of a better degree of planning and strategy development can be ensured as a result of the same in a consistent and sustainable manner. Furthermore, reengineering can also help in the alignment of the objectives with the current and existing state of the organizations in a far better manner in the long run, which in turn can lead to the procurement of greater magnitudes of success and gains. The fact that clarity of purpose is ensured upon reengineering and the determination of the most effective means of organizational operation is determined has been one of the greatest benefits of the reengineering process, to the point of drastically increasing the chances of financial and consistent successes (Jeston, 2014).

The chances of increased efficiency are also increased upon the implementation of the aforementioned as well. The implementation of appropriate operational measures also ensures an increase in the efficiency aspects, with the conduction of the main operations being in a far smoother and better manner. The advent of an increase in efficiency on account of the reengineering process can lead to the procurement of much better results and performances in the long run, to the point of enabling the maximization of the operation performance aspects. As such, the gain of relevant profits and long-term gains is also possible upon the smooth implementation of the given process, with the determination, planning and eventual initiation of the reengineering process in an appropriate manner generally resulting in several long-term and consistent gains for the implementing entity in the long run. The benefits and positives of reengineering far outweigh any potential concern which may arise as a result of the initiation of the processes such as the aforementioned, with said benefits being potentially useful for an organization in expanding their operations and experiencing tremendous growth (Hillon & Mele, 2017).

The reasons explained above form the main basis for the decision taken by many companies and financial entities to implement a reengineering process, with the gains procured from the same being potentially instrumental in enabling the said entities in experiencing further development and expansion. The decision to initiate the reengineering process is thus based on several factors and reasons.    

b. Different methods of implementing a reengineering process: Advantages and Disadvantages

One of the main methods used for the implementation of the reengineering process is the Hammer and Champy methodology. The methodology in question has provided an adequate degree of focus on certain aspects, with the said aspects being the main constituents of a structure called the business system diamond. These aspects include the processes of business, the possessed beliefs and values, the management and measurement system and the associated jobs and structures. The main phases of the methodology in question include the introduction process, the identification of the main processes related to business, the selection of the said processes, the understanding of the selected processes, the redesigning of the selected processes and the implementation of the redesigned processes in the end. The main advantages of the given methodology include the management of all major processes and necessities pertaining to the reengineering task and the propensity of the methodology in question in providing a platform for the correction of potential mistakes. The main disadvantages of the aforementioned include the over-dependence on the information technology aspects and the lack of a certain degree of flexibility in helping with task completion during times of crisis (Hammer, 2015).

Another major method in this regard is the Davenport and Short methodology, which manages to recognize the relationship between business process reengineering and the capabilities of information technology. The main steps of the given methodology include the development of the vision of the business, the identification of the main processes requiring redesigning, the understanding and measurement of the existing processes and the identification of the information technology levers. The main advantages of the methodology in question include the complete utilization of the information technology for the purposes of reengineering and the possession of an appropriate magnitude of efficiency. The main disadvantages include a more-than-necessary focus on innovation and the difficulties experienced in terms of the management of the time aspect while implementing this methodology (Hillon & Mele, 2017). The understanding and management of the main advantages and disadvantages are necessary for the sake of achieving relevant success while implementing this methodology.