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Challenges of teaching and learning in the clinical environment

University : University of Wollongong Australia
SNPG960: Facilitation and Education Skills for Practice Development
Assessment Title : Essay


Task Description:

There are considerable challenges to teaching and learning in the clinical environment. Understanding contemporary educational approaches to teaching and learning can facilitate learning and promote positive workplace cultures.

Critically analyse one learning theory and discuss how your selected learning theory can be used to facilitate learning in the clinical environment.

In your essay, you should:

- Select and describe one learning theory

- Using the literature, critically analyse the use of this theory within the clinical environment

- Suggest ways of how this learning theory could be used to facilitate the learning of nurses within the clinical environment that will assist in the development of a culture of learning.


Answer

Introduction:


In literal terms, learning refers to the capability of the individual to understand and bring about a permanent change in mental processing and reap the benefits of experience. This helps them alter their thoughts into concrete actions required for the effective functioning of the clinical learning theories that are taught. Individuals learn how to deal with circumstances and add top improving the health of the patients. So healthcare staff which includes the nurses should opt for more effective techniques for better well being of the patient concerned. Experiences matter and this is what brings the potential medical students closer to defining and fulfilling their objectives. Education psychology followers are of the opinion that one should be thoroughly aware of the systematic gathering of evidence. This helps them to better grab a particular prospect and deal with.  

Selected learning theory and its description 

Learning theories help the potential medical students and nursing apprentices to describe, explain and obtain a clear idea of the learning perspectives in question. Education psychology scholars view this from various angles depending on its relation and ease of \understanding. Over time, there have been numerous improvements in the relevant field and thus there has been significant changes as to how one should build a research oriented information processing keeping in mind the popular notions and myths (Siemens, G., 2014). It is worth mentioning that primitive learning techniques and the wrong ideas that hovered around should be dealt with rather seriously so that wrong ideas do not end up getting cultivated. 


Learning theories take into consideration the assumptions made about the learner's understanding techniques. The educator should deal with learning problems very seriously and instead concentrate on motivating the learners. This helps them deal with situations and understand the internal dynamics of individual learning. Among the list of various learning theories, Behaviorist Learning Theory requires special mention since it deals with following the behavioural trends of individuals and then prescribing for them the ideal methodology to follow (Engeström, 2014)


Behaviorist Learning Theory: 


This theory concentrates on the need to observe observable behaviours for the proper functioning  of the independent mind. Thus this theory ponders on the need to adopt new behavioral characteristics based on surrounding environmental and social changes. Behaviorists are of the opinion that conditioning according to requirement is described as an universal learning process, each of which circles around a definite behavioural pattern. Classic conditioning is referred to a situation when a natural reflex responds naturally to a stimulus (Munoz, 2013). This ‘biological wiring’ produces a specific response to stimulus. It helps the learners exhibit behaviours like fear and anxieties which arise from inability to communicate, general school phobia and public speaking. Behavioural conditioning arises from artificial reinforcing as a form of simple feedback system. A reward or response to stimuli becomes more probable and makes use of reinforcement techniques to handle rational behaviors. 

Criticising behaviourism, scholars insist on :

Inefficiency of behavioral techniques as far as learning something new is concerned. This limits the ability of mind to think something new and activate new ideas. Behaviorism does not create any new ideas rather it concentrates on existing ideas,. Thus beneficial and effective learning techniques like learning language patterns are not taken into consideration (Harasim, 2017). Reinforced patterns to describe and adopt new information do not come under behavioural learning techniques. Thus changes in behaviour cannot be easily taken into consideration just by observing behavioral patterns. 

Using the literature, critically analyse the use of this theory within the

clinical environment:

Behaviorism is easier to understand and implement. Educational institutions concentrate on the need to adopt newer techniques based on behavioral changes and patterns. Reinforcement techniques included in this model helps heal human disorders and helps one to mix with the social boundaries. In sharp congrats to constructivism, it allows lesser room for experimentation and exploration under experience for reforming brain’s rational way of thinking and solving issues (Ormrod, 2013). Right from its date of origination, behaviorism concentrates on idea of stimulus without often taking into consideration the effects of human free thinking and moral will. Behaviorists assume that individuals are simple moderators between the environment and the behavioural characteristics in question. 

Applications of behavioural learning theories:

In certain areas of clinical psychology and nursing, behaviourism is considered as an ideal substitute to comprehensive theories in question. Behaviourism helps in treating certain psychological ailments like neurosis and phobias. Since the key element in response to stimuli and its observable changes in characteristics, traditional and new age psychologists podner on eliminating the symptoms by applying operant and classical behavioural learning theories (Kolb, 2014). Patient suffers loss due to the observable changes in response to the ailment and thus reinforcing the symptoms exit characteristics. 

Doctors and psychologists are of the opinion that behaviourism also helps deal with addictions and the tendencies of patients to dive back into the addictions even after rehabilitation. Thus one should take the effect of classical behavioral phenomenon into consideration and let the unidentified stimuli react to the exit symptoms. Chemically active nicotine and alcohol make it difficult for the patient to get rid of them even after techniques to stop the patients from having them again (Anders, 2015). However, clinical psychologists are of the opinion that mere mentioning of the responsive stimulus might not be treated as the best way to treat addictions and the retreating symptoms. In order to bring about a permanent change in the existing relation between stimuli and the causative factors behind it, behaviourists ponder on the dissociation between the causative factors and the ability to withstand the addiction willingness. 

This external negative aversion results in permanent counter conditioning while helping the patient to get rid of the addictions since his body became accustomed to the severest feelings of discomfort (Richards, and Rodgers, 2014). Thus behavioural activists concentrate more on the environment shaped behavioral pattern changes headed by distinctive changes in behaviour. Thus principles of contiguity and reinforcement are crucial to explaining the learning process in pretty detail to fight adverse behavior that are either considered socially unacceptable or harmful as far human health is concerned. 


Critical analysis of behaviorism:

According the theory of Behaviorism the learner is considered to be passive and responds to the environmental stimuli. According to the theory, the learner starts like tabula rasa which means a completely blank page without any basic knowledge of the subject. In the Clinical environment this theory is important as the learners coming to study this particular discipline requires to be taught everything about which they do not have any knowledge as such (Wohlwill, 2016).

Key concepts of the theory

Evidently, behaviorism, has been one of the dominant psychological learning approaches. According to the experts learning is the inevitable change that can be noticed through the change in behavior. The major element of this learning style is communication. Communication between stimulus and response facilitates the process of learning. 

This theory focuses on the behavioral reinforcement and the positive outcome is considered to be conditional for good performance.

The practitioners of this theory concentrates on the practical outcome and the reiteration in order to learn a new discipline or subject. There are many application of this approach and one of such application is understanding the emotional reaction of a learner (Engeström, 2014.). It is important to record the reactions of the learners to a particular experience as it helps the guide to develop an effective learning plan for the learner. Emotional reaction to a particular experience can either be positive or negative. Negative experiences often lead the learners towards fear or anxiety and such fear and anxiety hinders the learners from learning from such experiences as they feel the same in case of future similar situations and it in most cases invokes unpleasant feelings in the learner.

One of the behavioral theories are the theory of transponders which is also known as the classical conditioning theory developed by Pavlov. The initial research of Pavlov was based on the reflection and impact of the learning experience upon the learners. It is a biological idea that indicates muscular or glandular response which is driven through the influence of the sensory organs.

This procedure according to the experts can be used in the student learning process. One of the other behavioral theories in this subset is Thorndike theory. According to this particular theory the selectivity or the problem solving and the learner answers repeatedly or reiterate his or her answers in order to reach an appropriate position for one of the responses (Levis, 2017). Significantly Thorndike mentioned that as soon as the response is learned the learners begin to respond to the similar situations in a similar manner and thus the similar situations of learning is reiterated by the learner again.

Suggested ways of the learning theory and its implementation to facilitate thelearning of nurses within the clinical environment in order to develop the learning culture

The learning theories have been used as a guideline of the clinical training of the nurses. The clinical environment has been created by the teachers for maintaining the general principles of these theories and uses the knowledge more effectively in different learning situations. In case of the Nursing education possibly with mannequins, access to skills can be provided. Therefore, the learners can have the opportunity by using the harmless trial and error method. Through such practice the students can gain desired skills (Kiraly, 2014).

The positive outcome of this practice is that satisfying results lead to the strengthening of the learning and unpleasant results do not harm the students as they are encouraged to seek alternative answers. Trial and error process leads to learners to opt for different solutions in order to find correct answers for each of the asked questions. 

Learning transfer is another important concept in the arena of clinical learning. Students in when a Clinical setting is considered encounter a number of different learning challenges and it requires to be combated through different combined forces. In the arena of Clinical education Skinner conditioning theory is more scientific theory of learning. It is vastly used in the field of administrative study of humans. According to this particular theory the final result of the behavior is looked at and emphasized and the behavior is granted to be a voluntary action and it is considered to be formed by outcome. Hence, it is possible increase the chance of recurrent onset with the reinforcement of the desired behavior. Behavior theories are important in the field of Clinical studies as the techniques of this therapy are used for the treatments of psychological problems. In order to change the social and academic behavior of the students these techniques are used extensively. This method can be significantly used in the teaching of the clinical skills to the nursing students. In order to incorporate this theory effectively the initial behaviors of each stage is taken under consideration. In order to implement the procedure successfully the teachers can provide clues to the learners before starting the procedure. Computer programs that have been designed in order to learn specific patient care methods can implement the similar procedures as well (Kolb, 2014).

In the Clinical setting the outcome is positive in most cases. The positive result includes client satisfaction and admiration of the administrative body. Through this method, each good or bad behavior is based on the students’ understanding of the consequences of the behavior and these behaviors are interconnected with each other and can not be treated individually.


Conclusion: 

In the light of the above study, it can be concluded that for the learning training of the clinical industry effective techniques has been used. The different learning theories are selected accordingly to the learning requirements. The behaviorist learning theory has been concentrated on the observable behaviors for the accurate functioning of the independent mind. The analysis of different scholars about the behaviorism has changed the view point about the clinical environment. In this study the critical analysis has also be made on the behavior theory related to the clinical environment. Applications of this theories and the key concepts of this theory has also discussed under this study.

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