Assessment 2: Literature Review (2500-3000 words) - 20% - Week 5
Students will submit a literature review for their chosen project. The review will present the student’s findings from at least twenty studies chosen from a particular discipline focus. The review will be expected to:
Level 9 (Masters) Assessment Criteria
MANAGING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN AN ORGANIZATION
Management associated with the change process related to an organization can be considered as a crucial factor for elevating the organizational development process. This study provides an overview of different managing approaches associated with the change processes of different organizations. In this context organizations of first world countries is considered in this study for including the proper theoretical background of the management process associated with the resistance related to the organizational change management process. Different studies in this regards are considered for proper analysis moreover the limitations and gaps associated with these studies are considered in this study for delineating proper comparison among these different studies.
Theory, models in any research provide a structural description of research and therefore are important. In the current research scenario, management of resistance of change from organization perspectives has to be evaluated. Theories related to this topic are illustrated below:
Value proposition theory indicates that organization success in change management process entirely depends on the technical side and people side. Technical side can be classified into three-step process including design of the product, development of product and delivery of the product. The change management process is involved in each of these steps as design as change requires from the time-to-time basis according to the technology available in the current generation (Suwaryo et al. 2015). The development of product depends on the design of the product and hence change management is involved in this process. The deliverance of the product again involves the design and development of the product and hence this factor is related to the change management process.
The inhibition of the change management process inhibits the growth of every organization as a survival context of every organization depends on the adaptation rate of changes in every organization (Rothe, et al. 2015). The change management process involves three steps namely “Current State”, “Transition State” and “Future State” as indicated in the figure below:
Figure 1: Change Management Process
(Source: Paula Matos & Esposito, 2014)
The challenges in the change management process primarily come in the Transition state and partially come in Future state (Sjoerd van et al. 2016). The challenges associated with these stages emerge from technological advancement and challenges in the implementation of these technologies in an organization. The resistance factors emerge mainly from the cost of advanced technical gadgets and the structural modifications required in the implementation of these gadgets. Moreover, during the implementation of these gadgets, the productivity of an organization is reduced by a substantial amount. The resistance in the technical sides is thus illustrated in light of this theory.
Another portion of this value proposition theory involves in the people side of adapting the changes. In fact, most of the resistance emerges in the People side. This side involves embracement, adoption, and usage with systematic development, which goes through with Current state, Transition state, and Future state. People working in a company are accustomed to a conventional environment and whenever changes are required to be implemented, psychological behavior of human resist the change (Appelbaum et al. 2018). People often do not want to be out from their comfort zone especially in the workplace owing to the unpredicted challenges that may come while implementing challenges. In the transition state, employees of an organization resist the changes due to the challenges emerge in the implementation of changes.
The challenges emerge in the implementation process in the change management process have to be mitigated as soon as possible to enhance the growth of organizations and to maintain sustainability.
The challenges discussed above are required to be mitigated and for this purpose, three avenues of resistance management have to be implemented. These three avenues are discussed below:
It is a direct process of mitigation and management of resistance, where the authority of an organization intentionally and even forcefully manage and mitigate the challenges incur in the process of change implementation. Organizations take necessary approach to mitigate the resistance built among awareness. In general, people are continuously aware by the management authority on the requirement of changes and the implementation procedure to implement those changes (Bringselius, 2014). Moreover, management authority of an organization explains the challenges associated with the change management procedure and the duration through which employees of an organization goes through.
In general, this method of prevention of resistance is implemented at the beginning of every project so that employees involve in business management procedure become aware of the changes. Consequently, the resistance of changes becomes reduced substantially.
This resistance management strategy involves with the anticipation procedure as well as early identification of early resistance. By anticipation, often by experience, management authority of an organization anticipates the upcoming resistance to the changes, and sometimes may find the root cause behind the resistance behind the changes (Douzinas, 2014). The predictability of resistance helps organization to mitigate the changes as and when necessary.
This study comprises different approaches of previous researches in the background of resistance management associated with the organizational internal operational changes. Most of the previous researches provide a mixed approach for providing information in this context (Kidron, Ofek & Cohen, 2016). The major advantage of a mixed approach is a mixed approach can help to eliminate the limitations associated with a single methodological approach. As for an instance, a quantitative approach can include the limitation of information in a study; on the other hand, a qualitative approach can include irrelevant or erroneous information in research.
The inclusion of a mixed approach in a study thus can help to eliminate these errors associated with research. Consideration of these sources in this study thus has helped to make this study more reliable and effective. Moreover, the application of different approaches associated with a study can help to make a study more effective (Pauluzzo et al. 2018). Previous researches comprise both kinds of approaches such as deductive and inductive, which can be considered as other major advantageous factors. Consideration of the deductive approach has helped to include different hypothetical perspective in these previous researches. The inclusion of these studies thus has helped to make this study more reliable and exclusive (Prislan, 2014). Moreover, previous studies also compromised mixed research designs hence the inclusion of the methodological background of previous studies has helped to make this study more reliable.
In this study, the second method has been considered which has helped to make this study comparative and comprehensive in nature. Moreover, the inclusion of secondary research process has helped to make this study more reliable and this can be considered as another major advantage of secondary research method inclusion (Roh et al. 2017). The inclusion of secondary research method has helped to make this study more reliable by considering the interpretive approach in this study. The relativistic ontological approach of interpretivism has elevated the effectiveness of this study by considering associated factors of managing resistance changes of different organizations.
Explanatory research design has been applied in this study in order to include a proper explanation of different factors associated with managing resistance to change. This has helped to include analytical approach in this study. This has helped to elevate the flexibility in consideration of different sources in this study (Rønningstad, 2018). Moreover, the inclusion of the explanatory approach has helped to make the conclusion more realistic and effective.
This study also comprises a deductive approach, which has helped to include the proper hypothetical background of different researches in this study. Application of the deductive approach in this study has helped to analyze the outcomes of this study by considering well-known theories in this study. This has helped to elevate the comprehensiveness of this study. Moreover, in this study longitudinal time horizon has been included which has helped to make this study realistic (Rothe et al. 2015). Case study based analysis also has been considered in this regards for increasing reliability of this study. In this context, cases based on different first world countries have been considered in this study.
The reluctance of organizational changes in employees of an organization can be considered as one of the major issue associated with organizational change management process. Managing resistance to changes in an organization thus can be considered as one of the pivotal factors for the organization. As opined by Agboola & Salawu et al. (2011) the uncertainty associated with the organizational change management process can be considered as one of the main reason behind this resistance towards organizational changes. In this regards the resistance can be active or it can be passive.
Delinquency of employees of an organization can be considered an active reason for resistance to organizational changes. Moreover, productivity losses can be considered as another major active issue in this regards which resists the changes in the organization. Khan & Hashim (2014) has exemplified that similar resistance can be seen in the case of General Motors. General Motors for developing global image introduced the change management process in which this organization has faced challenges associated with productivity losses related to its newly designed product manufacturing changes (Al-Haddad & Kotnour, 2015). This can be considered as one of the major examples in this regards.
The major barriers in this context were the development of an effective cost-cutting procedure for implementing a totally changed procedure of manufacturing process. Rosenbaum, More & Steane (2017) added that a misdirected approach could be applied in order to elevate the level of effectiveness of the resistance change approach associated with change management process related to an organization. This approach focuses on negative aspects associated with change management process related to an organization. This can help to identify the main resistance associated with the change management process related to an organization (Appelbaum et al. 2018). The challenges associated with the change management process can be examined by considering these negative factors more significantly.
Most of the organizations consider the issues associated with each individual associated with the internal workforce associated with the organization. Onimole (2017) argued that the inability of managerial personnel could be considered as another major resistance in this context. This can include errors in the change management process and can reduce the effectiveness of the change management process (Bringselius, 2014). With the help of increasing skill level of managerial personnel, the diagnosis ability of managerial personnel can be elevated which can help them to deduce proper technique for managing resistance of changes.
Moreover, the managerial personnel also needs to consider the objectives in the planning of change management process which can help them to make proper planning associated with the change management process. Tudor (2014) mentioned one of the main probable reason behind the resistance related to the change management process of an organization could be changes in the hierarchical structure of an organization (Demirci, 2016). This change can include employee dissatisfaction by promoting or demoting hierarchical personnel.
Hierarchical can make a negative impact on the talent management process associated with an organization. Hence, proper planning associated with resistance management process can be considered as a crucial factor, which can help to elevate the level of sustainability of the organization. Rao (2014) has suggested that social factors associated with an organization also can impose a barrier in front of the change management process associated with an organization. Social factors in most cases impact on the interaction process associated with the employees. Hence, social factors can be considered as the most important factors associated with the knowledge-sharing ambiance of an organization. Change management process can make a negative impact on this attribute of an organization (Douzinas, 2014). Hence, resistance also can be seen in this regards. Managerial intervention in this regards is most important which can include effective training process in order to mitigate this problem. Similar issue associated with social changes can be seen in case of the change management case associated with general motors.
Rothe et al. (2015) suggested that, employee resistance surprised many of the interviewees. It is even difficult to manage long-term attitudes with short-term reactions against changes. This suggests that the employees of globally renowned organizations are reluctant to adopt changes in an organization.
Sjoerd van et al. (2016) commented that business leaders and mangers have to posses’ state-of-art knowledge about employee psychology. The knowledge about employee psychology will allow leaders of organizations to implement change management tactics in employees. Awareness about employee psychology is synonymous to predictability of leaders about psychological behavior of employees. Psychological awareness helps to smooth the change management process in an organization, thereby giving an edge of advantage to the leaders and business organizations.
Workplace of an organization needs to support cross-cultural mobilization (Suwaryo et al. 2015). Leaders of an organization have to promote changes related to cross-cultural management and often resistance against these changes emerges from the reluctance of former employees. In order to mitigate this resistance promotion of cross culture is required to be spread by leaders.
With globalization in industries worldwide, change in organization process is required almost in a periodical basis. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake research on the every example that global organizations have done for past few years. Due to shortage of time, not all the examples can be discussed. Moreover, the research is confined into twenty articles only. The research design that the articles follow throw a considerable challenge in the research. Some articles have used primary method, some use secondary method and some of them use mixed method to conduct research. The shortcomings of these articles will therefore be also applicable in this research also and emerge gaps in this research. In addition to that, as the research is confined to twenty articles only, the research lack data and the research domain are too narrow compared to complete research. Lack of articles in context of management of changes also throws a considerable challenge in the research.
Among these, lack of time is the main constraint as the drawback of availability of articles is counterbalanced by collecting credible articles of eminent scholars. Researchers of every articles has been conducted the research critically and credibly. Often the researchers have conducted primary research by collecting data from global organizations. However, due to lack of time, the research on the data of every article cannot be done properly. Thus, the viability of secondary research is reduced considerably. Time constraint also resists researchers to conduct research about the theories and example of the organizations that have gone through the change management process and face resistance accordingly.
In light of above discussion, it can be inferred that, change management procedure has to be implemented in business process of any organization to support their growth process. During the change management process, an organization needs to aware of the obstacles of change management process and needs to spread awareness among its employees about requirement of changes, the reason behind the changes, the challenges associated with the change management procedure and its mitigation technique. This research has elaborated all the process regarding the management of resistances emerges in a change management procedure in an organization. The research is secondary in nature and confined to the twenty credible articles. The articles are the research work of eminent scholars and the scholars follow different methodological approach. Shortage of time and confinement to the twenty articles only has thrown significant challenges of the research and these can be regarded as flaws in research. Despite this, the research has been done properly based on the articles connected and the outcome of the research can be applied to any organization, in general.