Chapter 11 Discussion Questions
1. Can the biosphere be considered an earth system? How would that system be described?
2. How do autotrophs differs from heterotrophs?
3. What is metabolism?
4. In what environment might you find extremophiles? Can humans live under extreme conditions?
5. Explain how life is related to water? What would happen if all the water on earth turned to ice?
6. What’s the difference between photosynthesis and respiration?
7. What contains the habitable zone around stars?
8. Carbon and water are the basis for all life as we know it. If a giraffe made from silicon walked past one of the Hard Exploration Rovers, how would we know it was alive?
Biosphere consists all the living elements such as animals, humans, plants which are situated on the surface of the earth. Thus biosphere has the direct interaction with other physical systems of the earth like- lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere and has an influence on the geologic processes of the climate. Therefore it is stated that the biosphere can consider as one of earth systems (Nagy, Forsberg & Artaxo, 2016).
|Autotrophs signified as the producer of the ecosystem. They make their own food with the help of the source of energy and nutrients. Sometimes the chemical of the environment like- carbohydrate helps to form the energy to produce compounds in an organic way.||On the other hand Heterotrophs, the consumer organism of the ecosystem collects their food by feeding the producers in both direct and indirect way (Williams & Quigg, 2016).|
Metabolism bounds with all the organisms which use to process all the inputs, such as sunlight, water, small molecules, large molecules from the environment to generate the outputs such as oxygen, carbohydrates. In this type of metabolic process, organisms use the small molecules like CO2, H2O to generate the large molecules such as carbohydrates and proteins which help to enable the function of the process of growing (Alvarez, Pardo, Dufour & Moreno, 2014).
Extremophiles is a kind of microorganisms which live in the environment to kill the other organisms of the ecosystem. It lives in all kind of foods which consist of oil and toxic waste. It also lives in the form of nitric acid, sulphuric acid, uranium and iron in oxygen. The extreme conditions of extremophiles can cause the death of all the organisms of the ecosystem (Jorge, Borges, Bagyan, Bilstein & Santos, 2016).
Water provides the function to transfer substance of a cell to the cell’s environment in an effective way. It generates life, maintains the balance in the atmosphere of the planet and controls the temperature according to the change of the climate of the earth system. If all the water on earth turned into ice then it creates an effect on all the ecosystem of the earth and exploits the balance of sustaining for all the living creatures (Haddad, et al. 2015).
|Photosynthesis is a process by which plants stores energy from sunlight to convert CO2 and H2O as carbohydrates and oxygen (Ubierna, Holloway-Phillips & Farquhar, 2018).||Respiration is a process in which the organisms of the ecosystem release the energy which is stored in carbohydrates to consume the oxygen of the environment.|
The habitable zone has signified a range of orbit around the stars between astronomy and astrobiology in which the liquid water can enable to generate the atmospheric pressure in the planetary surface (Quintana, et al. 2014).
According to Alvarez (2014), a living object must consist of carbon and water and the giraffe is made from silicon. Therefore it is noted that the giraffe is not alive.