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CHCOL003 Manual Handling the Patients: Research on Health Care Professionals Assessment Answer

Research Topic 1

Infection control and prevention

Topic 1 – Background
Read before starting your assignment
You are a new enrolled nurse working in a clinic located in a remote area. The clinic building is an older structure and lacks the use of clinical and client information, such as posters. It has been identified that many of the staff are efficient in their roles but have some out-of-date ideas in their nursing practice. 
The clinic manager has asked you to research the most current information about a specific topic, such as:
Infection control


Plan the research activity
  1. In order to complete this assessment, you need to identify TWO (2) areas related to the topic, where research can help support and improve your own practice as an EN.                           
            E.g topic: Infection control and prevention (or as agreed with your educator)
  1. Identify the reason(s) for undertaking your research from the list below. 
    • You may select several reasons. 
    • Provide a brief rationale for each.                            

E.g reasons: Comparison / hypothesis testing / trend identification / own knowledge extension / strengthen quality of own practice.
  1. Write a clear statement highlighting your research question or hypothesis, e.g. “Is there a difference between hand washing protocols and actual practice”.
It may include:
  • Nursing interventions applicable to the topic
  • Client perceptions of the provision of this topic
  • Models of nursing care that utilise the topic
  • Political issues confronting nursing practice and health care provision in relation to the topic

An example of a question (the student can NOT use this example), would be: 
Does hand washing among healthcare workers reduce hospital acquired infections? 

An example of a hypothesis (the student can NOT use this example), would be:
Hospital acquired infections are more likely to be passed on by hand washing with water than when hands are washed with soap.
  1. Establish and define the general research objective.                                    

Tips: 
  • A research objective summarises what is to be achieved by the study. 
  • Ensure your objective is S.M.A.R.T and relevant, logical, feasible, observable and measurable. 
  • The objective should be clearly phrased – use verbs, e.g. to assess, to establish, to determine, to compare, etc. 
  1. Identify ONE (1) other discipline that could be connected to this research activity. 
  2. Briefly explain your choice of discipline.                                                      
  1. In order to gather information about the research topic, you will need to access credible sources of data and evidence.                                         
  2. List two (2) sources you intend to use for this assignment.
  3. Copy the link address of the source and paste it next to the source’s name – this will provide the proof to your assessor that you accessed it.

  • Source 1:

  • Source 2:

HINT: This is a good time to contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
 Gather information for your research
  1. Evaluate and select a maximum of two (2) methods of gathering information you think would be most appropriate to answer your research question. 
  2. Briefly explain why you have chosen a particular method over another, e.g. more time efficient.
                                                                                    
Tips: 
Methods of gathering include search engine using correct key words, literature reviews, systematic reviews, interviews, surveys, seminars, and surveys.
  1. You are now to gather information for your research topic using a systematic approach.

Stages for your information gathering activity
  1. Statement of objective – you should have already completed that step 
  2. Data collection, i.e. a literature search
  3. Data evaluation – critiquing articles to include or exclude them from the review. 
  4. Analysis – comparing, contrasting, challenging & reflecting
  5. Presentation of findings

At this stage, select four (4) sources
Please find the hierarchy of evidence, below:
  1. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis
  2. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs)
  3. Cohort studies
  4. Case-control studies
  5. Cross-sectional surveys
  6. Case reports
  1. Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. 
  2. Briefly explain why one (1) piece of your information is particularly relevant according to your objectives and your workplace requirements.                                                                         
  1. In order to facilitate your analysis, organise the information you have found. 

 Tips: 
  • You may summarise each source of information using key words.
  • You may choose to order your articles in chronological order if your focus is to show an evolution of practices.
  • You may order your articles following the rules of evidence, i.e. RCT > case report.
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
Analyse the information
  1. Prioritise information based on the research objectives. 
  2. Using questions 9 and 10 to help you, select only TWO (2) articles that you will keep for the rest of this assignment. 
  1. Compare and contrast your two (2) sources of information. 
  2. Use the table provided in Appendix A. 
  3. You must complete all the sections. 
  4. Instructions in italics are to be removed.                                                    
  1. You have now thoroughly analysed the information available to you. Now draw conclusions based on your findings.                                                                            
  1. As your findings may be used to establish evidence-based practice, identify one (1) impact your conclusions may have, in terms of duty of care requirements.        
  2. E.g. in order to do no harm to the clients and prevent disease transmission, all nurses should wear gloves when touching the client.
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
Use information in practice
  1. Assess one (1) way in which different aspects of information may be used in your workplace.                                                                                               
  1. Using and reflecting on what you have learnt from your research 
  2. Identify one area for change in your workplace or current practice.                                           
  1. Identify issues that require further research and evaluation.                       
  1. Using one piece of A4 paper or PowerPoint (1 slide) (portrait format), develop a poster or a flyer to address outcomes of research, i.e. select a method to disseminate your findings. 
  2. You will be required to scan it and upload it on Blackboard with this assignment. 
  3. Refer to your learning activities 11 and 12 for more ideas about how to do a poster or a flyer using PowerPoint.                                                           

   Tips: 
  • Consider your audience, the time and resources available.
  • It is recommended you adopt a flyer or poster style with a mix of text and pictures – do not put in too much information.  
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your actions verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.

Minimising language barrier when communicating with clients

Topic 2 – Background
Read before starting your assignment
You are a new enrolled nurse working in a public hospital located in a big city. A large number of the hospital’s clients do not speak English fluently and some of your colleagues find it difficult to communicate with those clients.
In order to improve communication with non-English speakers, your nurse manager has asked you to research ways to minimise language barrier in the workplace and to inform your colleagues about your findings. 


Plan the research activity
  1. In order to complete this assessment, you need to identify TWO (2) areas related to the topic below where research can help support and improve your own practice as an EN.                                                                                
Topic: Minimising language barrier when communicating with clients
  1. Identify the reason(s) for undertaking your research from the list below. 
  2. You may select several reasons. 
  3. Provide a brief rationale for each.                            

E.g. reasons: Comparison / hypothesis testing / trend identification / own knowledge extension / strengthen quality of own practice.
  1. Write a clear statement highlighting your research question or hypothesis.

It may include:

  • Nursing interventions applicable to the topic
  • Client perceptions of the provision of this topic
  • Political issues confronting nursing practice and health care provision in relation to the topic

An example of a question (the student can NOT use this example), would be: 
Does a ward communication tool is time efficient to communicate with CALD people? 

An example of a hypothesis (the student can NOT use this example), would be:
CALD clients are less likely to complain about pain than English speaking clients.
  1. Establish and define the general research objective.                                
Tips: 
  • A research objective summarises what is to be achieved by the study. 
  • Ensure your objective is S.M.A.R.T and relevant, logical, feasible, observable and measurable. 
  • The objective should be clearly phrased – use verbs, e.g. to assess, to establish, to determine, to compare, etc. 
  1. Identify ONE (1) other discipline that could be connected to this research activity. 
  2. Briefly explain your choice of discipline.                                                      

  1. In order to gather information about the research topic, you will need to access credible sources of data and evidence.                                           
  2. List two (2) sources you may use for this assignment.
  3. Copy the link address of the source and paste it next to the source’s name – this will provide the proof to your assessor that you accessed it

  • Source 1:
  • Source 2:

HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
 Gather information for your research
  1. Evaluate and select a maximum of two (2) methods of gathering information you think would be most appropriate to answer your research question. 
  2. Briefly explain why you have chosen a particular method over another, e.g. more time efficient.
Tips: 
Methods of gathering include search engine using correct key words, literature reviews, systematic reviews, interviews, surveys, seminars, and surveys.
  1. You are now to gather information for your research topic using a systematic approach.

Stages for your information gathering activity

  1. Statement of objective – you should have already completed that step 
  2. Data collection, i.e. a literature search
  3. Data evaluation – critiquing articles to include or exclude them from the review. You may use the appraisal tools developed by JBI to help you http://joannabriggs.org/research/critical-appraisal-tools.html
  4. Analysis – comparing, contrasting, challenging & reflecting
  5. Presentation of findings
At this stage, select four (4) sources
Please find below the hierarchy of evidence:
  1. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis
  2. Randomised controlled trials
  3. Cohort studies
  4. Case-control studies
  5. Cross-sectional surveys
  6. Case reports
  1. Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. 
  2. Briefly explain why one (1) of your information sources is particularly relevant according to objectives and your workplace requirements. 
  1. In order to facilitate your analysis, organise the information you have found. 

Tips: 
  • You may summarise each source of information using key words
  • You may choose to order your articles by chronological order if your focus is to show an evolution of practices
  • You may order your articles following the rules of evidence, i.e. RCT > case report
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
Analyse the information
  1. Prioritise information based on the research objectives. 
  2. Using questions 9 and 10 to help you, select only TWO (2) articles that you will keep for the rest of this assignment. 
  1. Compare and contrast your two (2) sources of information. 
  2. Use the table provided in Appendix A. 
  3. You must complete all the sections. 
  4. Instructions in italics are to be removed.    
  1. You have now thoroughly analysed the information available to you. Now draw conclusions based on your findings.                                                                            
  1. As your findings may be used to establish evidence-based practice, identify one (1) impact your conclusions may have in terms of duty of care requirements.        

  • E.g. in order to do no harm to the clients and prevent disease transmission, all nurses should wear gloves when touching the client.
Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
Use information in practice
  1. Assess one (1) way in which different aspects of information may be used in your workplace.                                                                                               
  1. Using and reflecting on what you have learnt from your research, identify one area for change in your workplace or current practice.                                             
  1. Identify issues that require further research and evaluation.                       
  1. Using one piece of A4 paper or PowerPoint (1 slide) (portrait format), develop a poster or a flyer to address outcomes of research, i.e. select a method to disseminate your findings.
  2. You will be required to scan it and upload it on Blackboard with this assignment. 
  3. Refer to your learning activities 11 and 12 for more ideas about how to do a poster or a flyer using PowerPoint.                                                                                                                      

Tips: 
  • Consider your audience, the time and resources available.
  • It is recommended you adopt a flyer or poster style with a mix of text and pictures – do not put too much information. 
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your actions to verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.


Answer

Research Topic 1

Manual Handling

Introduction

Being enrolled as a new nurse, that has been working in a remote area, has to understand certain practices, which would be beneficial for the wellbeing of the patient and provide optimum care. Manual handling is one of the crucial factors, which has to be safely addressed and guided for the overall care of the patient. The main aim of the essay is to focus on the research and the related factors that could focus on the healthcare professionals and providing appropriate guidelines while handling the patients (Van Hoof, 2018). It is important to understand the role of the manual handling the patients and include strategies that could support and handle it in a diligent manner,

Rationale

As observed, manual handling has been an effective part of providing optimum care in hospitals, but at the same time, there can be consequences or repercussion effects that could lead to other related injuries caused to the health workers or the patients (Richardson, 2018). The importance of the manual handling has been significantly been observed in the “Safe Patient Handling ethical practices and there has been a major issue of how to handle the patients and at the same time, how to support and provide optimum support to the nurses, that can handle the case.  There have been a different way, practices, and techniques, through which manual handling of the patients can be handled in a better manner, after understanding the risk associated with it. The same has been subsequently shown as per the National Back Exchange(NBE) in the UK that has guided in the ways, through which patients can be effectively handled. At the same time, in the USA, how to effectively handle the patients, and include the safe practices, that can be handled in a systematic manner, which has equally been applied in Europe and Australia and New Zealand it is an important concern, that has been included in the Health and Safety in Employment (HSE) Act (1992), and focuses on how to minimize the ways to be handled by the employers to overcome the hazards..

In most of the cases, manual handling can be effectively be done through the below pointers-:

  • Interpreting the risks
  • Have a commitment factor and includes a precautionary measure that could  eliminate the risk
  • Includes clear roles along with achieving responsibilities
  • Should have a proper explanation and understanding related to the individual employees, needs to adhere and provide proper training along with providing/maintaining equipment 
  • Should abide by the monitoring compliance (Powell-Cope, 2018)

While conducting the research, the focus is on the ways of effectively handling the patient manually and how to ensure minimized ways of reducing the risks.

Research Question

Manual handling and how to use an effective techniques to minimize the risk of injury.

Research background 

The research is focused on manual handling and how to appropriately integrate the movement techniques and the lifting technology which would be supportive of any patients. To provide a proper support system, it is important to devise and invest proper suitable equipment and provide proper training to patients and health care staff.  As per the data collections and evidence, generated, there has been a constant issue that has been faced while handling the patient and how it would be appropriate to safely handle the patient, which has been a constant big challenge. At the same time, for nurses, the problems are how to reduce the risks of injury and provide better health care support while handling the patients. For this, health care has to ensure a proper mandate and also provide a proper key requirement that would help ensure the precautions and assessment while being in the facilities, includes the work and training which has been undertaken (Lafleur, 2019). It has been seen how there have been, 12% nurses that are affected and have to seek the 1 out of 6 physiotherapists and potentially have to switch over the jobs. The risk of injury and how the patients are manually handled can provide a piece of significant evidence in ensuring a proper support system financially and emotionally (Goswami, 2017). Safe manual handling has to be handled in a significant manner in complex scenarios.

Research Objective


To understand how the organization's commitment would be able to manage and include the risks associated while handling the patients.

 To access the risk assessment along with devising an action planning processes

Includes a  commitment that would be helpful to measure the reduced risk.

The systems which can help in continuously monitoring and provide proper compliance related to standard practices and policies.

Specific-: to understand the manual handling and risk of injuries caused. 

Measurable-: it is measurable through qualitative research and linking with the nurses voicing opinions.

Attainable-: Deep diving into the research, includes the evidence recorded from the research methodology and having a set of data collection (Cheung 2018).

Realistic-: applies to the nurses and techniques used while handling the patients manually.

Timeline- within 1 year.

Another Discipline

Nursing care has to face complex patient handling tasks and often have to face a high risk of injuries along with facing high musculoskeletal injury rates.  From the semi-structured interviews and surveys, there has been affirmative relation seen in between the injuries faced due to manual handling and at the same time, nurses complaining of the lower back injuries that have risen from the 35 to the 80%. (Cheung, 2018) The research methodology also focuses on the qualitative research and records the nurses discussing and talking about the problems faced due to the manual handling within the healthcare context along with finding ways of injury prevention programs

Listing of Sources

Data collection method

The research methodology is focused on the literature review and included the semi-structured interviews along with the researcher's reflective journaling (Choi, 2016). To draw concrete evidence, the research was framed in critical emancipatory methodology and there have been thirteen nurses that have been included in the study, upon which qualitative research has been conducted.

Keywords

Nursing, includes manual handling, Critical methodology, Emancipatory, Power relations, Voicing qualitative research.

SYSTEMATIC APPROACH

Statement of Objective

Manual handling was the objective of the research and how to draw the research hypothesis around the statement has been an important step.

Data Collection

Includes ways of researching and deep-diving into the qualitative research, including the semi-structured interviews, considering opinions of the nurses and linking it with the lower back injuries has been a critical point.

Data evaluation

Key findings and the conclusion drawn, form the research conducted has been an important step to understand the problems faced by the nurses while doing manual handling. 

Data Analysis

The research and evaluation s focused on better ways to handle the patients manually such as through the techniques or the new equipment, most of the care workers resist changes that would potentially be helpful in reducing the risks and would be effective in handling the patients. 

Findings

Relevance

Manual handling happens when the patients have been handled for continuous improvement and look after an issue to provide safety among nurses through the techniques

Comparison of Articles


Article 1  
Akbari, H., Akbari, H., Abadi, M.B.H., Fesharaki, M.G. and Ghasemi, M., 2017. Assessing the risk of manual handling of patients and its relationship with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff: performance evaluation of the MAPO And PTAI methods. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 19(2).
Article 2 -  
Cheung, K., Szeto, G., Lai, G. and Ching, S., 2018. Prevalence of and factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms in nursing assistants working in nursing homes. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(2), p.265.
Currency 20172018
Study findingsFocuses on the ways of manual handling the patients and resultant   musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staffManual handling and how the factors associated due to work-related musculoskeletal disorders observed in nursing assistants employed in nursing homes.
Strength of studyRules of evidence shown higher cases of the manual handling and risks of developing musculoskeletal disorders observed in nurses.Rules of evidence –shows a relationship in how the patients have been handled at home and nurses developing lower back injuries. 
Relevance to objectivesYes, it provides evidence and also accurately details.Related to the proper evidence and helps to understand the injuries, it relates to the nurses affected due to it. 
Reliability Manual handling and the criticality of the nurses affected due to it. Focus on the data collection and methods drawn
Validity
Internal validity:  has a specific group and focus. 
External validity: It focuses on manual handling problems and the techniques employed.
Internal validity: Focuses on hand hygiene and related factors.
External validity: It focuses on the prevention of injuries and how to handle the patients in a better manner such as equipment used.
BenefitsIt would help focus on reducing chances in musculoskeletal disorder facedThe use of equipment, technologies and how to handle it efficiently.
RisksRisks focus on handling the patients manually and suffering due to lower back injuries.Risks related to the prevention of techniques and handling patients in a better manner.
Feasibility associated with informationwithin healthcare it can be used effectively but not in the homes or a lower space.Workplace and the related issues of facing handling patients in the small set up in comparison to the larger setup.
Conclusions The use of the equipment, techniques and the ways to handle the patients can be integrated into any setup, provided it can reduce the risks associated with the injuries.  As the nurses have to abide by the standard practice it is important to learn and hear their voice concerns or ideas that would focus on manual handling. 


Research Findings

As per the research findings, there has been a constant issue that has been faced while handling the patient and how it would be appropriate to safely handle the patient, which has been a constant big challenge. At the same time, for nurses, the problems are how to reduce the risks of injury and provide better health care support while handling the patients. For this, health care has to ensure a proper mandate and also provide a proper key requirement that would help ensure the precautions and assessment while being in the facilities, includes the work and training which has been undertaken

Conclusion

In the end, to conclude the research, has helped to identify ways to handle patients manually and how to reduce the consequences faced such as injury. The research has identified ways to related to identification and possible ways to reduce to reduce the possible hazards that could be faced in the work by the employees. It is also important in how to handle, educate and also provide a systematic concern that can lead to managing and identifying ways to minimizing the risk and injury (McCrorie,  2017). The consequences, impacts and how one can effectively provide ways to handle in the case of health workers and patients

Impact of Conclusion

As per the research conducted, there has been evidence, due to the increase manual handling of the patients, often the nurses and health care workers suffer to the risk of injuring their backs along with the bodies and at the same time, there have been a substantial problems that could be faced such as injury caused to the musculoskeletal (Jann, 2018).

Relating it with the workplace

As found, that even with the high investment in the new equipment’s and the suitable techniques employed in the healthcare facilities, still most of the nurses and the healthcare people do not wish to use and integrate it. It is stored in the bathrooms or used in the out of the reach of the staff people and they again reposition themselves to handle the patient in a traditional manner. They do not include techniques such as drawing sheets or by  placing a gait belt which would provide a concrete mechanics that would help to safeguard the patients to move and also ensure minimized injuries.

Reflection

In my opinion, it is important to devise and invest proper suitable equipment and provide proper training to patients and health care staff. For this, health care has to ensure a proper mandate and also provide a proper key requirement that would help ensure the precautions and assessment while being in the facilities, includes the work and training which has been undertaken. The risk of injury and how the patients are manually handled can provide a piece of significant evidence in ensuring a proper support system financially and emotionally (Goswami, 2017)

Scope of further research

Safe manual handling has to be handled in a significant manner in complex scenarios

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