In what ways (socio-economic and educational factors, level of economic development, availability of health services and other relevant factors) do the health problems of women in developed countries differ from the health problems of women in developing countries?
1700 words (excluding tables and graphs)
The essay must address the set question and be fully documented and based on a wide range of reading. You may search the appropriate internet sites for references. You are encouraged to make good use of relevant examples, tables and diagrams.
Use grey literature (WHO and other websites as well)
Problems of women in general
Health problems of women between developing and developed countries (including charts, tables, statistics)
Discussion of various social determinants of health behind the women health problem
Introduction and conclusion
The following essay will be discussing about the condition of women in the present century. The essay will be comparing between the conditions of the lives of women living in the first world nations or in the developed countries as well as in the third world nations or the developing countries. Previously, the lives of women were the most difficult and have changed a lot over the last few centuries. Besides the numerous dangers and the diseases that women face in their lives, they were forced to become mothers and wives as they were just stepping towards the maturity. Most of the women often face large number of pregnancies and died at an early age due to various complications in their pregnancies. The report will describe the problems of women that are generally faced by them (Braveman & Gottlieb, 2014). The social determinants of health behind the problems of the women will also be discussed.
Social Determinants of Health
Determinants of health are the different factors that have an influence over the status of health of the individuals and the populations living within a geographical location. At all stages of lives, the health of the people of a particular nation depends upon the complexity in the interactions between socio-economic factors, physical environment of the nation as well as the behavior of the individuals and do not exists in isolation with each other. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada, has identified twelve determinants of health. These are the socio-economic status, the social support networks, education and literacy, employment conditions of the people in the country, the social and the physical environments, practices of personal health among the people, factors affecting child development, biology and genetics endowment, availability of health services, the gender and the culture of the country (Keshavarz Moahmmadi, 2017).
Education, employment, and income are some of the determinants of the socio-economic factors that affects the health status any nations. Education plays the most important role in the development of the socio-economic conditions of a country and the importance has grown with the rise of the knowledge of the country. Due to the advancements in the technology, more and more people are getting involved in the process of learning and other techniques of working. Governments are trying to support life-long learning in order to enable the population of the country to keep pace with the rapid growth of knowledge as well as the employment (Gottlieb et al., 2015). Health is considered as the key driving factor of the productivity of economy as well as social well-being of a nation, yet the changes in the demographic patterns are making the issue difficult for most of the governments of the nations, especially in the developing nations of the world. The more the GDP and economic wellness of a nation, the more healthy are the people of the nations. This is because the government of the country can provide better techniques and opportunities for treatment of various diseases if the people are more educated and involves them more in the employment. Moreover, people living in smoggy and polluted cities and nations, having high amount of lead contamination in the environment, especially in the water supplies are more prone to develop certain disease that are deadly in nature such as different types of cancer. The kids are at more risk of suffering impaired brain development (World Health Organization, 2014).
General Problems of Women
A report by UNESCO in the year 2013 found that globally more than 31 million girls of the age of visiting the primary schools were not sent to the schools; instead, they are made to remain at their home and helped their parents in their household scores, but never completed their primary education. The numbers were more in the developing countries of the world. In countries as wealthy as the United States, the women are still experiencing inequality in the workplaces and has been estimated that the women could only earn $0.77 compared to their male coworkers who earned $1 everyday (Kreuter et al., 2013). While looking at total work done by women as compared to man, it has been found out that women earn only one-tenth of the total income of the world and by working more than two-thirds of the total hours of work. Besides, the women all over the worlds are working more than two shifts a day, which mostly comprises of the household work such as rearing the children and other works. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one in every three women in the world has to face physical and sexual violence in their lifetime (Dillon et al., 2013).
Health problems of women in Developed and Developing Countries
Both women and men do share similar problems in their health, yet women have their different issues in their health that requires special consideration. In most cases, it has been noticed that the health issues of the women remain undiagnosed and most of the drugs are not tested on the females (Caldwell, 1986). In spite of the fact, there are certain diseases that have to borne by women such as cancers in the breast and cervix, pregnancy and menopause. It has been reported that women are more prone to severe diseases such as heart attacks that causes more deaths compared to men. Anxiety and depression are more common among the women. The diseases in the urinary tract as well as the sexually transmitted diseases are more common as well as cause fatal conditions among the females compared to the males.
According to the WHO, in the country of the United States one in every four women are dying due to various hearty diseases (Winikoff, 1988). Though most of the common people of the nation do consider the issue to be most common among the male population, the condition affect both the gender equally. Despite the fact, only 54 percent of women realize that the problems in their heart are one of the top concerns that are threatening them widely. About 49 percent of the total population of women is suffering from hypertension or high blood pressure. The most important cause behind the fact is the women are more involved in the habits of smoking, consumption of alcohol, which leads to the contribution of heart diseases (McGowan, 2018).
Heart Disease among women in the US
Deaths caused due to Heart Diseases among women in the US
In the developing countries such as India, sudden cardiac arrests are more common among the people who are already suffering from heart diseases. A survey conducted by UNICEF, revealed that about 48 percent women in the age group of 40-60 years had the highest abnormality in the tests of the lipid profile, which is the most common cause of deaths in the country. The survey also stated that more than 50 per cent of the populations of women are living with an abnormality in the levels of cholesterol, an indication of the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases (Santhya & Dasvarma, 2002). The habits of smoking and diabetes have stronger impact on the heart diseases among women compared to the men.
People Suffering from heart diseases in India
The lifestyle of the people around the globe has a great impact on the occurrence of heart diseases in several countries of the world (Berkman, Kawachi & Glymour, 2014). The social environment and the imbalances of the social determinants have attributed to the inequalities in the health that has been found within and among the nations of the world. It has been observed that the developed countries such as the United States are more prone to different types of hearty diseases compared to the developing countries such as India. This is because of the difference in the lifestyles of the people followed in these nations. In the US, people are more dependent on the packed food rather consuming the fresh food like most of the agrarian societies such as India (Di Cesare et al., 2013). Moreover, the people living in the US and other developed countries more often depend on the junk food, follow a sedentary lifestyles that results in low physical activity, leading to increase in the blood pressure and high levels of cholesterol among the people.
Another most common disease in the women is the breast cancer that typically originates in the lining of the mammary glands and spread to other organs as well. This considered as the most aggressive cancer that have affected the population of the females globally. About one in every eight women in the United States (12.4% approx.) has developed invasive breast cancer over the course of her life (Alkema,et al., 2016). In the year 2018, it has been estimated that about 2.6 million new cases of invasive breast cancers are expected to be diagnosed along with 63,960 new cases of non-invasive or in-situ breast cancer. It has been reported that about 85 percent of the cases of breast cancers among the women in the US is due to the hereditary causes of and history of such cancers in the family (.
The Indian Council of Medical Research recently estimated there are chances of having more than 17 lakh new cases of cancer and over eight lakh of death by the year 2020 due to the rapid occurrences of breast cancer among the Indian women (Boserup, Tan & Toulmin, 2013). In India, about 14 lakh cases of breast cancer have been recorded in the year 2016. In India, the rate of breast cancer is on rise with 25.8 per one million women and mortality of 12.7 per one million women. India continues to have a low survival rate for breast cancer is 66.1 percent of the population of women diagnosed with the disease (Cleland ., & Ferry, 2013).
Cervical cancers became one of the most common causes of deaths among the American women, which dropped significantly with the increase in the use of Pap test. The Pap test is the screening procedure that is conducted in order to diagnose changes in the cervix prior to the development of cancer (Sen & Grown, 2013). This cancer occurs among the women of the age of 35-44 years and rarely develops in women younger than 20 years of age. Most of the women do not realize the development of this cancer is still present at their age. It has been reported that more than 15 percent of the cases of cervical cancers are found among the women above the age of 65 years. These cancers are very rare among those women who are regularly taking up the tests. The Hispanic women are most likely to be suffering from cervical cancer (Ferlay et al., 2015).
In the developing country such as India, one woman dies due to cervical cancer in every eight minutes. The occurrence of death among the women due to cervical cancer is very high. According to the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, NICPR for every two women who are diagnosed with breast cancer, there is death of a single woman. Rural women are highly prone to cervical cancer as compared to the persons living in the urban areas (Siegel, DeSantis & Jemal, 2014). The disease is less common among the women following Islamism compared to the women following Hinduism. The cervical cancer is the third largest cause of mortality dude to cancer among women in India and accounts for about 10 percent of all the deaths related to cancer in the country (Mallath, et al., 2014).
Breast and Cervical Cancers in the US
Breast and Cervical Cancers in India
The incidences of cancers are declining in most of the developed nations of the world. This is due to the reduction in the risk factors such as improvement and advancement in the process of screening and treatment procedures (Denny et al., 2017) However, the scenario is completely opposite=e in the low income and developing nations of the world. The incidences of cancer and the rate of mortality due to the spread of the disease are quite high and are expected to be increasing more rapidly. The high rate of mortality due to cancers is mainly due to lack of adequate infrastructure of health and healthcare experts in the developing nations. The cancer screening rate is very low in most of the developed nations (Smith et al., 2013).
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Women are affected with the virus or HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. Presently, women account for about 20 percent of the newly developed infections in the United States. Among the several ethnic groups living in the United States, the Blacks, represent the majority of the population of women living with the disease and accounts for the major group that has been diagnosed with the newly developed infections (2017 GLOBAL HIV STATISTICS, 2018). Presently, more than 1.1 billion people are living with AIDS in the nation of the United Sates among which more than 2.7 million or about 24 percent are women. In 2010, women accounted for more than 20 percent of the newly developed infections, resulting in decrease to about 21 percent from the rates in the year 2008. About 26 percent of women died due to HIV in the year 2010. Most of the women having HIV have been infected due to heterosexual contact, accounting for 84 percent of the total population of women suffering from HIV (Li et al., 2014).
HIV among women in the US
India is the third largest nation that is has people suffering from the epidemic of the HIV. In the year 2016, the prevalence of the disease was estimated to be about 0.3 percent (Baral et al., 2013). However, the figure is very small compared to most of the middle-income nations of the world, due to the high growth in the population of the country, this values equates to about 2.1 percent. The most common cause of the spread of disease in the country is due to the involvement of the women in heterosexual activity as well as high amount of prostitution within the country (Deering et al., 2013).
HIV among Indian women
Most of the states of India were involved in an age-old practice of ‘devdasi’ or being servant to the lords (Katz et al., 2013). Most of the women had to live in the temples and were brutally tortured and sexually abused by the priests and the caretakers of the temples, which lead to spreading of HIV in the country. The northeastern states of the country consume large amount of drugs, especially those that are consumed by means of injections and syringes. The sharing of these syringes between a HIV affected person and a non-HIV person spread the disease to the people who are not affected by the disease. Besides, there is high rate of practice of prostitution in the country and the disease is spread through them (Dean & Fenton, 2013). The developed nations of the world such as the US also have a high rate of HIV due to involvement of young women in heterosexual relationship.
The main aim of the essay is to discuss about the differences of the health problems faced by women in the developed and the developing nations of the world. It has been noted that the lives of the women in all the nations are very poor, although it seems to have been developed in the last few decades. Most of the women have to face large number of pregnancies and complications in them cause fatal loss of lives. The health of the people is mostly dependent on various factors of the nation the people and is known as the determinants of health. The people of the developed nations of the world are healthier compared to the people of the developing nations. There are fewer death rates in the developed nations such as the United States due to different diseases compared to that of India, which is still in its developmental stage.