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Critique of Research paper on Type one Diabetes


Question:

Type 1 diabetes: children and adolescents’ knowledge and questions.

Activity 1

  1. Evaluate the research title and aims.
  2. Evaluate the research design/method used.
  3. Evaluate the literature review within the research paper.

Activity2

  1. Evaluate the population/sample
  2. Evaluate the selection/recruitment strategy
  3. Evaluate the data collection methods

Activity3

  1. Evaluate the ethical considerations, including the potential for bias
  2. Evaluate the data analysis/results/findings, including the implications for practice.


Answer

Introduction

Diabetes is a common disease nowadays and more than 180 million people are suffering from diabetes worldwide. Market study shows that this figure is likely to be doubled in the coming years. Diabetes can be defined as the disease in which the level of glucose or blood sugar tends to be increased. Insulin refers to a hormone in the human body that helps the blood sugar or glucose to get absorbed by the cells and provide them with energy. In that regards, type 1 kind of diabetes refers to a condition where the body stops producing any kind of insulin. In context to this, attempts have been made in the study to provide a detailed description of the impact of Type 1 diabetes on children and adolescents and the way they can be made aware of the disease. In addition to that, efforts have been made in the study to illustrate the validity of the research title and its aims. Furthermore, the study also illustrates the findings of the research article and provides a critical analysis of the same. 

Activity 1

Research aim and title

Evidently, the aim of this comprehensive research article is to assess the knowledge about Type 1 diabetes among the adolescents and children and the way they can be made more aware about the complexities of the disease. In accordance with the research article, the onset of the type 1 diabetes usually happens among mainly the children and adolescents and may lead to serious complications (American Diabetes Association, 2014). Through the study the authors have attempted to create awareness among the children and adolescents about the various implications of the disease may lead to and thereby encouraging them to adopt effective ways in order to eliminate the same. In the study, it is noted that, the researchers have attempted to evaluate and make a critical analysis of the pre-existing knowledge among the people and remove any kind of vague or misconceptions about the disease. The main concern of the study is evidently to initiate a effective management system to create awareness among the people and develop a set of practices that will help the patients to tackle the complexities. In addition to that, the study also attempts to describe the outlook of the people who are suffering from type 1 diabetes. 

Research design

It is evident from the study that a qualitative and descriptive research design method has been adopted. It is noted that, the selected research article actually forms part of a larger study that has attempted to examine the living conditions adopted by a family with a child with type 1 diabetes. 


A qualitative research study usually adopts a design method that is based on a perspective of social constructivism and the collection of data involves interview, archival data or thorough observation of the participant’s behavior. In other words, it refers to those studies that attempt to provide a detailed and descriptive analysis of the study rather than providing quantitative data. On the other hand, a descriptive research study refers to a study that is designed to illustrate the responses of the participants in an accurate manner (Dabelea et al. 2014). In this type of study, the researcher aims to provide an in-depth knowledge about the research subject. Evidently, in the selected research journal has attempted to provide a detailed and descriptive analysis of the knowledge of individuals in regards to type 1 diabetes through the conduct of an interview. Additionally, they have attempted to provide a qualitative analysis of the findings of the research study. 

Literature review

According to Roper et al. (2009), there are more than 180 million people that are affected by diabetes currently and the figures are more likely to increase in the future. According to the research of the world Health Organization, in the United States of America, approximately 1 of every 600 children are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes due the inability to produce insulin within the body. Usually it is noted that, the onset of the type 1 diabetes happens mostly among the children or among adolescents and if they are not provided with proper care, it may lead to serious complications in the future. As stated by, adolescents or children with higher degree of knowledge about the disease tends to possess a better metabolic control as compared to individuals with less knowledge. In the study, the researcher has attempted to link the level of knowledge with that of the adherence to treatment in relation to metabolic control. 


However, according to Khunti et al. (2015), the possession of knowledge is not the sole factor for determining the rate of metabolic control. Nevertheless, research study shows that, lack of knowledge about diabetes is one of the primary reasons for mismanagement of health. In accordance with Roper et al. (2009), due to the complexities involved in the management of diabetes, the children and adolescents need to enhance their skills and knowledge as a beginning step towards management of diabetes and metabolic control. 

Activity 2

Evaluation of the sample size

As evident from the previous section of the study, the primary aim of the study is to assess the level of knowledge about type 1 diabetes among the younger age group primarily the children and the adolescents. In that regards, the researchers taking a sample of 58 individuals that mostly comprised of children and adolescents conducted an interview. It is evident from the research journal that, the researchers used purposive sampling method in order to recruit 58 adolescents and children between the age group of 8 to 18 years with type 1 diabetes. Mostly the recruitments were done of children diagnosed with diabetes from the diabetes summer camps, from regional hospitals and though referrals (Inzucchi et al. 2015). It is noted that the sample for the interview was sufficient for the researcher to conduct the interview and get a saturated result. Evidently, the mean age of the participants were between 13 to 10 years (SD = 2.61), out of which approximately 64 % were female. It was noted that they were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mostly at the age of 5-6 years (Median = 4.00; SD = 3.6). Notably, the level of HbA1c among the participants were 8.17 (SD = 1.15 and Median = 8.10). For the purpose of the study and in order to make a better analysis, the HbA1c level was calculated as the average of the previous 3 - 4 readings of the HbA1c readings before the conduct of interview (Roper et al. 2009). 

Evaluation of selection strategy

It is evident that, in order to get correct responses from the participants and make an apt analysis of the data collected, it is essential for the researchers to select the correct participants of the study. In line with the aim of the study that states that attempts to assess the knowledge possessed by the children and adolescents about diabetes, the researchers have tried to select the appropriate participants for the conduct of interview.  It is noted in the study that the researchers have selected the participants that comprises mostly of the children within the age group of 8 to 18 years who are affected by type 1 diabetes (Atkinson, Eisenbarth & Michels, 2014). This gave the researchers with enough scope to assess the conditions of the patients and the impact the disease had on them. It also helped them to get a clear understanding of the methods adopted by the patients for better management of the disease. In addition to that, as diabetes affects people of both gender, the researchers have attempted to include individuals of both the age group while conducting the interview. 

Evaluation of the methods of data collection

The study states that the researchers eventually completed the data collection in the year 2005. It is noted in the study that, the participants, mostly of which were children were interviewed at their homes or in some private locations. In accordance with research methods adopted by Van Riper (1997), the researchers have adapted the interview and asked the participants a total of close-ended questions that was followed by probation. The initial questions were related to the level of knowledge possessed by the children regarding the type 1 diabetes (Kostic et al. 2015). The rest of the questions were related to the information that the participants would like to know about the disease they were suffering from. These questions were noted to be open-ended questions and most of the participants responded in accordance with their current situation. It is noted that the responses of the participants were recorded and a transcript of the same was verbatim. In order to maintain the viability of the records they were checked for their accuracy. This not only helped the researchers to collect the data in a well-structured manner, but in making a proper analysis of the same as well. 

Activity 3

Evaluation of the ethical consideration

Before the conduct of any study, it is essential to get prior approvals of the concerned authorities in order to remove any kind of ambiguity in the future. It is very important to maintain the ethical considerations in relation to a particular research study. Since all the participants of the study were patients, it becomes essential for the researcher to take extra care while dealing with them. Adhering to the ethical codes of conducts not only helps in proper and smooth conduct of the study but in better data collection and analysis (Pettitt et al. 2014). It is noted that, before the conduct of the study, the children and the adolescents duly signed a consent or assent forms thereby agreeing to participate in the interview. In addition to that, guardian or parental consent was also obtained for the younger participants such that no confusion is created in the future while conducting the interview. This not only helped the researchers to go ahead with the study but gave them permission to ask the necessary questions in lieu with the concerned study as well. In addition to that, adhering to the ethical considerations also helped in better interaction among the interviewee and the participants. 

Evaluating the analysis of data

After the collection of the necessary data, it is essential for the researchers to conduct a proper analysis of the same in order to interpret the findings of the study. It is evident from the research article that, the researchers have opted for an inductive analysis in order to locate the themes related to the interview process. It is noted that, in the initial phase of the study few of the researchers have identified the primary themes of the study using certain open coding methods. The next step involved, crosschecking the selected themes of the study, making amendments of them as desired through discussion and redefining them accordingly (Onengut-Gumuscu et al. 2015). In addition to that, a second set of researcher were involved in doing a second reading of the responses and made certain modifications accordingly. This involved identification of categories of the responses and placing them accordingly and collapsing some of the previously selected themes as well. It is noted that the researches through application of selective coding process identified the desired exemplars of the themes and the categories of the responses. Additionally, the passages were double coded if it was seen to apply more than one theme.  

Conclusion

In light of the above study made it a can be established that, the research article can be termed as the first step in the process of identification of the consequences and the complexities involved with type 1 diabetes and the way it affects the lives of the children and the adolescents. In the above study, Roper et al. (2009) made a thorough analysis on the research article. From the above study, it is noted that the researchers have attempted to present a qualitative and descriptive research study following an inductive method of data analysis. It is evident that the primary concern of the study was to assess the level of knowledge possessed by the children and adolescents and to create awareness about type 1 diabetes among individuals. For this purpose, it is noted that the researchers have attempted to conduct an interview among the children and adolescents through selection of purposive sample. In addition to that, this research will help other researchers and individuals in further research on the subject. 

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