CS5551 Research Methods: Assessing the Evidence about E-Participation Assessment Answer
Title: Assessing the Evidence about E-Participation
The research proposal would focus on the e-participation as the term of referring to the ICT supporting participation process that is involved in the government and governance procedures. The process is related in the administrative governance with the public figure for the growth and development factor of the observation. A different approach of e-participation for the political factors would clearly be observed in the research proposal for carrying out the research process very suitably. In the second chapter, several past researches on the subject will described along with the statistical data observation.
Technology has been captured in every area of human life that has a positive impact on reducing time-consuming factors in the sectors. The e-participation is a suitable approach in the government sector to implement technology for a higher level of development initiatives. As mentioned by Jho and Song (2015), "the use of information and communication technologies to broaden and deepen political participation by enabling citizens to connect and with their elected representatives". E-participation has appeared as the social media approach in very fast. The next step is taken to make the approach suitable and justified by the procedure of making effective coordination between the service provider and the service users. The term e-participation is highly taken in the government sector to ensure the participation of the citizen in the political factor to maintain effectiveness. ICT is a suitable approach in media politics that improved the procedure of making a higher level of participant observation in the workplace (Zheng, 2017). The top and down government approach on the business is suitable and sustainable in the process of making operational efficiency of the government sector. ICT by the government is generally used to carry out the election for the political parties and the process of having proper decision making. Along with the government sector, the e-participation is used in the business organisation through the online and offline process to deal with more participants observation on the company.
The research study aims to evaluate different types of e-participation approach along with their positive and negative impact on the sectors. Furthermore, the research aims to observe e-participation approach on the government section to involve people in the political factor.
- To determine evidence about the e-participation in several sectors
- To explain the role of e-participation on the democratic decision-making process
- To explain the different e-participation approach in the government sector
- To examine the model and principles of e-participation in the democrat
- What is the evidence about the e-participation in several sectors?
- What are the roles of e-participation on the democratic decision-making process?
- What are the different e-participation approaches in the government sector?
- What are the model and principles of e-participation in the democrat?
What work has been done already in the topic area?
The concept of e-participation approach:
Better decision-making process and better participation process relatively needs a way to deal with the growth and development of the organisation. As opined by Janowski (2015), Technological innovation in the government sector has been presented in terms of electronic participation to make active and progressive politics with the supportive approach of the citizen. The e-Participation and e-inclusion are suitable forms of electronic involvement, such as forums, will also be expanded as required in the government and business sector for the higher level of the improvement process. The approach of electronic participation is generated by the implication of information and communication technology (Ochara and Mawela, 2015). Democratic decision-making can be generated very properly by the implication of the approach. As per viewpoints of Liddy et al. (2013), in several areas, the electronic participation can be used very suitably in order to deal with the higher connectivity approach. E-Consultation and E-Voting; trades union activity; and citizen journalism are the typical areas where the e-participation approach is mostly used along with its effective impact.
Different e-participation approach:
E-participation is carried out through the offline approach. Several traditional public participation methods are formalized in the workplace for the development prospect. As stated by Kim and Lee (2012), Referenda are an important way to make public participation is involved through the electronic voting system in order to deal with the higher level of people participating in the political prospect. A public opinion survey is another e-participation approach through the online process. The survey can be carried out through the telephonic interview and via written question set observation. Focus group observation is another important approach in the workplace to maintain a higher level of participants’ observation and to make effective process on the observation (Patsakis et al. 2015).
Participation online :
·E-Consultation Online deliberation
· Information provision online
· Community building / Collaborative e-environments
·E-Campaigning, including e-Petitioning
All the above procedures are a suitable approach to make the active level of participants’ observation process in the workplace for the determination process. A per viewpoints of Emmer and Kunst (2018), ICT enabled to make democratic citizenship approach by increasing their involvement in the decision-making. The normative value of the approach is suitable and sustainable for the improvement of consultation and deliberation process. The participation approach of government provides a very quick approach to them in the process of making operational efficiency (Stier, 2015). In the case of taking a democratic decision, it can be said that suitable initiatives can be taken for the maintenance and management of operational efficiency (Bataineh and Abu-Shanab, 2016). The most important factor is that the participation approach is helpful for the long term maintenance of citizen involvement in the democratic decision-making process.
Principles of e-participation
There are ten guiding principles that help to evaluate the major principles of e-participation in government activity and other areas.
Commitment: Demonstration of the leadership is the main principles that help to maintain a key objective of e-participation (Sorensen and Torfing, 2018).
Rights: In every kind of e-participation form, the participants should be given the right to give their choice. Restriction cannot take place in the course of action (Zolotov, Oliveira and Casteleyn, 2018).
Clarity: Demonstration of clarity is the main objectivity of the citizen. The government cannot hamper the process.
Time: Proper demonstration of sufficient time allocation can be considered as the most important approach in this course of action.
Evaluation: The mechanism can be demonstrated very properly in order to understand the authorities to evaluate their performance at each phase of participation
Objectivity: Nature of the information must be observed collectively where effective participation of the governing body is needed in order to deal with the process of making operational efficiency factor (Bataineh and Abu-Shanab, 2016)
Resource: Observation on the adequate resources can be considered to the most important approach in the course of action. As stated by Niewiadomski and Anderson (2018), Technical assessment, financial stability and human resource approach must be maintained very suitably in order to deal with the procedure very properly.
Co-ordination: Internal-integrity and relationship management process can be considered to be an important approach in the process of making the observation effective.
Accountability: Feedback assessment can be considered to be an important procedure in the development of the approach. The most significant factor is that the efficient approach of innovation can be determined by the implication of information and communication technology (Androutsopoulou et al. 2018).
Active citizenship: Encouraging civic activism by increasing capacities and skills of the citizen is the major approach in this process. Act as per the need of the citizen can be considered to be an important process in the process (Kubicek and Aichholzer, 2016).
Importance of openness and inclusiveness
The main reason for e-participation is to maintain more openness and inclusiveness with participation. By the e-participation, it can be said that the governing body can be able to make more connectivity with the people. As opined by Chang (2018), Electronic media provide a faster way to make a proper observation with the participants. In most of the time, political decision may create choice among the people in the country. The process is very much helpful in order to deal with the Development Factor Management Process (Royo and Yetano, 2015). Another important factor is that the validity of the ten important principles can be determined by the implication of the process. Legal rights and legal measurement can be determined very positively by the implication of the procedure and the framework for the e-participation (Wirtz, Daiser and Binkowska, 2018).
Models of e-participation:
E-Participation model is applicable in the socio-political phenomenon where political aspects can be determined very properly in the course of action (Porwol, , Ojo and Breslin, 2018). ICT enabled civil development through the participation of more people in the political decision-making process. The procedure has an effective impact on engaging the citizen in the political decision-making process. Hassan and Hamari (2019) said that by the application of the models' information sharing process and the information management process in the government sector can be determined very suitably, and the model has the efficiency to maintain operational evaluation of the public approach in the several sectors.
(Source: Zheng, 2017)
The first parameter of the procedure is the decision-making policy guideline where information on the internet can be shared to the people to give their valuable opinion on the process. The second step is the e-consultation stages where suitable consultation can be taken place in order to deal with the process management observation (Zheng, 2017). The procedure is highly determinative and effective to maintain effective decision making for the overall development prospect. The proper decision-making process can do observation done suitably in order to maintain people's participation in the decision-making approach.
What research methods will you use?
Research philosophy positivism will be applicable in the research as by the investigation of phenomena empirical measurement would be carried out. The evaluation of empirical measurement will be carried out by the observation of secondary data collection. The most significant factor is that as the process of data collection in the research will be secondary, then meta-theoretical observation would take place in the course of action (Padilla-Díaz, 2015). The procedure has suitable in the process of making an effective data collection approach. The research on the e-participation needs a logical approach to established its positive impact on democracy. Authentic observation is needed by gathering logical data from the existing sources.
Descriptive research design will apply in the research for data gatherings. Descriptive would take place by analysing secondary data on the e-participation. Several empirical studies provide efficiency to determine the dependent and independent variable on the research. Descriptive research design will be helpful for the research that is conducted by analysing theoretical observation of the e-participation in different areas (McNabb, 2015). The process is very helpful in order to deal with the development process of the research. Research authenticity would be maintained by the implication of the effective approach of the e-participation strategy and framework.
The deductive approach will use in the research where information deduction will take place. By the assessment of several secondary sources, information would deduce very properly. The process has an effective impact on the observation method of the research. The literature review will be helpful for the research to have an effective approach to the information gathering process. Several existing literature on the subject matter of the topic provides clear evidence on the process of determination and effectiveness (Zalaghi and Khazaei, 2016). Information assessment helps to assume the best approach to the method of data collection. Several statistical observation on the approach can be determined by the application of the approach.
Secondary data analysis will be an application in the research. The data analysis is based on the existing data observation process. The process helps to analyse the key objective of the research process. The secondary data analysis has a sustainable process to make an in-depth observation of the impact of e-participation on democracy improvement. Impact of ICT in the political factor determination can be evaluated very significantly in this course of action. Secondary data analysis will allow the researcher to gather authentic data of previous research study along with lots of statistical observance on the subject matter (Johnston, 2017).
The researcher will face time limitation while carrying out the research process. Time limitation of the research negatively impacted on the process of data collection. The research process has suitability and efficiency to make observance on the process of making an observation. Another limitation of the research is the budget, as the research on e-participation needs vast observation to get a suitable outcome. The method of data collection has an effective impact, but the issue remains on the availability of the research data. Biased nature of the data will be a limitation in order to carry out the research work.
Remain constant on ethical consideration will be essential for the research that the researcher needs to maintain. Principles of Data Protection Act 1988 should be maintained in terms of carrying out the research. The researcher will not manipulate the collected data from the secondary sources (Wallace and Sheldon, 2015). The researcher would use authentic sources while carrying out research. Once the research would complete the researcher will destroy the data. Collected data in the research cannot hamper sentiment of the participant.
What type of data will you need to collect?
Data collection method with justification:
Thematic data collection method would carry out in the research to have the proper observation. In the thematic analysis, several data sources will examine by the researcher in order to maintain the process of observation (Braun et al. 2019). The procedure has effectiveness in making a suitable observation of the process. Current literature and case studies on the e- participation would take in observation for the maintenance of the data selection method of observation. Apart from that, the procedure is helpful for maintaining suitable research outcome on the impact and evidence examination of e-participation on the citizen.
Here participants refer to the case studies where several pieces of evidence on the e-participation has been under consideration to make proper data assessment. Statistical observation is helpful for maintaining effective observation of the data evaluation process.
How long will your project take?
Project schedule brief discussion:
The project schedule would be divided into two parts. The first part will be done on the research proposal that will take eight weeks. The proposal will provide stats on the first week of March and complete on the last week of April. On the other way, the dissertation will take place from the First week of May and complete on the last week of September. Every week updates will give to the principle.
Gantt chart for proposal:
|Activity||Week 1||Week 2||Week 3||Week 4||Week 5||Week 6||Week 7||Week 8|
|Introduction to the research topic|
|Aim and objective formulation|
|Research methods selection|
|Data analysis paper collection|
|Final draft submission|
Timeline for dissertation:
|Activity||Week 1 and 2||Week 3 and 4||Week 5 and 6||Week 7||Week 8 and 9||Week 10 and 11||Week 12 and 13||Week 14 and 15||Week 16 and 17||Week 18||Week 19||Week 20|
|Revision of research objective|
|Revision of research methods|
|Secondary data collection|
The research provides clear evidence on the e-participation approach to involve citizen. Both the theoretical and statistical data would be observed suitably for the process of making operational efficiency. In the research methodological chapter several research methods would describe along with its justification to carry out the research process suitably.