1. Critical Insight (40%)
To what degree have you explored the problem and its underlying causes? To what degree have you been able to identify a likely or evidenced unintended consequence or consequences?
2. Evidence (30%)
Is this insight linked to evidence drawn from quality sources (as defined in the task description? Has a minimum of ten such quality sources been properly used (that is understood, discussed, and referenced). Have you demonstrated the ability to evaluate the quality of the evidence?
3. Presentation and communication (30%)
Have you presented the wicked problem, responses and unintended consequences in a clear way? Have you checked your work and ensured it has minimal errors and is consistently and clearly formatted? In cases where you have used additional materials (e.g. graphs), do these additional materials add value to your case? Does your submission show appropriate and accurate (APA) referencing?
GLOBAL FOOD PROBLEM
Global food issue can be considered as one of the alarming issues worldwide due to increasing undernourishment around the world. In this regard, current analysis is based on global food problems, which affects different parts of progressive nations. The current analysis deals with the underlying causes of global food issues along with issue exploration. Investigation of the consequences of the global food problem is considered within current field of study. A comparative study between the quality resources and evidence can be observed through the analysis. Most importantly, the capability of evaluating selected pieces of evidence is being identified through the analysis.
An in-depth analysis of the global food problem can be gathered through the current situation around the world. As commented by Bennett (2012), a sharp contrast among the nations can be observed in perspective of the global food problem. Some nations have showcased promising development in the food issues whereas the rest of the countries emerged as unable to maintain consistency with their results. Supporting the view Elver (2015) opined that victim of chronic hunger has been increased to 1billion whereas over-nourishment has affected approximately 2billion people. 98% of the hungry people are living in developing nations due to inequity and poverty. As reported in FAO statistics, 7 billion people can be fed with the existing food (FAO, 2018). The situation has started worsening since 2014 and estimation of the report illustrates a rise of 821 million by 2017.
Figure 1: Undernourished people in the world
(Source: FAO, 2018)
The inequity in the distribution of resources has incurred challenges for the livelihood of a section of people. Mokari Yamchi et al. (2018) conveyed that food security is a matter of concern for people around the world. As per the estimation of the World Health Organisation (WHO), almost 1 million children die and 20 million children suffer due to severe malnutrition (Bennett, 2012). Apart from this, analysis of the impact of malnutrition and hunger in life cycle has offered insights into the significant global issues, which are related to food.
Figure 2: Impact of hunger and malnutrition throughout the life cycle
(Source: Bennett, 2012)
Low birthweight has emerged as a serious issue, which is increasing due to global food problem. Alongside babies, child, adolescent, pregnant women and older people are suffering around the world due to malnutrition or obesity (Breeman, Dijkman & Termeer, 2015). However, a key reason behind the leftover of global food issue can be observed as a lack of concern regarding the problem. Cowen (2012) discussed that food price has emerged as a serious issue in the context of current food challenges. As for an example, the maximum part of American corn depends on bio-fuels, where ethanol is the main component. Almost 40% of the corn in American agriculture goes to bio-fuel. However, the policy of subsidy has prevented poor people to get rid of the issue.
Climate change, food policies, crony capitalism and other issues can be discussed in light of current challenges. It is reported in FAO (2018) that the prevalence of undernourishment (PoU) has impacted approximately 21% African population. The situation in South America is going massively concerning from 2014 and PoU level increased by 0.3% and figured as 5%. Similarly, almost 515 million people in Asia have been considered under projected PoU and this can eradicate the hunger as targeted by SDG by 2030. In some region of the world, hunger has increased due to lack of food whereas some parts belong to the access to excess food consumption. Lack of access has resulted in malnutrition whereas obesity is causing due to over-consumption of food.
Adverse consequences of global food issue can be identified through the critical analysis of current challenges. Massive influence of junk foods can be observed in the third world countries whereby the rate of disease has enhanced significantly. Pueppke et al. (2015) stated that the health condition of people, leaving in the US, is scaling down notably. Weight gain is observed as a serious problem in different parts of the USA and thereby obesity has identified as a serious issue. As per the analysis of WHO report, cancer, diabetes and heart-related issues have been observed drastically growing around the nation. Due to the excessive consumption of junk food, the issue has been observed within people (Abdulkadyrova et al. 2016). The report of WHO states that out of 1 billion over-weight people almost 300 million are listed as obese. The consequence can be identified as poor nutrition among the people due to lack of access to healthy foods.
Figure 3: Impact of various forms of malnutrition on productivity and lifetime earnings
(Source: Bennett, 2012)
Hunger is considered under the list of unstoppable disasters where third world floods and droughts are caused due to the food crisis. Cowen (2012) delineated that the rate of food crisis has doubled itself from 1992 to 2004. The high nutrition plants are eliminated from the list of farming and small-scale farmers are replaced with large-scale agribusiness. Therefore, global shift of food production can be observed in spite of local scale deprivation. International investors in European nations have grabbed approximately 227 million hectares of land through a lease (OECD Observer, 2019). The immense influence of global sponsors has harmed the business of small-scale farmers whereby hunger has accelerated around the world. Besides this, the global projection of population growth by 2050 has observed as 2 billion. The massive inclination in the population can be identified as a serious challenge in the context of global hunger enhancement.
Food security concerns are escalating drastically within the business domain and cash crops have replaced a significant section of local consumption. IFPRI (2018) elicited that the practice of unhealthy diet has created a major impact on the food security of people. Furthermore, current era is identified as an era of technology. Application of technology for the increased production of food has impacted the lifestyle of people in a serious manner. Due to this reason, people around the world are becoming soft targets of the food problem. Sustainability in the agricultural practices has affected negatively due to unethical practices of farming. The FAO demonstrated result has indicated the production of agriculture as a key driving factor behind the climate change (Ampglobalyouth, 2019).
Intensive use of pesticides and harmful fertilizers has deteriorated the quality of soil of a massive area. Additionally, the practice of deforestation has added another negative dimension to the increasing GHG emission (WFP, 2018). Almost 5-10 million hectares of land losses the quality of soil due to intensive farming practices. Most importantly, wastage of food has emerged as a serious challenge and it is measured that world may face a gap of 20% food by 2050 due to the practice of food waste. As investigated through the analysis of Ampglobalyouth (2019), 1.3 billion tons of food wasted by people annually. Nevertheless, 800 million people have slept hungry every day along with 2 billion micronutrient deficient people. Despite this, it has been observed that 2.1 billion people are overweight (FAO, 2018). Therefore, it is mandatory to restrict the waste of food to prevent global food problem.
The food security is an effort to secure the livelihood of people in a global context. However, alongside food security the approach can benefit several other aspects of the business. As reported in USDA (2019), the food security approach can effectively reduce the impact of poverty and thereby growth sectors can be improved. Nevertheless, the ambient environment can be created through the quality access policy. The wide range of positive impacts of food security involves economic growth, poverty reduction, vacancy creation for the youngsters, enhanced opportunities of trading, developed global stability and business security and improved healthcare. As reported in the Global Hunger Index (2017), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to eliminate poverty and hunger can be improved significantly through the food security approaches. The food demand may rise by 60% from the current food demand by 2050 and achieving the requirement 9 billion people can be fed with the food (FAO, 2018).
Figure 4: Projected population growth (in billions)
(Source: Weforum, 2019)
There are several factors related to the global food problem where population growth is listed with top priority. Besides this, changing taste of people, climate change, water scarcity and farmers trouble are considered as key reasons behind the adoption of food security (Weforum, 2019). Meanwhile, restriction of food waste is focused on the food security approach to ensure the equal distribution of resources among the people.
Figure 5: Per capita food waste, kg/year
(Source: Weforum, 2019)
It has been identified through the intense analysis of the current per capita food waste that Latin America wastes maximum food within a global context. Followed by Latin America, Europe, North America and Oceania, North Africa, West and Central Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia are focused during the analysis of food waste (Weforum, 2019). Therefore, the adoption of food security can ensure the food for all and thereby massive waste can be reduced. In a similar vein, as prescribed by USDA (2019), food production enhancement for agricultural markets, enhancement of crop production, improvement of developing nation’s agricultural market and other crucial aspects of the business can be identified through the incorporation of food safety.
The mitigation strategy for the global food problem can be observed as the implementation of effective communication. The global food problem is categorized among the wicked problems and it is evident to point out a solution for the problem. Breeman, Dijkman & Termeer (2015) demonstrated that using the vision of multi-stakeholders, global food issues can be resolved. However, through effective communication approaches the leading factors behind critical issues can be identified. As for an example, the relation between food production and diabetes can be pointed out through the appropriate communication. Therefore, using the knowledge people can avoid the key factors behind disease and thereby issue mitigation can become easier.
It is evident that the nature of the wicked problem is complex compared to other issues. Thus, it is mandatory to find out a significant solution for a wicked problem. Bennett (2012) highlighted that synergy between bottom-up and top-down along with localized and memetic approaches can offer a critical solution for the complex wicked problem like global food problem (Pueppke et al. 2015). The position of governing hierarchy’s power can be focused on a top-down approach and lay people’s agency can be highlighted through the bottom-up approach.
Figure 6: Wicked solution
(Source: Bennett, 2012)
It is important to evaluate the impact of cross-culture on the food habits of people to determine ideal foods. The memetic approach can be considered as such replication of the design whereby cross-cultural locations and populations can be pointed out. However, an opposite scenario can be identified for the localized approach where it deals with a small population (Bennett, 2012). In this regard, the outcome is limited and singular in nature for the localized approach. Hence, emphasizing on the key solution the global food problem can be mitigated successfully. In order to eliminate the food problem within a global context, sustainable access to safe as well as good food is mandatory. Implementation of food safety framework can elevate the production of companies without harming the nutritious values of food. Likewise, farming needs to follow eco-friendly approaches for the sustainable development of food safety and thereby global food problem can be mitigated.
From the above study, it can be demonstrated that the global food problem is a wicked issue that has been termed as a natural disaster. It is necessary to ensure the equity of distribution among the global context to eliminate hunger and poverty from the society. Analysis of the developing nations has showcased maximum poverty whereby projected food demand has been emerged as 60% more than the current scenario by 2050. Despite of malnourishment in several global areas, almost 2.1 billion people are found with overweight. Thus, using the wicked solution approach it is essential to remove the practice of unparallel distribution.