Database Design Concepts

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Question :

Q1. Analysis of the different key issues along with the different applications of database system.

Q2. Characteristics and advantage of database management system.

Q3. Analysis of the database developmental methodology.

Q4. Discussion regarding the entity-relationship modelling and normalisation process.

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Answer :

Executive summary

The database system is the recent update in the different organizations. That mainly helps them to handle their huge amount of data set properly. The study provides a brief description regarding the proper development of the database system. Along with that, the study also provides a clear image regarding the fact that what are the certain kinds of advantages of the database system. Along with that it also defines the fact that what the different applications the database system provides. Moreover, the report also provides a proper amount of knowledge regarding the key issues regarding the database system. Along with that, the entity-relationship modelling and the database normalisation process is also been discussed at the end of the study. In order to mitigate the issues regarding the database system, the study also provides a set of recommendation to the organisation Shoengalleric art gallery.


The database is considered as the organised collection of the data sets. Along with that, it is the proper integration of the tables, queries, schemas along with the reports and the other objects. The set of data is mainly organised in order to model the different aspects of the reality in a particular way that is able to support the process that requires the proper set of information. According to Nidzwetzki and Güting (2016), earlier the organisations have maintained the traditional database system that is handled by the pen and paper system. However, with the evaluation in the technological field has enhanced the usage of the database system. Therefore, the organisations now opt for the different computerised database system. The main aim of this particular study is to evaluate the exact importance of the database system regarding the organisations. Along with that the study also aims to satisfy the fact that how the database system can enhance the level of performance for the different organisations. 

1.1 Analysis of the different key issues along with the different applications of database system

Although the database system has an ample amount of advantage over the traditional database management system, still the file-based database system is lagging behind in some areas. Below are the different issues that are associated with the database system.

Low grip over the data sets

These days the organisations have an ample amount of data. However, now near about all the organisations use this set of data for the different operational purpose. That signifies the fact that the set of data is being used for the application purpose. Therefore, the organisations may have an issue regarding this fact (Arasu et al. 2016).

Decentralised management of data

Decentralisation of the entire data management is another issue for the organisations in order to handle the database system. The users find it difficult to gather the different data sets from different locations. In addition to that, according to Leeet al. (2015), it can also make mistakes by the users such as the data duplication. Along with that, they need to maintain the consistency along with the reliability and the data integrity. Therefore, the decentralisation causes an ample amount of problems to the users.

Data security

Security of the database is always being a factor of concern for the users and the organisations. The organisations need to look after the fact that the set of data that is being entered into the database is safe and secure and the different integration processes such as the use of APIs, the web services also need to be updated in order to ensure the safety of the database system.

Improper usage of resources

The modern database systems are generally implemented in such a manner that mainly overviews the physical server that provides a platform for multiple different small applications. According to Chenet al. (2013), this particular approach has an ample amount of advantage such as the cost regarding the hardware, software; the risk factor for the other applications is relatively low. However, for this purpose, there needs to be a large number of database servers. Therefore, it leads to the inefficiency in the field of using the different resources.

Lack of experience

The inexperience is considered as another big issue for the database system. The people have a lesser amount of experience in the field of the database system can lead to a big problem for their organisations. The duplication of data can be happened accidentally based on their level of experience (Singer, 2016). Along with that, the proper maintenance and the security features also need to look after by those people. Therefore, the people who have the responsibility regarding the database system need to have a proper amount of experience.

Enhancement in the data volume

Earlier the organisations do not have such a large set of data that they have now. As the level of competition in the global field has enhanced, therefore the organisations need to gather an ample amount of data that can provide them with the competitive advantage over their rival organisations. Therefore, they need to depend on the updated database system. However, it can have an issue regarding the data duplication. It can hamper both the time and resources for an organisation. 

Data recovery

Data recovery is also considered as an issue of the database management system. It is easy for the developers to recover an entire data set rather than to recover a small part of it. Therefore, the organisations need to have a proper backup regarding their data sets. The changes in the set of data also logged as the changes in the history. According to Van Akenet al. (2017), due to the ample amount of complexity in order to recover the data set, it is considered as one of the major issues in the database management system.

However, there are different loopholes in the database system. Still, the government and the private organisations for their benefit are using them drastically. The database system can be used in the railway reservation system, the library management system of a school or college along with the banking and the different educational sectors. This mainly holds the records of the different users. Moreover, the organisations use this database system in order to gather an ample amount of details regarding their internal and external strength and for the proper business decision-making process (Jäger et al. 2014). In addition to that, the e-commerce sites also need to use the database system, as they need to store the purchase information along with the bills and the details of the payment.

1.2 Characteristics and advantage of database management system

Below are the different characteristics of the database system. The organisations need to assess these characteristics before developing the database systems for themselves.

Store multiple data

The database system is able to store any sort of data set. It is not restricted to the employee names and their IDs. Any kind of data that exists in the real world can be stored by the database system. It provides a benefit to the organisations to work with the different set of data. 

Support ACID properties

The acronym ACID signifies accuracy, completeness, isolation, and durability. The development of the database needs to ensure the fact that these properties need to be there (Coronel and Morris, 2016). It also ensures the fact that the real purpose of the data should not be lost while performing different transactions such as the delete operation.

Proper backup and recovery

There are chances of the sudden failure of the entire database system. Therefore, it would be tough to get back the data set. That is why it is important to have a proper backup of the data set whenever it is required. That is why all the database system needs to have these characteristics.

Data integrity

The data integrity ensures the quality along with the reliability of the data set. Therefore, it is considered as the most important characteristics of the database system. Moreover, it protects the database from the unauthorised access of the users and enhances the level of security for the database system. Along with that, it brings the accuracy and the consistency in the database system.

Along with that, there is an ample amount of advantage of the database system for an organisation. These are described below.

Sharing of data set

In the database system, the set of data can be shared by the organisations. According to Yanget al. (2015), the DBA manages the entire set of data and then provides the authentic rights to have an access to the data set. Therefore, it becomes easy for the users to share the data of the different application programs.

Controls the data redundancy

In the non-database systems, every application program has their own private set of files. Therefore, it enhances the amount of data duplicity. In the database system all the data set of an organisation is gathered into a single database, therefore it reduces the chance of data duplication.

Data consistency

The data consistency can be obtained by controlling the data redundancy (Coole et al. 2016). If the data value is not duplicated then all the operations such as any kind of addition or update can be immediately available to the users. Therefore, it can be said that, if the database system can control the redundancy, then it can provide a proper database consistency.

Data security

The forms are considered as an important object of the database system. The saved forms can behave like the software component. The non-technical users can also perform the different operations over those forms without having the technical details. 

Control over concurrency

In the file-based system if multiple users are allowed to access the database one after another, then they would interface with each other. It is possible to modify the data set twice which can lead to misrepresentation of data. Therefore, many database systems have the sub-systems to control the concurrency.

Data independence

The separation of the data structure from the application program that mainly uses the set of data is known as the data independence (Sui et al. 2014). In the database system, the users can easily change the structure of the database without accessing the different application programs.

2.1 Analysis of the database developmental methodology

The process development of database can easily help Shoengalleric Art Gallery to reduce the data redundancy. Along with that, the proper database system can also help the organisation to improve their data security. As Shoengalleric needs to deal with an ample amount of data regularly, therefore they need to enhance their data security. In addition to that, according to Kumaret al. (2014), the proper development of the database system can also reduce the updating errors and enhance the level of consistency for the organisation. Along with that, usage of the proper database system also reduces the cost regarding the storage and the data entry for the Shoengalleric Art Gallery. Moreover, the database system also helps Shoengalleric to improve their access to the data set by using the proper query languages. Along with that, the greatest advantage of the database system is that it maintains the data integrity for the Shoengalleric art gallery. That mainly helps them to get an overview of their collected data set. 

The database administrator of the Shoengalleric art gallery can use the waterfall cycle for the model for the development of their database system. It mainly has three assumptions. One of them is that the Shoengalleric can separate the development process of the database. That is the proper specification along with the creation of a schema in order to define the data in the database of Shoengalleric's database. In addition to that, the Shoengalleric can also use the three-schema architecture in order to differentiate a different kind of activities that are associated with the schema. In addition to that, the database of Shoengalleric can easily represent the different constraints in order to enforce the similarities of the data within their database system. It does not permit every user of the database to have an access to the data set (Elmasri and Navathe, 2015). The development of the database system is the process of gathering the real life requirements, analysis of the requirements properly, proper designing of the gathered set of data along with the different functions and then the proper and accurate implementation of the operations in the overall system. 

Requirement gathering

The first and the primary step of the database development are the gatherings of the requirements. During this particular phase, the designers of Shoengalleric needs to ask the customers those uses their database regarding the proper understanding of the proposed system along with the other functional requirements. It mainly helps Shoengalleric to get a proper document that includes the proper details regarding the different requirements that are provided by the different users. The database administrator of Shoengalleric plays an important role in the development process as he or she needs to overview the entire business along with the different legal and ethical issues in between the organisation that has an ample amount of impact over the requirements of the data set. Along with that, the database administrator also need to remind one important fact that the requirements need to describe the fact that how the set of data needs to be processed rather than the fact that what are the different data items and what kind of attributes that the data items have (Zhao et al. 2015).


The main aim of the data analysis is to get a detailed description regarding the data set that can match with the proper requirements of the user. Such as the codes of the painting, name of the artists along with the other different attributes. According to Malhotraet al. (2016), the conceptual data model mainly provides a formal representation of the fact that is being communicated in between the database developer and the client during the entire development process. That is why the conceptual data model is concerned with the p[roper meaning of the data structure.

Logical designing

The shoengalleric art gallery can use the relational representation of the conceptual data model as an input to the logical design process. The database designers who are very much familiar with the relational database along with the SQL can directly go to the implementation phase after they produced the conceptual data model. However, this kind of sudden transmission of the relational representation to the SQL tables can hamper the entire developmental process. At the very end of the database design, the logical schema needs to be specified by the SQL DDL statements that can easily describe the database of Shoengalleric that needs to be implemented in order to meet the requirements of the users.


The implementation of the database system mainly includes the proper construction of the database system according to the exact specification of the defined logical schema. The implementation includes the proper storage schema along with the different security features and the external schemas. Along with that, the developers also need to set the proper SQL queries in order to generate the accurate database for the Shoengalleric art gallery. 

2.2 Discussion regarding the entity-relationship modelling and normalisation process

According to Vasin and Yasakov (2016), the entity-relationship model mainly describes the interrelated things of interest in a particular domain of knowledge. The ER model mainly describes the relations in between the multiple entities. It is also described as the process, which systematically analyses and define the different areas of business.

The different entities in the Shoengalleric art gallery are defined below.

  1. Manager
  2. Administrator
  3. Technician
  4. Preparator
  5. Booking Assistant
  6. Visitors

Each of the entities has a proper relationship in between them. The entity relationship diagram is provided below to clarify the relationship in between the different entities.

Entity-Relationship Diagram

Figure 1: Entity-Relationship Diagram

(Source: Created b y self)

From the above diagram, it can be said that the managers mainly dictates the technicians that what they really need to do. Based on the decision made by the managers need to follow the instructions. Along with that, the technicians also help the preparator in order to generate the presentation for the visitors. When it comes to the booking for the gallery exhibitions, the booking assistant confirms the bookings for the visitors and the visitors get a chance to enjoy the art exhibition at the Shoengalleric art gallery. This proper diagrammatic representation of the relationship in between the entities can easily define the different functionalities of the organisation.

Database normalisation is considered as the process that organises the different attributes and the tables of the relational database of the organisation (Power et al. 2015). It mainly reduces the data redundancy for the Shoengalleric art gallery and it enhances the data integrity. The main objective of the normalisation process is to free the collection of the different relations from the unwanted insertion, deletion, and the updating of the data set. It also reduces the need for the restructuring of the collection of the different relations.

If the database of the Shoengalleric art gallery is taken into consideration, then it would be like the below.

Visitor (Vst_id, vst_name, vst_add)

Gallery (Artists, arst_name, age, birthplace)

Artwork (Portraits, work by Picasso, Still life)

All the tables above are in the third normal form and they have the primary keys. Therefore, these tables reduce the chance of data redundancy and data duplicity.


In order to enhance the capability of the database management system, Shoengalleric art gallery needs to establish the proper decision criteria for themselves. They need to put focus on the different factors such as the ease of use along with the functionality, database administration and the scalability. In addition to that, Shoengalleric art gallery needs to match the solutions regarding their business goals. It depends on the fact that how much data Shoengalleric art gallery is collecting. Along with that, they may also need to work with the existing technology. That provides a proper amount of benefit to the users of the database. In addition to that, the organisation also needs to look at the factor that whether their database system is matching with the proper hardware and the software resources. They need to make sure one thin that the resources need to be compatible with the database system.


After summing up the entire study, it can be concluded that the computerised database system mainly provides an ample amount of security to the data set of the organisations. Along with that, it also provides a proper backup of the database for the organisation. Having an ample amount of advantage does not mean that the database system is free of loopholes. In this particular study, it provides a clear description regarding the different key issues of the database system. In addition to that, the study also defines the fact that how this issue creates impact over the organisational performance. Along with that, the study also provides a detailed description regarding the entity relationship modelling and the concept of data normalisation. Moreover, the study also defines the development process of a particular database system.