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Debt collection practices in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

  1. Research Background
  2. Problem Statement / Research Rationale
  3. Research Objectives
  4. Research Question
  5. Research Scope
  6. Research Significance
  7. Research Structure

CHAPTER TWO:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Defiinition of Key Concepts and Theories

2.2 Critical Review of Theories – Key assumptions of the theories, Strength & weakness of theories

2.3 Critical Review Current Research

2.4 Literature Gap

2.5 Conceptual Framework

2.6Formulation of Hypothessis – Justify based on other rsearchers

CHAPTER THREE:

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Philosophy/Paradigm

3.2 Research Design And Approach

3.3 Research Method – Data Collection, Quantitative or Qualitative

3.3.1 Instrument 

3.3.2 Population & Sample

3.3.3 Data Collection Method

3.4 Data Analysis Plan

3.4.1 Validity Analysis

3.4.2 Reliability Analysis

3.4.3 Hypotheses Testing

3.5 Accessibility

3.6 Ethical Consideration

Answer

Chapter One:

Introductory chapter

1.1 Research background

The research work aims with the debt collection process in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. In this research work, there are not many research works that have been conducted to make the research work in a successful manner. Practices have been carried out in the Malaysian market for developing telecommunication industry a high debt collection. In the current research work, there are high ongoing processes to develop the mobile ecosystem among several customers. In the upcoming year, telecommunication industry has faced high amount of pressure in the highly competitive market (Piaralal et al. 2014). However, many consumers have been switched among the providers leaving the debt aside. This debt management has made a high amount of service providers that makes high amount of debt in the telecommunication industry of Malaysia. The consumer are highly responsible for the causing of debt and practices various process to reduce the debt. Several actions lie with the debt process. This includes with sending of important notice for payments of debts with the help of telephonic communication or emails (Drees-Gross et al. 2016). The consumers needs to pay all the payment to reduce the debt and helps in the better working of telecommunication industry. 


The main actions are based on the evitable areas that help the consumer to reduce the personal stress and perceived damage that rise from reputation. Moreover, the Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) state that there are approximately 35 million mobile subscriber lies with a population of approximately 27 million (Wang et al. 2014 ). In the current generations, consumers have widely developed a high demand in various applications and services that lies with gaming and video activity. The providers are responsible for the collection of debt that is conducted and carry out certain practice that helps to reduce the debt problem in the telecommunication company of Malaysia. In this research work, help the learner to know the main problems for causing the debt in the telecommunications industry in Malaysia (Khankaew and Riddle, 2014).


1.2 Problem Statement

The research problem statement lies with the main areas that need to be solved in the research work. The research work is based upon the markets that help in the rapid growth of telecommunications subscribers in Malaysia. Moreover, consumers have collected enough amount of complaints in the debt collection practices in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. This is now an issues due to the changes in the communication technology. A problem lies with the abusive communications that created high amount of problem for the customers. The research work helps to determine the main areas of the debt problems for the telecommunications areas that lie in the Malaysia country.  The consumers could be conducted with the debt collectors’ process that makes the right solutions to solve the problem in Malaysia. The research work could able to shed light on to identify the main areas on the debt collection practices in telecommunication industry in Malaysia. This research work would provide encouragement among many researcher and helps to research work in the future aspects.


1.3 Research Objectives

There are certain objectives that need to be followed to make a proper guidance of the research work that helps to address on the following area:

·         To determine the main cause for the debt especially in the telecommunication industry

·         To identify the main services provided by the telecommunication industry among the consumers

·         To evaluate the strategic options to reduce the debt in telecommunication industry

·         To analysis the debt collection staff required to reduce the debt in telecommunication industry


1.4 Research Question

There are certain research questions that could be addressed in the research work to fulfill the main purpose of research:

·         What are the main causes required to determine the debt in telecommunication industry?

·         What are the main services provided by the telecommunication industry in Malaysia?

·         Why it is so important to determine the various strategy to reduce the debt?

·         What are the specialized staff required to reduce the debt in the telecommunication company?


1.5 Research Scope

The research work provides ample of information in present and current study about the debt collection practices in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. Moreover, it has seen that relevant information has been provided in the telecommunication company to reduce the debt. There are certain recommendations that are completely relevant with the solutions that deals with the issues and that makes enough benefit for consumers as well as for the providers. This research work would helps to provide a proper guide and assist in encouragement more the researcher to carry out the research in the future purpose. There are high necessities to develop the debt collection practices in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. Moreover, the research work helps to determine the real reasons that lie with debt collection practices in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia.


1.6 Research Significance

The main significance of the research work lies carrying out to develop the mobile ecosystem among the consumers and service providers to determine the main cause of dept. Moreover, this research work helps to determine the real problems that lie in the telecommunication industry for the debt collection in Malaysia (Krishnan et al. 2016). Moreover, there are various issues that lies with the debt collection techniques helps to make a proper solution to solve this problems. There are various responsibilities that need to be determined by the consumers and providers to reduce the debt collection in the telecommunication company. There are various areas that needs to be focused by the debt collection staff to reduce the debt from the telecommunication areas. However, the telecommunication industry provides high services among the customers by providing gaming and video facility. In order to provide a better service among several consumers of Malaysia the key problems needs to be reducing to get a proper service facility among several customers. The main problems lie with the debt management that provides less service among the consumers in Malaysia (Abdi,2015). This debt helps in increasing of problems among the customers and this research work helps to gather enough information to reduce the debts.


Chapter Two

2. Literature Review

2.1 Definition of Key Concepts and Theories

There are several existing methods that help the telecommunication companies to collect their debts. Telecom companies have been rapidly introducing new products and services in the recent years, as the technologies and the mobile networks are developing. Every telecom company has to compete hard with the other companies to stay in the volatile market (Gallo, 2015)


 This single things prompts companies to keep changing their rules and regulations; be it about giving the customers better services or making their debt collection plans more flexible as per customer requirements, which would ensure maximum customer satisfaction (Zinman, 2015). Since the requirements of the consumers have been changing rapidly, telecom giants have also made sure that their debt receiving methods are changed accordingly. This means that the traditional collection methods have evolved significantly over time (Cormier, 2013). Traditional collection methods involved sending the customers notices to make them aware about how much they have to pay and when to pay. Another method was to stop providing a few services to the customer until the debt is collected. But in the modern era, with the changed customer demands and the advent of better public relations, telecos have to make new collection processes that ensure minimum revenue leakage and the best relationship with the customers (Han and Jang, 2013).


Delinquency Movement Tracking - This method that the telecom companies use involves tracking the the account of every customer to know how much they owe for the services provided. This kind of tracking is done stage wise: most commonly on a monthly basis. 


Dunning Approach - This process means the method that is used by the telecom companies which require them to remind the customers periodically about the payment that is owed. The customers are given calls and sent text messages informing them about how much is to be paid. Telecom companies also can disconnect the services that are provided to the customers if the payment is not made or overdue. 

These are the traditional approaches to collect the debt that is owed by the consumers to the telecom companies. But these methods have long since started being discarded as they are seen to be too harsh and adverse to the company-customer relations (Martini et al. 2014). The telecom corporations have started adopting other methods that somewhat approach the debt collection process from a moderate and more considerate view. The customers who use one provider can always change providers if the debt amount surmounts to something huge. This means that debt management has become a key issue in the telecommunication sector today. The companies now either train their in house staff so that they can efficiently collect the debt or use third party agencies who get the debt for them. 


But the major problem that involves third parties to collect these debts is that the point of good customer relations, that the telecom companies hold dear to themselves, is often missed. The debt collecting agencies often change the collection process in ways that ensure straight forward payments, so that the telecommunication companies can go on with their regular work. 


The customer-company relationship is one of the strongest bonds that drives the functions of the corporations today. This relationship also promises proper and timely payments and debt collections. If this is hampered, the companies may have to face long-term problems that would ultimately reflect upon their revenues. The service providers can make a great impact on the customers simply by approaching the collection process in a little more holistic way. 


The customers cannot be expected to comply with drastic changes in the collection process overnight. Rather , they are more comfortable if the telecom companies gradually change the process by using pilot improvement projects (Deville, 2015).


The telecom service providers have to make sure that they do not sell the debts to the third parties if the debts are being disputed over by the customers. The companies themselves normally communicate the customers about the payments using methods like sending text messages or phone calls or cutting some services. Since the third parties do not have any moral obligation to these customers, they would use any methods necessary to collect the owed amount and this may cause severe damage to the company’s relation with its customer base. 


Some customers repeatedly complained that the companies call them up at wrong timings, especially when they are at work. These ill-timed calls and communication attempts often cause the consumers personal stress that make lasting impact on the customer-provider relations. The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA), that was adopted in 1977, has rampant actions and processes to collect the debt. This is one of the aspects of debt collection that has somewhat remained the same over the years, even though everything from the technologies to the services provided have changed drastically.

Since the whole service providing process has evolved, the service providers have also come up with newer methods to collect the debts from the customers. 


Risk rating at PoS (Point of Sale)

Even though the providers are the ones who decide on the terms of payment and how much is to be paid by the customers, they have to maintain proper communication with the consumers throughout the whole time. This would help even if the providers have to ask any third party to intervene to recover the debt. The providers need to let the consumers know about the gaps and the disparities that have surfaced regarding the payments and the debt amount. The third party that is involved in the process also has to perfectly categorise the risk factors so that a proper assessment of the whole situation can be done in a right manner. A proper risk identification and categorisation would help the debt collection team to be ready with the specific tools and processes to tackle each obstacle perfectly. Detailed categorisation of the risk factors have helped service providers immensely over time in terms of gaining insights that assure the right actions by collecting data. Collection history and payment patterns can be important pointers to gain the right knowledge about the debt payment history for each consumer. 


Intra cycle balance monitoring

Most customers raise the disputes after the bills have arrived. This “bill shock” can be avoided by monitoring the surge factor that is the prime reason for the bills to skyrocket. Keeping the customers informed periodically about this surge, so that they can understand how much bill is being generated, can help the companies a lot to retain a good satisfied customer base. This would also help the providers to educate the consumers about the functions of the companies and prevent discrepancies about the debt amount. 


Bill format

If the calls that are made to the providers by the customers can be studied carefully, a pattern would be clearly visible which can help the providers to efficiently handle the problems regarding the debt collection. Disputes mostly arise because the customers do not have proper information. This can prevented simply by re-wording the bill format (Donovan et al. 2015).


Monthly/Quarterly billed customers

The revenue projections that the companies have differ for monthly and quarterly billed customers. Quarterly billed customers can be asked to opt for more accurately estimated monthly billing plans, that would help the customers to curtail costs and even the companies to monitor its debt collection in a more specific and well charted manner. If the customers agree to this, it would prove to be hugely beneficial for the companies. Since this a very sensitive and delicate issue, the providers must take special care to ensure that these situations are handled tactfully.


Unnecessary hand-offs

Telecom service providers often disconnect the customer’s connections for reasons which are thought of to be valid by the telecom companies. This is a very common scenario, which also highly unpleasant. Connection is reestablished again after a conversation between the customer and the provider; which obviously become a bitter experience for the customer. This can be handled if the delayed payment is managed by the debt collection team and not the customer service team.collection representatives can take this opportunity to educate the customers on why the connection has been cut. A proper conversation can also help the providers to restore the relationship with the customers once again. Properly educated customer base can avoid unnecessary and uncomfortable situations and even help the company to improve its revenue collection (Cherkasheninova et al. 2016)


Collecting the debts will always be the last and the most important step in the whole collection process. The most essential thing that the providers can do to ensure a smooth and regular debt collection process is to understand the point and importance of debt collection within every step of the above mentioned cycle, then and there. This would keep the customers educated about the functions of the providers and keep them updated about their bills and the debt that they owe their providers. 


These processes that have been mentioned above are the new and tactfully analysed steps that the telecom service providers are adopting in order to ensure that the debts are collected properly and in efficient ways.

The term “collection” refers to a lot more things than just collecting due debts from the customers. It requires the companies to promise themselves that the revenues would be collected when the time is right. Collection process must be embedded within the whole operation of the the company so that every single action that the company takes, is directed towards one goal: how to collect all the debt that the company is owed by the customers. Every single stage of the collection process, i.e PoS, order fulfillment or intra cycle balance monitoring, has to be aimed at trying to generate as much revenue as possible through collection of debts.  The customers has to be made to understand that the collection is not a hazard, rather it is something to be looked at as partners who would help them to improve their credit ratings. The collection team has to understand the situation from the customer’s perspective. The customers are often reluctant to give up their connection and change to a different provider; even they are apprehensive about stopping using the services that have been using for a period of time. They are often very much concerned about their credit ratings and worried about the funds (Kilborn and Walters, 2013)


The collection team has to consider all of these things if they want to make sure that debts would be paid on time and smoothly. At a vulnerable and sensitive point, the collection representative has to be able to empathize with the customers so that the customers feel at ease and assured about the services being continued. This would just help the company to retain a faithful customer base who would themselves try to help the company and pay their debts (Riaz, 2016).


2.2 Critical Review of Theories - Key assumptions of three Theories. Strength & Weakness of Theories

  An evolving diversity of customer demands (along with the requirements high-bandwidth and unimpeded accessibility) underlines a considerable shift in the emerging scenario of telecommunication sector in Malaysia. In order to cope with this increase in demand and retain the customer base, service providers seem adamant to launch variety of products and services with a developed connectivity and speed. On that note, it apparently appear toilsome for the service providers to adapt with this drastic growth of customer expectations maintaining previous consistency of services. The chief telecom service providers seem dedicated to satisfy these abrupt requirements by introducing VAS (Value Added Services) at nominal discrepancy in ARPU (Average Revenue Per User) or enhancing the dimensions of flexibility in their declared terms and conditions of Debt collection in order to avoid churn. However, there lies a significant dimension of delinquency in the behavior of the customers who seem prone to switch among providers while leaving the due debts unpaid. Thus, the notion of debt management turns into a governing driver for the service providers that serves the corresponding strategies of the sector. In this situation, the prevalent conduct of debt collection practices and the corresponding delinquent response from the consumers vividly suggests that the conventional methods of Debt collection ( popularly known as ‘Dunning Approach’ which relies on the dignified practice of either forwarding formal notices or emails or deprive the delinquents from the promised services) happens to appear impotent and encourages a new method in order the evade the possibilities of revenue leakage and ensure optimum working capital. 


This new approach, as per the demand of the contemporary ambience requires to restore the balance between the conventional soft steps of sending notices and the ruthless steps of depriving the customer  from the declared services. In the former case, the customers find the conducted measures callous enough not to be bothered about whereas, in the latter case, the measure considerably encourage the customers to switch to other providers. There is an alternate method that already exists in the respective infrastructure where the service providers monitor every minute movement of the customers. As technology exists as the integral component to facilitate the automation of debt collection and expect reciprocal response of the notices and scheduled contacts to the customers, it inherently patronize the agents with the comprehensive references of archival information. It subsequently assist the entire system to update in accordance with the specimen of details and ensure a subscriber base.


Nominating a debt buyer to collect the requisite debt is a common practice in the premises of debt management and it is inevitable that the employed foreign agent will propose some tricks to increase the straight processing. The potential drawback of this conduct is that it inherently exclude the quotient of ‘subscriber base’ from consideration since after the execution of suggested tweaks, the business will run the same as before.


The telecom service provider needs to shed the chief of the strategic attention in the absolute objective of sustaining subscriber base which is a governing factor to  measure the performance of Debt collection and the consequent alignment of these apprehensions happens to be firm in this current context. It is very evident from the apprehensions of some scholarly article in this discipline that introducing drastic changes in the prevalent infrastructure of Debt collection in order to meet the expectations of the potential clients is something complex to try. Instead of that, grassroot projects of improvement can be piloted on the basis of processed changes with the promise of client benefit which eventually herald the enterprise towards sustained customer base. The prevalent Debt management approaches need to incorporate ideas which are more tad and holistic and simple shifts with long run recovery processes can enable the service providers to pursue the above-mentioned ideas and strive towards sustainability of the customers.          


2.3 Critical Review of Current Research

The respective study mainly aims to configure the traditional practices of Debt management in the telecommunication sector Malaysia along with the obligation to recommend some substitute ideas by the virtue of which the corresponding sectors can enable themselves to retrieve the stagnated requisite debt. In order to cope with the emerging scenario of high customer expectations, it is imperative for the respective sectors to prevent the revenue leakage mainly caused by the delinquency exhibited by the potential customers. The archaic and soft practice that relies on the dignity has been considerably altered by employing more prudent communicational expertise as per the suggestions of FDCPA (Fair Debt Collection Practices Act). The issue of Debt management acquires this status of paramount importance since the debt collection agents of the respective sectors identified the fact that this a key driver which facilitates the pursuit the absolute objective of sustainable customer base. Apart from that, it is also discerned that the emerging problems of abusing the proclaimed obligations are able to subsist even after the rampant stringency of FDCPA. 


This study also caters the pursuit of a robust framework that can systematically specify the modes of contact with the potential customers for the agents of debt collection. Moreover, this study is devoted to suggest helpful remedies to the respective sectors while retaining the prevalent customer case while ushering them to the right way of conduct to interact with the customers.


It is an axiom that he eminent telecom sectors who are dedicated to cater a large customer base, by-default serves a significant proportion of delinquent customers. Telecom service operators with the competency of doubling their prevalent customer base within a year may have the ability to afford this delinquency since their ultimate business objective are biased and chiefly driven by the figures of annual revenue. Whereas, the stagnant and incumbent operators find them helpless in this volatile monopoly to allow their customers to be delinquent and usually deploy threats of disconnection in order to ensure the payment of debt. Consequently, they suffer from a flagrant denial of customer base who migrate to other service providers while leaving their debt unpaid. As per some of the prevalent literature, the telecom sectors of malaysia lacks a coherent strategy to collect the requisite debts since their strategies are rigid and archaic enough to cooperate with the streamline of approaches which appears with the warranty of leap in the post-paid financial figures. 


Moreover, contemporary methods of debt collection enable the providers to conduct their terms individually since they consider this as an effective way to retain the loyalty to their customer base. It is very evident from some of the sales and revenue statistics of some renowned sectors that the primitive method of notifying and indulging them to pay the debts is potentially archaic and no longer viable in this evolving landscape of global telecom market. Furthermore, the growing dependence on the debt buyers usually charge a significant amount from the sectors and the corresponding decline in revenues signify a escalating amount of write-off. This imparts an unbearable thrust on the strategic faculty since the revenue deficit itself is too heavy to recover.


The diverse traits of customer delinquency needs to be addressed before working on the strategy to derive the debt payment. Employing several analytical framework in order to asses the pattern of demeanors, researchers have been able to classify the corresponding traits of the customer. The comparative freshers usually spend their balance rapidly and transmits poor financial management skills. Though they typically pay the debt but not until the bill transcends a manageable value. Some of them are inherently lazy and scattered and usually considered to be economically astute and unaware about the successive penalty imposed for non-payment. Moreover, they prefer to pay their debt manually instead of coping with the automated modes of payment. Major moiety of the customers are self-proclaim them as regular delinquents as they usually refuse to bother until they are poked into repayment. Even then, they are prone to pay the overdue in everyday basis. Least of them show conditional delinquency usually when they financially crippled in an unexpected yet drastic economic tragedy. This sort of delinquents usually exhibit sound demeanor while paying  a considerable possibility to turn down. 


2.4 Literature Gap

In the previous segments, it has been discussed in details the different new ways which the telecom service providers are adopting to ensure a good and smooth collection of debts from the customers. The theories then have been critically analysed and reviewed and tried to be evaluated properly. The theories have been analysed so that the weaknesses and the strengths of the theories are properly understood to have a detailed estimation of the different ways that the providers take to collect the debts. 


The theories that have already been developed regarding this, all touch the most important issues that involve debt collection and give ideas regarding what should the companies do about it and the roles they have in the whole process. However, one of the most important aspect all the previous theories seem to overlook, or ignore completely at times, is to give a good idea about the role that the customers are expected to execute in this whole process. Some theories absolutely fail to comprehend that the customers also have to cooperate with the providers so that the providers are assured with timely payment of the debts. Some theories do acknowledge the fact that the consumers also have some part to play in making sure that the providers generate enough revenue, but grossly underestimate the extent of the role. The previous theories have not paid enough attention to the customers and this may be considered to be one of the biggest drawbacks of the theories, however on point may they be. This dissertation aims to overcome that gap and discuss  that very role that the customers should take that would ensure proper debt collections. 


2.5 Conceptual Framework

2.6 Formulation of Hypothesis - Justification based on other researchers

The formulation of Hypothesis can be commenced as follows;

H0- The Telecommunication Sectors will not be able to retrieve the requisite debt.

As per the previous apprehensions, a considerable dimension of delinquency, irrespective of deliberate or inherent, subsists in this current interface that can be cited as the potential hindrance which restricts the operators to accomplish the requisite debt. As the literature gap able to discern that the customers lack the required proportion of interest to mitigate the respective sectors from the current condition. Since they refuse to cooperate with the standard codes of conduct, the sectors have to work on alternative methods which can oblige the customers to repay. Furthermore, some of the eminent monopolized service providers seems complacent with their sales figure and corresponding customer base and lacks the urge to endow the customers with relevant awareness which, in return, encourage the mitigation of this growing problem. Moreover, they enjoy a valid archival support which appears always to blame the service providers for their incompetent management skills and subsequently reflects the sheer tendency of the critics to overlook the absence of customers in the paradigm. The service providers have decided to draft and issue a detailed report of the entire amount that a customer is supposed to pay but the customers have exhibited a sheer indifference to comply with this terms and enable the adverse condition to stagnate. 


The excessive reliance on the debt buyers can be counter productive since they are only upto suggesting tweaks which contribute a little regarding the remedies. This flagrant denial of the customers to enter into the paradigm and contribute to device a collaborative framework can be cited as the major hindrance in the way of recovering the residual debts. In addition to that, as the sustainable customer base is the key indicator of uniform business performance, it seem literally impossible for the sectors to recover their requisite debt.


H1- The telecommunication sector will be able to retrieve their requisite debt

In accordance with the emerging  growth of customer expectations there lies a dimension where the respective sectors happen to seem incapable to derive their desired revenue mainly due to the increasing discrepancy among the customers. Furthermore, the prevalent methods of communicating with the customers have been proven impotent since it is archaic and unable to transmit desired satisfaction. The sectors have started pondering on a substitute method to improve the interface of exchange while submitting to the declared motive of customer satisfaction. It is very evident from the apprehensions of literature gap that the scholars are considerably biased with the customers since they are always up to the disparity of expectations and acts portrayed by the service operators. 


On that note, it is imperative to address that the entire condition demands a significant participation from the customers otherwise it is impossible to agree upon an elegant remedy. The customers appeared to be deliberately smug and refused to contribute in the mitigation from this gruesome condition of debt left unpaid. The strategic units of the corresponding enterprises seem dedicated about retaining their customer base while not embarrassing them directly. Thus, they have planned to display every minute details of the entire figure to encourage the individual learning of the customers. It is essential for the customers to acquire an in-depth introspection about the entire system since it facilitates the process of mutual understanding. Moreover, the customer needs to obtain an insight of the above module since it inherently immune them from any sort of rogue proposals from the operator's side. If the customers somehow manage to alleviate themselves from their irritating complacency the current burden of unpaid debt can easily be retrieved. This lies in the brink of their collaborative camaraderie from which the incipient urge to mitigate the current condition can be generated and appropriate implementation of this should lead the respective enterprise towards competitive advantage along with an considerable customer base.     


Chapter Three

3. Methodology

3.1 Research Philosophy/Paradigm

In the research work, research philosophy helps in creating a mental satisfaction to carry out the research in a positive manner. By following the proper philosophy helps the researcher to shed a positive light in the entire research work. Moreover, the research philosophy helps to carry out the research work in a positive way. As stated by Mackey and Gass (2015), research philosophy helps in dealing the research work in a proper method that makes the research complete and further implies in a better direction. It is very important to know the exact research philosophy by the researcher at the beginning of the research work. There are basically four types of research philosophy that has been carried out in the research work. This includes with positivism, post positivism, realism and interpretivism.  In this four-research philosophy, particular one research philosophy needs to be carried out by the researcher to create a positive impact in the research work. As opined by Vaioleti (2016), positivism research philosophy determines positive outcomes of the research work by gathering real and relevant information based on the proper scientific manner. Moreover, the realism and interpretivism lies with the branch of epistemology in the research philosophy. In the interpretivism lies with the relation of human responses, that makes research work in an authentic manner.


In this situation, the researcher has been chosen with the positivism philosophy to carry out the research work. In the positivism philosophy, lies in creating a positive approach and further helps to make the research work complete in an allocated time. By carrying out the positivism philosophy helps to draw a proper outcomes that makes to conclude in a proper position. The present research work has focused on the excess amount of debt that has taken place in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. The positivism philosophy helps researcher to conduct the current research work in such a manner that illustrates a positive outcomes in Malaysia. In order to tackle this situation of excess cause of debt in the telecommunication company in Malaysia the researcher has used certain tools to collect exact information on debt. By carrying out the positivism philosophy by the researcher, helps to accumulate a positive idea about the excess amount of debt by the customers and providers especially in telecommunication industry in Malaysia.  


3.2 Research Design and Approach

The research approach helps to create a proper place to illustrate all the parts of the research work in a sequential manner that assist in the further planning in future aspects. According to Smith,  (2015), the maximum part of the research work rise from the research approach and further helps to carry out the research work in a exact way. The research approach helps to carry out the activity in proper sequences that makes the research work in a complete manner. As opined by Gast and Ledford, (2014), there are basically two types of research approaches are applied in the research work. This includes with inductive and deductive research approaches. The inductive research approach helps to start from a particular point and then the research work on a general conclusion. In the deductive research, work lies from a general area and conclude in a specified position.


In this situation of the research work, the researcher has selected deductive research approach to get a proper conclusion to make the research work complete. In this current research topic, the study starts from a main cause of excess amount of debt among the consumers and gathers in a result in the proper working in telecommunication industry in Malaysia. In this topic, there are no such appropriate relevant evidences and by carrying out the research work in the deductive research, approach helps to gather enough information by the researcher.


 The research work needs to make a proper design to achieve the set goals that arise from the whole study. As stated by Neuman and Robson,  (2014), the research design helps the researcher to get proper answer at the time of performing the task to carry out the research work. There are basically three types of research design carried out by the research work. This includes with descriptive, explanatory and experimental research design used to formulate the research work properly. In the explanatory research design work deals with background data of the work in which the problem could be answered properly. Tarone et al.(2013) noted that the explanatory research design focus on the internal problems of the study. In the descriptive research, design helps to focus on the appropriate answers for the problems that lie from the research topic.


The researcher has chosen descriptive research design to complete the research work properly. Moreover, the descriptive research design helps to gather enough information that is present at the earlier stage. The current research work has been focused on reducing the excess amount of debt in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. Moreover, by carrying out the descriptive research design helps to conduct a proper analysis regarding the topic that helps the researcher to get appropriate answer from the cause of the excess amount of debt among the consumer and producers especially in the telecommunication company in Malaysia. Hence, the descriptive research design is the appropriate methods to carry out the research work properly.    


3.3 Research Method - Data Collection, Quantitative or Qualitative

In order to carry out the research method properly, there is a high importance to know the exact data collection techniques. As stated by Tuohy et al.(2013), there is a high necessity to know the exact sources of information for carrying out the research work properly. The research methods are demonstrated by two methods that lies with primary and secondary data collection techniques. The primary data collection method lies from the first hand information of gathering of data. In the secondary data collection techniques lies with the well framed structured to complete the research work. As stated by Choy, (2014), secondary data collection methods are more structured based as compared with the primary data collection. The primary data collection methods gather real and relevant information regarding the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. The research methods would be complete with the secondary and primary data collection techniques. The primary data collection are formed by the two main segments that lies with qualitative and quantitative research methods.   


3.3.1 Instrument

In order to determine the instrument there lies with the quantitative data collection techniques to understand the proper mechanism of sampling. As opined by Dumay and Cai  (2015), sampling process plays an important part to carry out the research work properly and to make a get a proper findings in the data collection methods. In the sampling techniques, there lies with two methods that includes with the probability and non-probability methods. In this research work, the quantitative research techniques have been conducted to determine the proper carrying out of the research work. As noted by Dumay. and Cai, (2015), the simple process of random probability has been followed in the quantitative data collection process. The researcher has conducted quantitative techniques to collect real and relevant information from the current topic. Moreover, by conducting this techniques helps to conduct survey among the consumers and producers to determine the debt rise in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia.


3.3.2 Population & Sample

There is a high necessity to determine the sample size and population to carry out the research work in a successful manner. The quantitative research data have been collected upon 40 customers and the sample size become 40. As opined by Gummesson (2014), the more sample size would help to determine the areas of the research work. This helps the researcher to know the exact cause of debt and helps to mitigate the situation that is happening in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. By considering 40 customers in Malaysia as the sample size, researcher can find appropriate answer for the problems in debt in telecommunication industry. By conducting a survey with the given sample, size helps to collect real and relevant information for the problem of excess debt causing in the telecommunication industry.


3.3.3 Data Collection Method

The data collection method helps to carry out the research work properly. As noted by (), the data collection methods are basically carried out by two main methods. This includes with primary and secondary data collection methods. The researcher has conducted both the research method process to determine the real and relevant information to get appropriate answer. In this current topic, the excess amount of debt could be understood properly by carrying out this two-research method. According to Wildemuth, (2016), primary data provides real and relevant information regarding the current topic that helps the researcher to get a better findings. In the secondary data collection, research methods are followed from the existing information that rises from books, journals and websites. The primary data are determined from the first hand information that rise from the survey methods. By conducting survey methods helps to carry out the research work in a real and relevant manner. In the primary data collection methods lies with qualitative and quantitative research methods that helps the researcher to collect ample of real and relevant information regarding the main cause of debt among the customers of Malaysia in telecommunication industry. The proper data collection method help the researcher to carry out the research work properly and further helps in a successful manner (Vamsi Krishna Jasti and Kodali, 2014). 


3.4 Data Analysis Plan

In order to collect the information properly there is a high necessity to determine the data analysis plan. The proper planning in the data analysis makes the effective research work to ensure its reliability and find the exact validity. The research techniques help to make a proper planning at the time of descriptive research process. There is a high necessity to make a proper planning to analysis the data, in order to get appropriate information required to complete the research work. The researcher needs to determine the exact process and planning to transform quantitative data into certain amount of number to know the exact cause for the problem of debt that rise in the current generation in Malaysia in telecommunications industry (Cerrato et al. 2017). 


The quantitative data are collected by conducting survey among the people to determine the excess cause of debt among the people. However, the data analysis could be further analyzed properly by making a graphical presentation of data that makes a clear understanding among the people. The proper planning of the data by the researcher shed appropriate light in the research work. There is a high necessity to make proper planning to analysis data that arise by conducting quantitative techniques. This further illustrates the main reason of debt in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. In order to conduct the survey, there is a high necessity to maintain proper planning that helps to collect appropriate information in the research work.   


3.4.1 Validity Analysis

In order to carry out the research work properly, the researcher needs to analysis the exact valid reasons that make the work in a successful manner. In order to determine the validity of the research work, the researcher needs to focus on the three points. The valid test needs to be carried out to determine the exact valid work lies in the research work (McCusker and Gunaydin, 2015). There lies with validity in content, validity from face and validity from predictive.


The content validity illustrates the current topic is completely valid to conduct the research work on the given topic. The current topic lies on the excess amount of debt that lies in the telecommunications in Malaysia. Moreover, the research work needs to carried in such a manner so that the topic is completely valid with the discussions.


In the face validity lies with the area that needs to be determine to conduct a test on a particular area among the people. The face validity refers to the amount of degree that appears in the test methods.

In order to carry the research work for the future purpose there is a high necessity to illustrate predictive validity to determine the performance obtained after carrying out the validity test.  


3.4.2 Reliability Analysis

There is a high necessity to determine the reliability to increase the influence in the research work. Reliability provides high amount of degree and reduces the chances of error at the time of measuring the research work. This helps to determine the research work in such a manner that reduces the chances of error and that highly affects the system of validity. Various forms of reliability analysis include with reliability test, alternate form, half reliability, rationale reliability and internal reliability. In this case, the researcher to determine the research work properly has carried out the internal reliability analysis (Fletcher, 2017). Moreover, the reliability analysis helps to determine the research work in such a manner that illustrates the reliable nature of the work. The researcher needs to determine the proper reliability situation to carry out the research work properly. Moreover, this helps to make a proper measurement to understand the reliability among customers.  By conducting this reliability practices helps to mitigate the chances of error that rise from the measurement area.  Moreover, there is a high necessity to conduct a proper reliable concept regarding the topic to make the research work complete (Daudt et al. 2013). The current topic is regarding on the debt collection practices in telecommunication industry in Malaysia.  


3.4.3 Hypothesis Testing

After conducting the corresponding study, the learner may be able to underpin the governing traits of the prevalent practice employed to recover the unpaid debt. The possible outcomes of the hypothesis can be surprising since it lies in the quotient of success of the mutual interface where both the customers and the operators are agreed. Moreover, the hypothesis testing provides enough light that helped the learner to focus on the excess cause of debt in telecommunications industry in Malaysia.    


3.5 Accessibility

The accessibility quotient can be expressed in terms of the awareness the customers gather during this course of study. Moreover, the generation of their awareness about the interface will advocate the entire obligation towards a relative competitive advantage with the support of strong and pertinent customer base. Moreover, there is a high necessity to maintain the accessibility required to carry out the research work in the proper manner. The researcher makes gather information by carrying out the correct accessibility techniques. There is a high necessity to maintain the accessibility to carry out the research work properly. 


Moreover, the research work helps to get accurate information in the telecommunication industry to determine the exact process for the collection of debt in Malaysia. The accessibility process depends on the techniques that need to be carried out by the researcher to determine the process to know the exact cause for the problem of debt in Malaysia. There is a high necessity to determine the exact problem that lies in the research work that rise from the excess amount of debt that happens in the telecommunication industry in Malaysia. The telecommunication industry plays a huge role among the customers by providing better facility in media and gaming. In this situation, the researcher has focused on the right track to shed the light on the excess problem of debt happening in the current years in Malaysia. Moreover, the consumers get enough benefits from the telecommunication industry of Malaysia. There is a high necessity to solve the main problems that arise from the telecommunications industry in Malaysia.


3.6 Ethical Consideration

While collecting data, the aspect of ethics must be kept in mind at all times. The subjects must be ensured that the data and information that is being gathered from them would not be divulged to anyone else or any other entity and would only be for the sole purpose of the research that is currently being conducted. The subjects must know that their information would remain confidential and none else other than the company that is conducting the survey would know about their personal details. They further need to be ensured that these data will not be used to do anything unethical and would not be reproduced in any form without a formal consent of the subjects. The data need to be collected in a fashion that would not be biased and the result that is going to be achieved should not hold any biased opinions either. If the results are presented in a biased way, then the purpose of the survey would be nullified, which is initially aimed at giving an estimation about the current situation and try to come up with a viable solution. 


While carrying out the survey process among the customer of Malaysia to know the main cause of debt in Malaysia, on that moment a high ethical consideration has been followed by the researcher. The real and relevant information has been gathered from the customers and has been concluded about starting of better practices to reduce the excess cause of debt among the customer. The customer has provided relevant answers for the problems that happened in Malaysia. The researcher has conducted the survey work in an allocated time for getting appropriate answer from the researcher. Customers has provided enough information that helps the researcher to gather to continue the research work in a successful manner. Moreover, considering all the necessity ethical aspects in mind, the researcher has successfully carried out the entire survey process among 40 customers. The researcher has focused on other areas, so that there might not cause of any problems rise at the time of carrying out the survey process.   


Maintaining an ethical ground for the survey that is conducted is of paramount importance, both for the protection of the subjects as well as the reputability of the company that is conducting the survey. If the confidentiality of the data is violated then it would massively affect the reputation of the organisation as it would be a serious breach of trust and ethics. By no logic, can the privacy of the subjects be breached. 

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