Diabetes Patient: Self-Management And Proper Health Care Programs

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Question :

Conduct a study to analyze and demonstrate the integration of various principles of managing care of patients with chronic conditions. Explain how Peter Mitchell a patient aged 52 year old male who is suffering from type 2 Diabetes and other problems could be treated with the self-management care and proper health care programs. 

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Answer :


This research has been take to analysis and designed to demonstrate the integration of various principles of managing care of patients with chronic conditions. It is considered that in order to provide relief to the patient with chronic conditions, it is necessary to study every possible changes and every aspect of problems faced by the patient. Many researchers have suggested that it is necessary to treat the patient not only with the medicines but also with the proper nursing methods and facilities. So in this paper we are going to study about the needs of the patient with critical conditions. This research has shown how Peter Mitchell a patient aged 52 year old male who is suffering from type 2 Diabetes and other problems could be treated with the self-management care and proper health care programs. 

Background of the case 

This research is about the case study of the person Peter Mitchell a patient aged 52 year old male who is suffering from type 2 Diabetes with was diagnosed 9 years ago, gaining more weight and present weight of patient is 145 Kgs. This patient is suffering from Hypertension, sleep apnoea, Gastro oesophageal disease reflux disease (Combe, et al. 2017).

Critical Thinking, Reasoning and Evaluation of the Evidence 

It is analyzed that Obesity of the patient is 150kgs weight. With the increase in the obesity of the patient there is possible chance of increase of diseases. It is necessary to control the weight. It is considered that if the weight of the patient is suddenly decreasing or is increasing then it is an important concern and should be diagnosed and tested.  In order to control the weight, patient must perform daily exercises, should control excessive eating, and quit smoking, quit excessive alcohol (Combe, et al. 2017). This shows that if Peter Mitchell could control its eating habit and schedule his exercise program then he could easily improve his condition. 

Under type 2 Diabetes, it is also called adult onset diabetes. In this the pancreas of patient could not make sufficient amount of insulin as a result of which the sugar of the patient increases. In order to check the sugar level of the patient lancet is used. Therefore, in order to identify as to whether patient is suffering from Diabetes there as symptoms such as occurring of excessive hunger, excessive thirst ,  fatigue,  weight loss or weight gain, frequent urination, blurred vision, poor wound healing. This shows the issues and problems faced by Peter Mitchell during his life span. 

Treatment for patient

  It is considered that for the treatment of self-care patient should exercise daily, quit smoking, reduce his weight, have diabetic diet, diabetic fiber. Patient should take prescribed medicines as Insulin Novomix 30 mg BD (twice a day), Metformin 1000 mg BD (twice a day). The prescribed medicine control the increased level of the sugar and reduces its effect. The medicine affects after 10 to 20 minutes of its consumption. The patient takes the medicine first and then should have food. Patient with diabetes should always avoid sugar (Combe, et al. 2017).

Peter Mitchell has been suffering from hypertension or we can say high blood pressure. Hypertension is a condition when the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high. This condition is a long term condition. In order to control it, patient must take medicine for the life time as if the medicine is not taken there is risk of heart disease and stroke.  Patient is prescribed Lisinopril 10 mg OD (daily), Nexium 20 mg OD (daily). The medicine helps in lowering the high blood pressure.

The patient suffers from Sleep apnoea. It is a serious sleep disorder where patient’s breathing repeatedly stops and starts. Its symptoms are snoring, sleep deprivation, breathing through mouth (Haugvik, et al. 2016).

Peter Mitchell has also been suffering from Gastro oesophageal disease reflux disease. It is a disease in the digestive system where the stomach acid or bile irritates the food pipe lining. The symptom of Gastro oesophageal disease are bleaching, heartburn, nausea, regurigation, bitter taste, discomfort in the upper part of abdomen or dry cough. For the treatment medication prescribed is Nexium 20 mg OD (daily) which is used to treat stomach problems like acid reflux. As it decreases the amount of acid in the stomach. It helps in healing the damage caused by the acid in the stomach. It helps in preventing frequent heartburn (Haugvik, et al. 2016).

Since the medicine helps in controlling the problems faced by the patient at the current period of the disease. But, it is necessary to consider every aspect of the changes which the body takes because every change is the effect caused by the medicine and the disease. Since the recovery from the disease may cause any other problem which may affect the body, so it is very important to consider and examine every change which occurs in the body of the patient. If patient feels any internal pain in the body or any kind of discomfort, then he should immediately consult the doctor (Jonkman, et al. 2016)

Principle of managing care of patients with chronic condition

Under first level patent should be referred to hospital or clinic. If there is any kind of suspect as to any kind of chronic illness, where he shall be diagnosed. After the result of the diagnosis the report shall be provided to the doctor.

After the report received, the treatment plan is determined as to which plan should be followed for the treatment of the patient by considering the age, height, weight and other considerable things for the treatment (Assimos, et al. 2016).

When the treatment plan has been continued then each and every aspect of changes in the patient is examined and then medicines are given. If required the test are done so that if there is any kind of doubt then it could be cleared. If any further problem arises then medicine could be prescribed to the patient.

If the condition of the patient is very much severe then he shall be hospitalized. Where he will be under the observation of the doctor and the nurses. They will treat them and shall give then medicines, conduct test, and observe every movement and changes so that they can treat any kind of problem instantly (Chalasani, et al. 2018).

There shall be regular follow up to be conducted upon the patient and doctor shall access the patient daily. There shall always be good communication with the patient as it helps patient in treating him mentally too (Bolckmans, & Himpens, 2016).

There are some important thing which is considered for the treatment of the patient:

There shall be a treatment partnership with the patient. The only concern should be to treat the patient completely (Seki, et al. 2016).

The only concern and priority should be for the patient only. Patient shall be given every kind of help so that he shall not be deprived of any kind of help in treatment.

Proper care and treatment 

The patient shall be assessed every time. Clinical status, treatment and advice should be given to the patient at every possible manner. Patient behavior shall be assessed for status of his/her chronic condition and its treatment. Doctor shall access every risk factor and shall perform the treatment accordingly (Joy, Kussman, & Nattiv, 2016).

Doctor should always advise patient. He should use correct and accurate language. Whenever there is any gap in the understanding of the patient, he should be helped. He should be informed about every risk factors and his treatment.  Always agree to help the patient, assist and arrange at every possible manner and shall help patient to achieve full satisfaction. The doctor should agree to the only goals which are clear, measurable, under the patient direct control and is affordable to the patient (Hoynes, Schanzenbach, & Almond, 2016).

Specification of the treatment plan 

Patient shall be provided a written summary of the treatment plan, with full details about the treatment. Patient shall be prescribed with the proper medications. If it is required or necessary, patient should be permitted to pursue other medical treatment. Patient shall be linked with the available support like family, friend, support group, guardian so that proper care in every means could be provided to the patient (Inzucchi, et al. 2015). The patient should be provided with monitor treatment progress. Whenever any kind of support is required or any kind of detail is to be shared appointment shall be made, where he could be educated about more about the condition, and could conduct a clinical follow up. Every details and changes should be recorded so that the changes could be showed to the doctor and he could take the decision accordingly.

Other treatment program 

Support patient self-management,  every kind of management made pertaining to dealing with the condition shall be supported and should be given more details as to what changes to be made and how can he take more proper care.  Patient should organize proactive follow-up so that treatment of the patient could be done according to the plan of the doctor (Powers, et al. 2017).

Involve expert patient peer educator and support staff in health facility. Patient should be educated at every level and should be supported with each and every detail about his conditions so that he could take care of the each and every small thing (Lean, et al. 2018). It is also necessary to Link the patient to community-based resources and support. The doctor and the staff should work as clinical team so that care treatment could be performed easily. It is also required to use written information- registers, treatment plan, treatment cards and written information for patients- to document, monitor and remind. Assure continuity of care (Low Wang, Hess, Hiatt, & Goldfine, 2016).


After assessing all the details given in the case study, it is found that two Priorities of care and clinical reasoning cycle to these helps in patient care and their rehabilitation program. In the end it is necessary to have understanding between the patient, doctor and the medical staff. As without the support of any of them, there could never be the positive result. Doctor and medical staff should always have good communication with the patient. The record of the patient should be properly kept by the staff and the information so given should always be confidential. Patient should always give fixed period of visit for his health checkups. With the positive atmosphere the patient recover even faster than the normal rate of the recovery.