Diabetes Type 2 Including Obesity: Final Assessment 3 Answer

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Question :

Workshop 2 guidance for students

This week’s workshop will be focusing on constructing assessment 1. In this workshop students should aim to choose a topic of interest from the list provided. They should look to start forming groups of 4-5 (no more than 5 per group) and choose a topic of interest.

It is advisable that when the group chooses a topic, they should stay with the topic for assessment 2 and 3 as each assessment builds upon each other. Assessment 1 is an individual assessment, however students can work in a group and share references with each other. The main references should come from the World Health Organisation or any other reputable data base. Each section is broken down below to help students do well in their assessments and answer the questions appropriately. 

Assessment 1 guide.

Goal

The goal of this assignment is for students to choose a topic of interest from the list below.  Students are required to select one of the following topics. 

  • Diabetes Type 2 (including obesity)
  • Chronic respiratory conditions (as a result of smoking)
  • Mental Illness (including self-harm)
  • Infectious diseases (sexual transmission)
  • Alcohol and its effects (excessive consumption)
  • Safety practices of menstruation in specific Countries

Students are then to conduct library research and to acquire knowledge and understanding about their chosen topic. In a written essay format, Students are required to:

  • Clearly state your chosen topic. Discuss the incidence and prevalence (epidemiology) of reported cases globally, including the current estimated morbidity and mortality rates of the condition.
  • Discuss the cohort most at risk of the condition (the age of the population mostly affected).
  • Review the current strategies for health promotion of the chosen topic and discuss the effectiveness of the programs. Do the programs appear to be working? Consider if the programs are suitable to the cohort most at risk.

Construction of the assignment.

Each assignment should start with an introduction. The introduction should always contain OBJECTIVE information, do not put in your personal opinion or write information that cannot be supported by facts. With the health topic that you choose, it is best that you look at the Global statistics of your chosen health topic and then funnel down into the Country of Origin that you are choosing. It best for the sake of learning and practical application that you look at the Country of birth origin. So if you were born in India, then please research stats from India. If Nepal, then do the same, and so on for other persons born in different Countries. Please don’t use stats from other Countries such as Australia or American (for example).  This section will not affect assessment 2 and 3 and is only relevant for the individual doing assessment 1 at the moment. 

Make sure when you are doing your assignment that you are careful of your word count. You only have 1000 words for this assessment and 10% can be additional with references. Therefore have a look at the marking criteria and see how many marks are contributed to each section. This should then influence how many words to dedicate to each section. I have an example below 

The introduction can look something like this, but please do not directly copy this example.

Introduction (Suggested heading)  ( 150-200 words)

Mental Illness is defined by (………….). Globally, 450,000 people are diagnosed each year as having a mental illness with a further 40 % of people being hospitalised from a mental illness related disorder. This assignment will discuss the incidence and prevalence (epidemiology) of reported cases globally, including the current estimated morbidity and mortality rates of the condition. Furthermore, the assignment will address the cohort most at risk of mental illness globally and in (Choose country of choice  eg.. Nepal).  Finally this assignment will review the current strategies for health promotion of the chosen topic and discuss the effectiveness of the programs, a discussion on the effectiveness of the programmes and will consider if the health programmes are appropriate for the cohort most at risk.

Epidemiology; Incidence and Prevalence (Suggested heading) (200-250 words) 

  • Clearly state your chosen topic. Discuss the incidence and prevalence (epidemiology) of reported cases globally, including the current estimated morbidity and mortality rates of the condition.

In this section you must look at the stats of morbidity and mortality of the chosen topic. Please don’t define what these words mean, the marker will be able to tell based up how you write this section up. Look at discussing the Global stats of your health condition and then funnel it into the stats of the chosen Country. Its not an excuse to say you cannot find them. We have done this assessment a few times now in different variations and I know the information is available for most Countries. 

Cohort most at risk (Suggested heading 200-250 words) 

  • Discuss the cohort most at risk of the condition (the age of the population mostly affected)

This section should address the age of which people are mostly affected by this condition. Can you ascertain if there is also a particular gender which is affected or any associated co-morbidities or factors that make people more vulnerable to this condition? This is where you can use the information from the social determinants of health to help and you can use this in the reference. 

Health Promotion strategies (Suggested heading 200-250 words) 

  • Review the current strategies for health promotion of the chosen topic and discuss the effectiveness of the programs. Do the programs appear to be working? Consider if the programs are suitable to the cohort most at risk.

This section is as it states. Please look at the current health promotions that the Gov or local health authorities are using to make people aware of the condition and how they can prevent the condition. Comment on some of the promotions (are they in the form of media adds / pamphlets etc.? ) and what are the purposes of these promotions ?. For example with Smoking the Gov increases Taxes and advertise on cigarette packages how smoking harms. See if you can find how effective these intervention are. 

Conclusion (Suggested heading) (100-150 words)

This should sum up the information you have been discussing over the assignment. 

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Answer :

Final Assessment 3

DIABETES TYPE 2 INCLUDING OBESITY

Introduction 

The disease burden accounted for due to diabetes and an increased incidence of obesity that has risen in every country. There has been a high level of incidences that have given a  global rise due to the prevalence of obesity along with experiencing an unhealthy lifestyle. From the global prevalence of the 382 million people having diabetes cases in 2013, there is an expected to rise to 592 million by 2035 (Zatterale, 2020). The earlier indication of diabetes and the obesity onset can also affect the productive life-years along with the long-term burden within the Nepal healthcare system. Nepal as per the Health 2014 has reported a remarkable 62% of new cases that fall in the aged ≥40 years (Shim, 2018). There has been a population based study focused on obesity in Nepal, which shows a high prevalence of diabetes (19%) who also have an obesity. There has been a rapid Nepal Diabetes, Obesity along Lifestyle cases which have grown to 4.6% of participants that are grouped at the age of 25–34 years which have shown an abnormal glucose tolerance. So far, the changes which have occurred over time have represented the frequency of diabetes and the obesity within the  Nepal that fall in the age group of 18–39 years (Spurr, 2019).

Epidemiology; Incidence and Prevalence 

 global prevalence of diabetes

Globally, the global prevalence of diabetes along with the obesity has increased in the adult population that has nearly doubled from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 (An, 2020). Similarly, the obesity with the diabetes is widely seen in the low- and middle-income countries

Globally diabetes and obesity has risen in Middle East and Western country, Source (An, 2020)

In Nepal, from the past 2017-18, there has been one in twenty Nepal ( estimated to be the 4.9%) that have diabetes (Sheikhpour, 2020).

Over the period, there has been an increase in diabetes that has seen more instances of female than males (7.89% in comparison to the female 17.4%) (Forslund, 2018).

 (Source Karki, 2019), Diabetes statics observed in obese people  in male to female

Type 2 diabetes has risen since common than Type 1 diabetes which has accounted for 4.1% people that has given Type 2 diabetes as shown within the 145,000 people (0.6%) from Type 1 diabetes in 2017-18. Since the rise in the proportion of people has been to 3.5% for Type 2 diabetes in 2007-08 (Dhungana, 2016). Subsequently, there is a prevalence of high stable cases that have grown from 2014-15 (4.4%), while in comparison to it (Pulgaron, 2020), Type 1 diabetes has remained fairly to 0.4% as per 2007-08.
There has been a high risk of Type 2 diabetes that has been on account of overweight or obese. It is due to the high risk of the excess body weight that can cause the body's production of and how there can be low instances of insulin absorption. It is recommended for obese people to have a high healthy diet along with the balance of the blood glucose levels and exercise that can help to control, combat and work effectively.
In 2017-18, the Adults higher than the 18 years who were also obese have shown five times likely cases of the normal weight showing the Type 2 diabetes (9.8% to the compare of 2.0%) (Khanal, 2019). Comparing with the adults, who were overweight have shown an increased likeliness to twice cases of Type 2 diabetes (showing the 4.6% concerning 2.0%) having the adults that can represent the normal weight (Li, 2020).

(Source Karki, 2019), Obese and the Diabetes population

Cohort most at risk 

The main population at risk is the age group below 40 who are overweight and obese and even have to overcome the excess body weight. The people need to shed their overweight or obese which is along with the diabetes is due to the low exercise, high sedentary life and having a  bad lifestyle. 

The other factors are the poor diet having an inadequate physical activity, facing an increased energy intake due to the high sugary diet and without any adequate supporting energy expenditure which can lead to lower physical activity and consistently leading to the fat store along with the weight gai (Kacířová, 2018).

The population of less then 40 has been facing higher instances of overweight and obesity due to the rising work pressure, lack of opportunity to exercise and even attributed to the collecting information that can represent the associated health problems (Pant, 2017). As observed, there have been increased statistics of overweight and obesity and the age group of less than 40, show the more instances of chronic disease. There has been a more monitor trends that have shown a higher instance of overweight and obesity groups having a high BMI is due to the lack of physical activities (Guo, 2018).

Health Promotion strategies

The important strategy is to learn some of the ways of an efficient intervention that has occurred consistently at the community level. 

  • It is important to follow the ways of the intervention that can be permanent or for the longer period and this continuing education and guidance done by the community health workers can help for the constant interference within the population covered (Giagulli, 2020)
  • The main targets of the studies should be the office going crowd, youngsters and even the children and adolescents, who would be greatly be influenced due to the educational activities of prevention, which has resulted in the family and to society.
  • The group dynamics, showing the physical activity practices nutritional education, questionnaires, interviews, employment of new technologies, people training and workshops that would have an intervention strategy used. 
  • The workshops would be conducted to have a better aim in promoting health, by sponsoring sports activities, recreational exercises, yoga, meditation activities and even forming the groups to reconnect with each other. 
  • Distributing pamphlets, sharing free equipment and discounts and showing the basic health reports, can help to create awareness and regenerate interests (Fukuda, 2019).

Conclusion

To conclude, how the diabetes and the obese can be notably seen in the cohort risk of below 40 aged population. It is important to have the awareness campaigning and the health promotional strategies to create impact on the overall improvement. The earlier indication of diabetes and the obesity onset can also affect the productive life-years along with the long-term burden within the Nepal healthcare system.