Difference between Arabic and English language
Every language has its own characteristic trademarks. Therefore, grammatical, phonological and syntactical characteristics of each language differ from one another. English and Arabic both languages are popularly used by the major population of the world. Significantly English is primarily representative of the Western World whereas Arabic is used in the Middle- East and has oriental flavor imbedded in it. In this essay the stark characteristics of both languages have been identified in order to differentiate between the languages.
Arabic belongs to the Semitic family but as far as the origin of English is concerned it belongs to the Scandinavian family (Showalter & Hayes-Harb, 2015). As these two languages have different origins the grammar of Arabic is very different from that of English. In the basis of arabic language there are three root consonants and has fixed vowel patterns and the use of affix is prominent in the language (Versteegh, 2014). There is a lack of such pattern in English language. It is easier to distinguish verbs and adjectives in Arabic than in English.
Arabic alphabet has 28 consonants and 8 vowels or diphthongs whereas in English language there are 26 letters in English language, among which there are 5 vowels and 21 consonants. In Arabic short vowels are not of primary importance but in English the short vowels are important. The short vowels in Arabic do not appear in writing (Chrabaszcz & Jiang, 2014).
In Arabic language scripts are written in cursive and from right to left but in English apart from the cursive style other styles are also used in writing. There is no distinction in the uppercase and in the lower case as far as the Arabic is concerned. Inj english the rules and regulations regarding punctuation.
English has more vowel sounds than English. There are about three times more vowel sounds in English than Arabic. The use of consonant cluster is also different in English. The word stress is regular in Arabic but the nature of stress in English pronunciation is rapid and random. For instance, in words like yesterday and tomorrow the stress pattern is different (Versteegh, 2014). In ‘yesterday’ the first section of the word is stressed but in ‘tomorrow’ the middle section or the second syllable is stressed. The syllable distinctions of the two languages have separate rules.
Grammatical and syntactical difference
English grammar varies from Arabic. In Arabic indefinite articles do not exist but indefinite articles are very important as far as the English syntax is concerned. The use of definite article is not similar to the use of definite article in English (Beeston, 2016). The genitive construction of the English sentences differs from Arabic.
In an Arabic sentence the adjectives follow the nouns that they qualify. In case of the relative clauses unlike English Arabic includes the pronoun. Grammatical rules and regulations of arabic is very different from that of English.
Every language has its own set of distinct words, concerning the vocabulary it can be stated that in Arabic vocabulary there are many particular culture specific words which can not be translated directly (one word translation) into English (Dickins, Hervey & Higgins, 2016).
In the light of the above study it is evident that both English and Arabic has its own significant characteristics and belongs to rich cultural heritage. The rules and regulation of the basic sentence structure and pronunciation therefore are subject to change. Both the languages has its own characteristic features.