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Difference Between Expert and Teacher: Module 2 Task 2 Answer

Module 2 – Task 2

  • this task accounts for 20% of the total unit grade
  • read the learning outcomes at the end of this document
  • answer all questions
  • write concisely, but ensure you address all aspects of each question
  • type your answer to each question in the “Module2task2s12019 answers” document
  • use the “Task 2 turnitin submission” link on the edcn800 ilearn page to submit this task
  • in submitting this task you make the following declaration

I declare that:

This assignment is entirely my own work based on my personal study and/or research.

  • I have acknowledged all material and sources used in the preparation of this assignment, including any material generated in the course of my employment .
  • I have not copied in part, or in whole, or otherwise plagiarised, the work of others.
  • The assignment, or substantial parts of it, has not previously been submitted for assessment in any formal course of study in this or any other institution, unless acknowledged in the assignment and previously agreed to by the Unit's Convenor
  • The assignment is within the word and page limits specified for the assignment
  • The use of any material in this assignment does not infringe the intellectual property / copyright of a third party
  • I understand that this assignment may undergo electronic detection for plagiarism and a copy of the assignment may be retained on the University's database and used to make comparisons with other assignments in the future
1) Hattie (2003), whose work was influential in the development of the American National Board of Professional Teaching Standards I introduced you to in the previous module, used evidence from interview, observation, transcripts, surveys and artefacts to assess the 16 dimensions that distinguished expert from experienced teachers. The data from these multiple sources was synthesised into a numeric single score on each dimension.

“All this material was then reviewed for completeness, and sorted into specific tasks. Twenty-two trained scorers then reviewed each piece of material and coded it along the 16 dimensions, using a four point scale. Levels 1 and 2 described performances that were not characteristics of expert teachers for that dimension, and Levels 3 and 4 described performances that were characteristics of expert teachers.” p12

Hattie (2003) provides a table of inter-rater agreement for some of these dimensions (see below).
DimensionsInter-rater correlation
Challenge .87
Classroom climate .88
Deep representations .79
Deep understanding and accomplishment .84
Improvisation .95
Monitor learning and provide Feedback .87
Multidimensional perception .88
Passion .90
Problem solving .83
Respect .81
Sensitivity to context .62
Test Hypotheses .37
Use of knowledge .72

What form of reliability do these correlations address? Why is it important that this be high?

(You might like to talk about how these data were used, and how they were collected and analysed, before you address the specific questions I asked)

Hattie, J., (2003), Teachers make a difference: what is the research evidence? http://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=research_conference_2003 (accessed February 2019)

2) In Lizzio and Wilson’s (2005) second study, they constructed a questionnaire to investigate “students’ perceptions of learning group functioning” p381.

They offered two lines of evidence to suggest that this was a valid instrument.

Firstly they say that “Questionnaire items were developed for the seven process domains identified in Study 1…….Where possible, the wording of items was based on specific responses or examples provided by students” p382.

And secondly they subjected the responses of their sample to factor analysis.

What aspects of measurement validity do these two lines of evidence support? What else could they have done to demonstrate the validity of the instrument?

(You might begin with a brief discussion of what measurement validity is and why it is important).

Lizzio, A. & Wilson, K. (2005) ‘Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education: Students’ Perceptions of Process and Outcomes’, British Journal of Educational Psychology 75: 373–90.



3) Lizzio and Wilson (2005) say that “Both factors evidenced high levels of internal consistency. For Factor 1, Cronbach’s α= was .95; for Factor 2, Cronbach’s α= :87.” (p383)

What do they mean by this, and why is it important to establish that the instrument has high levels of internal consistency? Is there any reason why we should be cautious in our interpretation of these statistics?

(Remember to locate your answer within the broader context of their research)

Lizzio, A. & Wilson, K. (2005) ‘Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education: Students’ Perceptions of Process and Outcomes’, British Journal of Educational Psychology 75: 373–90

The next three questions (4, 5 & 6) are based on the following information.

Unit evaluations for edcn800 reveal that feedback is an issue for some students in this unit; they want more of it, they want it sooner, they want it specific, detailed and personalised. This is consistent with research findings (Jonsson, 2013; Rae & Cochrane, 2008), but there are some problems with taking these comments on face value. Creating such feedback it hugely time intensive, and there is reason to believe that it may not improve student outcomes.

Firstly, research suggests that not all students actually use feedback and many lack effective strategies to use it productively; “…in a study by Furnborough and Truman (2009), less than half of the students actually used the feedback formatively. As becomes evident, albeit most students seem quite happy to get feedback, not all students possess fruitful strategies for dealing constructively with it (Furnborough and Truman, 2009; Porte, 1996)” (Jonsson, 2013, p69)

Secondly, research suggests that the form of personalised feedback that students want may not be that which leads to the greatest improvement; “there are indications that nondirective feedback and the use of nonindividualized feedback, such as model answers, are more effective in order to improve students’ performance (Cho and MacArthur, 2010; Huxham, 2007).” (Jonsson, 2013, p68)

Perhaps the best approach to improving feedback in edcn800 is to develop a model of feedback based on the best available research evidence, implement the model, and train students in how to use it effectively. As researchers, we also know the value of collecting evidence to guide and evaluate each stage of the process.

However, one problem with this is that in order for feedback to be more generally useful, ie beyond a single unit, it needs to be embedded in the Department’s culture of learning; “Responsibility for setting this culture of learning lies with the wider organization, department and lecturers.” (Rae & Cochrane, 2008, p226). This opens another can of worms, the one labelled cultural change, because it implies that all unit convenors should adopt a common approach.

Therefore, I want to take steps to promote students’ effective use of feedback across all units, but I really don’t know much about;
  1. the approaches to feedback unit convenors currently use, and the factors which shape their decisions
  2. the forms of feedback students value, and the ways they use it to improve their learning
  3. what students think about the quality of feedback they currently receive in each unit

In the next three questions, you’ll assist me in finding my way forward by making recommendations about data collection and sampling.

Jonsson, A. (2013). Facilitating productive use of feedback in higher education, Active Learning in Higher Education, 14, pp.63-76.

Rae, A., M. & Cochrane, D., K. (2008). Listening to students: How to make written assessment feedback useful. Active Learning in Higher Education, 9, pp.217-230.

4) In order to address the research questions “what approaches to feedback do unit convenors currently use, and what factors shape their decisions about the approach to feedback they employ”, I intend to interview convenors of all units in Education’s postgraduate program.

The issues I’m exploring here are complex ones, and convenors’ responses are likely to be quite varied. Whilst there are things I want to ensure I address in each interview, I really want to let them have the freedom to express their views and beliefs in any way they choose. I want them to talk about what they do in their unit, but I also want to know why they choose to do the things they do. I don’t need to worry about sampling, because I intend to interview all unit convenors, but I do need to be very careful about my choice of interview type. 

What types of interview are available to me, which do you advise me to use, and why?
5) In order to address the research questions “what forms of feedback do students value, and in what ways do they use it to improve their learning” I want to interview a sample of students from the Department’s Master’s programs.

Whilst these are complex issues, the research literature provides a fairly clear indication about both the desired types and potential uses of feedback. However, this research was done in other places at other times so I don’t really know how well it fits the current experience of Macquarie students. Further, i’m not particularly interested in developing a deep understanding of each individual’s perspective, what I mostly want is to catalogue the range of types and uses.

I’d like your assistance in selecting an appropriate sampling strategy for this qualitative study; what types are available to me, which do you advise me to use, and why?

6) In order to address the question of “what students think about the quality of feedback they receive in each unit” I want to send a questionnaire to all students in every unit in the Department’s Postgraduate programs. I need your help in designing a section of this questionnaire, and I want this section to be based entirely on numeric rating scale items.

You could draw your inspiration for your items from Jonsson’s (2013) review of the literature and from the following quotes from Rae and Cochrane (2008).
  • “…students require the assessment item to be clearly presented, assessment criteria to be communicated before they commence their assessment, and instruction on how to make best use of the feedback they receive…..”p226
  • Feedback “…should encourage the students to engage in reflection on their work and also promote self-managed learning”p226
  • “…lecturers should use clear, accessible language that the students can interpret and understand, giving positive feedback rather than focusing on overwhelmingly negative comments” p228
  • “Feedback must also be….., timely” p222 and “personalized” p224
  • “The students overwhelmingly expressed a desire for clear, constructive, informative comments that could be interpreted easily”p224

In response to this question, I want you to begin by describing your model of the features that define quality feedback, then I’d like you to write at least 5 numerical rating scale items that operationalise your model. I then want you to explain to me why these are good numeric rating scale items (i.e relating to the stems, numeric scales, response categories and anchors, etc). Some, but not all, of the principles of questionnaire construction apply to an instrument which is comprised entirely of numerical rating scales. To recap:
  1. Describe your model of what constitutes quality feedback, perhaps inspired by Jonsson (2013) and Rae and Cochrane (2008)
  2. List the questions (stem, scale, and anchors, etc) but please don’t format them, i.e. no tabs between – “1(strongly agree) 2, 3, 4, 5(strongly disagree)” is fine if you want to use a partially anchored scale.
  3. Show me that these are good items by discussing the relevant principles of questionnaire construction you’ve applied.

(NB Just in case you haven’t got it by now, I’ll say it again; please include only numerical rating scale items and no other form of question. There is no need for you to write the demographic section).

Jonsson, A. (2013). Facilitating productive use of feedback in higher education, Active Learning in Higher Education, 14, pp.63-76.
Rae, A., M. & Cochrane, D., K. (2008). Listening to students: How to make written assessment feedback useful. Active Learning in Higher Education, 9, pp.217-230.


7) Stipek and Byler (2004) argue that

“Research examining the effects of different mixes of instructional approaches on child outcomes is needed to guide practice. Although studies have examined the effects of specific instructional strategies on children’s reading and mathematics skills, often in experimental settings, more global measures of classroom instruction are lacking. We describe here a measure, designed to be appropriate for classrooms serving children from the age of 4–7 years, which assesses instructional practices as well as management and the social climate. The new measure focuses more on how instruction is done than on the content of instruction, although the two are often connected. For example, teachers who stress the development of letter–sound relationships (content) typically use repetition and practice (strategy). Teachers who stress understanding are more likely to engage students in open-ended conversations about text. Thus, although the measure focuses primarily on the process of instruction, it taps content to some degree.” (p376)

Why should they go to all this trouble to construct and validate a quantitative observational measure when all they have to do is ask the teachers what they do?

(You don’t need to read this article in its entirety in order to successfully answer this question)

Stipek, D. and Byler, P. (2004), The early childhood classroom observation measure, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 375–397

8) A group of researchers are interested in examining the attitudes of Early Childhood teachers to the Early Years Learning Framework.

The Early Years Learning Framework describes the principles, practice and outcomes essential to support and enhance young children’s learning from birth to five years of age, as well as their transition to school. The Framework has a strong emphasis on play-based learning as play is regarded as the best vehicle for young children’s learning. The Framework also recognises the importance of communication and language (including early literacy and numeracy) and social and emotional development.

The researchers believe that it is important to understand teacher attitudes as these are likely to influence how teachers implement the framework because “each early childhood service will develop their own strategy to implement the Framework” (Office of Early Childhood Education and Care).

The researchers intend to use a questionnaire to collect data from a large sample of teachers, and they want to ensure that the sample includes teachers from different locations (urban, regional, rural) and types of centres (for profit, not for profit). They are seeking your advice to help them determine the optimal sampling procedure for their needs. However, they tell you that there is no published list of Early Childhood teachers, although they can supply you with a list of child care centres that includes information about size, location and centre type.

Describe the procedure you would advise the researchers to employ given that you believe it is important to draw a representative, although not necessarily proportional, sample of teachers.

Office of Early Childhood Education and Care, The Early Years Learning Framework, https://education.gov.au/early-years-learning-framework (accessed February 2019)


9) Name the form of sampling Lizzio and Wilson (2005) employ in their study 2 (NB don’t forget to tell me the reasons for your choice). What are the advantages and disadvantages of this form of sampling?

Lizzio, A. & Wilson, K. (2005) ‘Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education: Students’ Perceptions of Process and Outcomes’, British Journal of Educational Psychology 75: 373–90


10) Describe the difference between internal validity and external validity as applied to quantitative research.


11) Qualitative researchers have a different conception of "validity" than that which is typically applied to quantitative research. Outline the major concepts relating to the "validity" of a qualitative study and briefly discuss the strategies used to maximise it.

QuestionLearning outcome4th Edition5th Edition6th Edition
1Understands that reliability is a necessary but not sufficient characteristic of a good quantitative measurement and can identify and explain the different means of assessing it [K6.1].Ch 6 pp 138-143Ch 7;165-172Ch 7; pp 163-170
Identifying a good test or assessment procedure.
2Understands that measurement validity is a necessary but not sufficient characteristic of a good quantitative measurement and can identify and explain the different means of assessing it [K6.2].Ch 6 pp 143-149Ch 7; 165-166, 172-177Ch 7; pp 170-176
Validity
3Understands that reliability is a necessary but not sufficient characteristic of a good quantitative measurement and can identify and explain the different means of assessing it [K6.1].Ch 6 pp 138-143Ch 7;165-172Ch 7; pp 163-170
Identifying a good test or assessment procedure.
4Understands the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of the various types of qualitative interview techniques [K5.3].Ch 8; 202-204Ch 9; 233-234Ch 9; pp 235-238
Qualitative interviews
5Understands the characteristics of the various types of sampling techniques used in qualitative research paradigms and the contexts, purposes and research questions for which they are appropriate [K4.3].Ch 9; 235-239Ch 10; 269-255Ch 10; pp 272-275
Sampling in qualitative research
6Can employ the principles of questionnaire construction to construct an instrument consisting of summated rating scales [K5.1].Ch 7 pp 161-192Ch 8; 190-222Ch 8; pp 189-218
How to construct a questionnaire
7Understands the general purpose of observational methods, their strengths and weaknesses and how they can be used to complement self-report techniques [K5.4].Ch 8, pp 206-208Ch 9; 236-241Ch 9; pp 240-243
Observation
8Understands the characteristics of the various types of probability sampling techniques used in quantitative research paradigms, their strengths and weaknesses and the purposes for which they are chosen [K4.1].Ch 9 pp 219-229Ch10; 251-265Ch10; pp 255-267
Random sampling techniques

9Understands the characteristics of the various types of non-random sampling techniques, their pitfalls and reasons why they are often chosen by researchers [K4.2].Ch 9 pp 230-232Ch 10; 263-265Ch 10; pp 267-269
Nonrandom sampling techniques

10Understands the concepts of the internal and the external validity of a quantitative study and can explain the difference between them [K6.3].Ch 10 pp247-260Ch11; 281-295Ch11; pp 285-296
Internal validity
External validity
11Understands that qualitative researchers have a different understanding of the concept of validity and can outline the strategies used to maximise it [K6.4]. Ch 10 pp264-273Ch 11; 299-308Ch 11; pp 298-306
Research validity in qualitative research


Answer

Module 2 – Task 2 answer

  • this task accounts for 20% of the total unit grade
  • the questions for this task are found in the “Module2task2s12019 questions” document
  • answer all questions
  • write concisely
  • type your answer to each question in the relevant space below
  • use the “Task 2” turnitin link on the edcn800 ilearn page to submit this task
  • in submitting this task you make the following declaration

I declare that

  • This assignment is entirely my own work based on my personal study and/or research.
  • I have acknowledged all material and sources used in the preparation of this assignment, including any material generated in the course of my employment.
  • I have not copied in part, or in whole, or otherwise plagiarised, the work of others.
  • The assignment, or substantial parts of it, has not previously been submitted for assessment in any formal course of study in this or any other institution, unless acknowledged in the assignment and previously agreed to by the Unit's Convenor
  • The assignment is within the word and page limits specified for the assignment
  • The use of any material in this assignment does not infringe the intellectual property / copyright of a third party
  • I understand that this assignment may undergo electronic detection for plagiarism and a copy of the assignment may be retained on the University's database and used to make comparisons with other assignments in the future
Question 1
Inter-rater correlation is gathered from the classroom, which helped the researcher to understand the viewpoint of the students. Trained observers are appointed for collection of data and they visited classrooms. Collected data are recorded in the database, which helped the researcher for further analysis. Transcripts of the lesson are collected and detailed observations are done for the selected students. The interview process took place for teachers and student for better analysis of data. Scores are evaluated through independent tasks and the reliability of mean inter-rater is 0.79 (Hattie, 2003). It can be seen that these correlations form relatable data and the researcher can gather information on this collected data. This process signifies consistency level in collected data and the higher it is, the higher the chances of consistency. Observations are done and this finds the reliability level.  From the observed lesson, it was coded on the deep and surface level. Benchmarking was done to understand the level of common understanding and consistency (Hattie, 2003). Therefore, it can be seen from the research that the reliability of these data is high.


Question 2
The researcher has prepared questionnaires which helps in the survey process. This questionnaire is done in order to prepare and evaluate the learning outcomes. As per the research of Lizzio
& Wilson (2005), set of questionnaires are based on first and second-year students. This method is applied in the first study and the answer is obtained from the students. This has helped the research to reach a conclusion and specific responses are gathered. In the second study the researcher has used and collected responses from students and factor analysis are done (Lizzio
& Wilson, 2005). These two methods of measurement suggest that the researcher has adopted two methods, which are best suitable. Factor analysis helps to understand the related elements, which affect the mentality of the students. Understanding the factors that are responsible for moulding perspective is very important. The research may have used interviews process that can help to understand the perspective of the students. This method also emphasises the perspective of the students and this can increase the reliability of data.


Question 3
Cronbach's alpha is a type of reliability test which is used to measure the internal consistency of the factors. It is measured on the expected correlation and provides information on internal consistency. The thumb rule of the process is if the result of the test of Cronbach's alpha is more than 0.07 then it is reliable. If the results of the test are lower than 0.60 then the reliability of the tests reduces to a significant level. In the first factor, the Cronbach's alphas are 0.95, which means there is the existence of a high level of consistency. The research has used this reliability test to increase the factor's consistency level. In the second factor, the Cronbach's alpha is 0.87, which means there is also a high level of internal consistency exists. This means both the factors are reliable in nature and it can help the researcher to understand the potential of data. All the time of gather statistical data it is very important to maintain internal consistency to make the data reliable. Therefore, it can be seen it is very important while interpreting statistical data. 


Question 4
Open-ended interviews can be done to understand the perspective of the students. This way the students can respond to the questions more prominently and share their views. In order to know the perspective of the students to understand their take on feedback, it is important to hear their views (Rae & Cochrane, 2008). Students can talk freely in the open-ended interview process rather than close-ended questions. In close-ended questions, options are given which restricts the actual response of the students. However, the open-ended question can help the students to share their views and perspective on specific items. It is important to be careful while conducting the research as a selection of interview questions is very important. It can be seen that many students do not use feedback to improve their performance. Very fewer students use feedback to improve their overall performance.  In order to explore this complex process, proper selection of the interview method is needed.


Question 5
In order to understand the perspective of students regarding usage of feedbacks to improve their performance sampling strategies have to be applied (Jonsson, 2013). In this case, probability sampling can help the researcher in this qualitative study. This sampling strategy helps the process of collection of data. Probability sampling includes choosing students on a random basis. This can help the researcher to gather views of the random students and analyse the same. Simple random sampling is a part of the probability sampling process and this can help the researcher to collect samples from students. Many types of sampling strategies are available but simple random sampling is best suitable in this research. This sampling strategy also helps the researcher to make less error and data collection process becomes easy. Out of stratified random sampling, systematic and cluster sampling, simple random sampling is the best method, which is less time consuming and easy. Therefore, it is advised to the researcher to use this simple random sampling in the data collection process.


Question 6
a) Gathering feedback is very important for the researcher in order to understand the views and perspective of the participants. Quality of feedback can be accessed through the usage of scale. This can help to rate the quality of feedbacks and helps the researcher to understand research results. Construction of the questionnaire helps the researcher to understand the perspective of the participants. Through this interview process, their perspective can become clearer. This process of conducting research increases the validity of the instruments. 
b) List the questions (stem, scale, and anchors, etc) but please don’t format them, i.e. no tabs between – “1(strongly agree) 2, 3, 4, 5(strongly disagree)” is fine. 
#StemScale/Anchors
1What form of feedback should be used?Strongly agree
2How to improve learning process?Agree
3What is quality feedback ?Agree
c) Engaging in the research process helps the researcher to make the data more reliable. The numerical scale helps to gather information and the quality of the feedbacks are assessed. Quality feedback helps the researcher to increase the reliability and validity of the research results.


Question 7
Qualitative observational measurements are used in the research, which is helping the research to understand specific approaches. Validated questions need to be answered in order to develop this perspective. Different studies have examined the effect of instructional strategies. These stages help to understand the full concept of skills.  Reading and experimental skill of the students are examined in this process which helps to understand the skill concept. As per the view of Stipek & Byler (2004), children aged from 4-7 years need to develop the skills of reading and mathematical skills. Management practices and social management helps to understand the perspective and concept of this skill. The sound relationship needs to be established which can improve the process of skill enhancement. Most of the times it is realised that teacher uses repetition and practice strategy to improve the skills among children. It is important to focus on the instructional process and evaluate the strategies accordingly. Open-ended conversation can help to understand the perspective of the student and helps to develop in primary skills.


Question 8
The researcher believes that in order to implement strategies the perspective of the teachers needs to be understood. It is important to understand the attitude of the teachers and understand their views. Principles and practices followed by the teachers need to be assessed in order to amp their effectiveness. The framework of this practice gives guidance to the researcher and this helps in gaining academic views. In order to understand the perspective of the teachers the researcher has planned to conduct research based on the teachers. This includes teachers from the various backgrounds and helps in gathering appropriate information. This is done via data collection and sampling techniques are applied in this context. The procedure of optimal sampling helps the research to understand and gather information based on teachers. Different centres of childcare can give information about early childhood teachers. This helps the researcher to understand the views and perspective of teachers.


Question 9
The researchers have used the questionnaire form while conducting the second study. Questionnaires have been used for the first and second year’s students, which help the research to obtain their perspective (Lizzio & Wilson, 2005). Simple random sampling has been used in this research, which has helped the researcher to gather information from a various number of students. Advantages and disadvantages of the sampling method have been discussed below-
Advantages 
  • It has better chances of representing the overall population through sample gathered 
  • Results of the research can be concluded in a short time duration
  • This process is cost effective 
  • The less judgemental process is needed for this method and this helps the research to reach towards a conclusion.
  • It is one of the easy ways among other sampling methods
  • This sampling method has the advantage of not requiring a technical person for conducting the research.
Disadvantages 
  • This process of sampling is monotony and redundant
  • This process of sampling has the risk of collection samples only from specific variations


Question 10
A difference exists between internal and external validity in terms of quantitative research. Internal validity refers to the results and it is based on attribute variable and independent variable. This process does not require any rival explanation, which helps the research to understand the internal validity of the research. This quality of research design helps the researcher to understand the results in a clearer way. However, the external validity process offers the extension that research results can be generalised from the original copy. This helps the researcher to understand the generalised structure, which is followed in the research paper and does the research accordingly. This technique is s generalised technique of observation and helps the research to obtain specific results. The threat, which is included in external and internal validity, is that the researcher tends to find out the cause and effect relationship among variables. Therefore, these methods help the research to understand the perspective of data validity and maintain consistency.


Question 11
Qualitative research is interpretive and subjective in nature. Findings from qualitative research are that the research results are more likely to gain validation. It is very important for the researcher to increase the validity and reliability of the research so it can be used further. Validity mainly refers to the process of correctness and accuracy of the findings. This helps the research outcome to be more robust in nature and the researcher can convince other people about validity. In order to increase the validity of the research results, the research needs to increase the trustworthiness of data. Crosschecking sources and information may help to increase the validity process. The validity of data helps the research to understand the correctness of data by evaluation results. Overall research purpose can be gained through increase in validity of data. 


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