Heritage and Cultural Tourism Management
This unit looks at heritage and cultural management and its role within the travel and tourism sector. Throughout the unit, learners will gain an awareness of definitions of heritage and culture, the organizations involved in the management of heritage and the different types of ownership.
This unit will provide an in-depth understanding of the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry. Learners will also be able to look at potential conflicts within the industry and the influence of technology.
Learners will also be expected to investigate the role and scope of interpretation within this sector and its impact on participants and management.
The aim of this unit is to enable learners to gain understanding of the heritage and cultural industry, the organizations within it, the purpose of attractions and methods of interpretation.
On successful completion of this unit a learner will:
1 Understand the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism
1.1 Analyze the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry
1.2 Discuss potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and cultural resources
2 Understand the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the travel and tourism sector
2.1 Assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers
3 Understand roles, responsibilities and ownership of organisations in the heritage and cultural industry
3.1 Evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites
3.2 Analyse roles and responsibilities of organisations in the heritage and cultural industry
4 Understand the role of methods of interpretation within the heritage and culture industry.
4.1 Evaluate methods and media used for interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry for tourists
1. Understand the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism
Heritage: definitions of heritage; analysis of its importance and interest
Attractions: different types of attractions; sites and venues; accessibility and sustainability of transport; up-skilling and re-training staff; changing staff profiles
Natural: aspects of heritage including landscape, coastlines, national parks, forests, woodlands, wildlife, other habitats; impact of the travel and tourism sector on the conservation and sustainability of such sites
Constructed: built heritage environment eg museums, historic buildings, artefacts, archaeological sites, transport, industrial heritage, sport-related heritage sites, themed sites, public art, sculpture and monuments
Cultural heritage: role of heritage industry in shaping and sustaining cultural identity; regional and national costume eg song, dance, myth, legend, folklore, language and food; impact of issues
Conflicts of interest: access versus conservation eg erosion, impact of visitors on sites and their immediate environments, presentation of heritage and culture to visitors, planning and land use, brown field sites versus green field sites, conservation threats imposed by further growth; potential role and impact of new technologies eg virtual reality and interactive software; access to the new technologies eg capital costs and revenue generation, training and up-skilling of staff, management of change
2 Understand the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the travel and tourism sector
Purpose of heritage and culture: purpose eg education, research, recreation, entertainment
Customers: categories eg segmentation, target groups, visitor levels and usage rates, overall status of heritage and culture as a leisure activity, income generation and links with tourism and urban regeneration, specialist groups
3 Understand roles, responsibilities and ownership of organisations in the heritage and cultural industry
Ownership of heritage and culture: ownership eg public and commercial ownership, mission and values, objectives and income generation; role in education, training and conservation; control of access and preservation of cultural heritage; role and operation of charitable trusts eg mission and values, management roles and responsibilities
Organisations: structure and remits of government agencies; voluntary bodies; government departments; specialist conservation groups; role of national governmental departments
Roles and responsibilities: funding, advisory and legislative; changes eg new technologies, changes in attractions and income generation, new merchandising
4 Understand the role of methods of interpretation within the heritage and culture industry
Interpretation: importance of interpretation to the visitor experience; relevance of a thematic approach to interpretation
Media for interpretation: media eg published material, audio-visual, interactive technology, drama and role play, audio and other sensory techniques
Meeting audience needs: importance of establishing audience needs for effective interpretation; language levels; combination of interpretative media to achieve appropriate effects
Accrediting Body: EDEXCEL
Course: BTEC HND IN TRAVEL AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT
Unit: 19 HERITAGE AND CULTURAL TOURISM MANAGEMENT
Outcome of session
After completing this session you should be able to:
|Activity/seminar and formative assessment||Resources|
Introduction to the module
Address the mode of assessment
Group discussion about the scenario with regards to the assignment and relevant tasks to be addressed
The heritage and heritage tourism
Awareness of the module content
Challenges to the LO to be addressed
Define heritage, heritage attractions, analyse importance of heritage with in travel and tourism
|Case study and group discussion||Module outline and qualification frame work|
|Growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry with travel and tourism||Analyse different types of attractions such as natural and constructed attractions||Case study, activities, group discussion, research, addressing AC1.1||Power Point presentation, activities, Internet websites|
|Growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry, natural and constructed attractions Cultural heritage|
Evaluate of natural and constructed attractions using a range of examples.
Analyse the role of cultural industry, in sustaining cultural identity,
|Case study, activities, group discussion, research, addressing AC1.1||Power Point presentation, activities, Internet websites, videos|
|conflicts of interests|
Discuss potential conflicts in heritage and cultural tourism.
Analysing case studies from different countries from heritage and cultural tourism providing possible solution on overcoming the potential conflicts.
|Case study, activities, group discussion, research, Case studies addressing AC1.2||Power Point presentation, activities, Internet websites|
Purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the travel and tourism sector
|Assess the purpose of heritage attractions in meeting needs of different customers using a range of examples.||Case study, activities, group discussion, research, addressing AC2.1||Power Point presentation, activities, Internet websites, movies|
|Customers: categories||Segmentation criteria, proposing different criteria for segmentation, recognition of different customers and their needs||Case study, activities, group discussion, research, addressing AC2.1||Power Point presentation, activities, Internet websites|
Ownership of organisations in the heritage and cultural industry
Ownership of organisations in heritage and cultural industry: Public, Private and voluntary ownership
Compare different ownership objectives: private, public, voluntary, evaluation of mission and values,
Evaluation organisations structure, remits, analysing importance and tasks for different ownership organisation, differences and similarities
|Case study, activities, group discussion, research, addressing AC3.1||Power Point presentation, activities, Internet websites|
Roles, responsibilities of organisations in heritage and cultural industry
|Analyse roles and responsibilities of different heritage and cultural organisations||Case study, activities, group discussion, research, addressing AC3.2||Power Point presentation, activities, Internet websites|
|Methods of interpretation within the heritage and culture industry|
Evaluate the relevance of interpretation method in meeting needs for different customer segments
Reflecting on previous visits made by the students.
|Case study, activities, group discussion, research, addressing AC4.1||Power Point presentation, activities, Internet websites, visits|
Media for interpretation
Meeting audience needs
Analyse importance of interpretation,
Evaluate of medias used in interpretation in meeting needs of different tourists and establishing relevant approach.
|Case study, activities, group discussion, research, addressing Ac 4.1|
|Visit to British Museum and The Victoria and Albert Museum|
assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers (2.1)
evaluate methods and media used for interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry for tourists (4.1)
|Field trip addressing AC2.1, 4.1.|
|Critical reflections on the field trip||Addressing 2.1||Power Point presentation, activities, Internet websites, visits|
|Critical reflections on the field trip||Addressing 4.1|
|Revision and unit summary||Revising and summarising the unit contents addressing LO1 -4||Case study, activities, group discussion, research, addressing all ACs||Power Point presentation,|
|Revision and unit summary||Revising and summarising the unit contents addressing LO1-4||One to one support||Module booklet|
|9||Assignment Support||Assignment Support||One to one support|
|10||Assignment Support and submission||Assignment Support and submission|
Recommended text and links:
Timothy, D. J. (2011).Cultural Heritage and Tourism: An Introduction. Bristol: Channel View Books.
Timothy, D. J & Boyd, S.W.(2003). Heritage Tourism. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Timothy, D.J. & Nyaupane, G.P. (2009).Cultural heritage and tourism in the developing world: a regional perspective. London: Routledge
Park, H. Y. (2014) Heritage Tourism. London: Routledge.
Graham, B. & Howard, P. (2008). The Ashgate Companion of Heritage and Identity. Aldershot: Ashgate
Journals and newspapers
Annals of Tourism Research
Journal of Heritage Tourism
International Journal of Heritage Studies
European Journal of Tourism Research
Travel Trade Gazette
Videos available on various websites of heritage organisations.
Cultural Heritage Tourism www.culturalheritagetourism.org
The British Museum www.britishmuseum.org
English Heritage www.english-heritage.org.uk
National Trust www.nationaltrust.org.uk
Natural England www.naturalengland.org.uk
The Victoria and Albert Museum www.vam.ac.uk
Visit Britain www.visitbritain.com
Teaching and Learning Activities
The module tutor(s) will aim to combine lectures with tutorial activities. This environment will provide opportunities for the student to understand the course material through case study and text and to apply it in a practical way. The intent is to facilitate interactive class activities, and discussion about the significant role of research in a global and local business environment.
HERITAGE AND CULTURAL TOURISM MANAGEMENT
Tourism is the act of travelling from one place to another due to leisure or business purposes more than one day but less than a year. There are different types of tourist considering their need and motivation and their love for the destination. However, heritage tourism is highly controversial as some people consider that tourism led to the destruction of the tourist destination due to pollution and vandalism. Moreover, there are issues related to the proper management of the tourism sites, which can create an impact on the attraction of the customers to the site. The present assignment would shed light on the different aspects of cultural and heritage tourism that focuses on historical, artistic and ancient heritage. It enables the tourists to experience environment, traditions, ancient art, culture and lifestyle.
The present report would explore how cultural and heritage sites can be protected with the help of tourism management as is seen in case of Lhasa. The report would further elaborate different management strategies of heritage sites for attracting customers and utilizing different forms of media to communicate with the customers and help them to explore sites. The learner being a research assistant for heritage and cultural tourism consultant firm would explore different features and facets of heritage tourism in four different tasks in relation to the given case study.
Task 1 (LO1)
1.1 Analysing the growth and development heritage and cultural industry (Poster)
In recent days, heritage and cultural tourism have increased due to its importance and growing interest of the tourist. Heritage has several importances that arouse the interest of the tourist. The heritage sites express the aesthetic value of the culture and region and thereby highlight the historical value. The heritage sites preserve information about the past. Heritage sites also help in creating intrinsic and attributed value (Robinson et al. 2011).
The concept of heritage and cultural tourism has begun since the early period. The growth and the development of cultural and heritage tourism began with the rise of the sustainability. The rise of heritage tourism in the UK has contributed £5billion dollar to the GDP and more than 250,000 jobs in the UK. The timeline illustrated below highlights the development process of heritage tourism.
The heritage and thee cultural tourism are of different types.
The Natural heritage sites include the landscape, coastline, forest, wildlife and other habitats.People visits this site for enjoying the natural beauty. Dome of the famous sites in UK include Lake District, Henrhyd Waterfall and Pembrokeshire coast, which are visited by large number of people every year. This sites are affected by the travel and the tourism sector in terms of conservation and sustainability.
The constructed sites include built heritage environment such as the museums, historic buildings and archaeological sites. The London Eye and the British Museum, Tower of London, Stonehenge are some of the constructed heritage. Theme sites and sport related sites also fall in this category.
The cultural heritage industry play a vital role in shaping the cultural identity of a place. The ancient British culture is evident in the legends, music, folklore, language and food. This ancient heritage culture attract visitors from all around the world ad help in spreading of culture.
Tibet has the richness and the depth of tradition, which is embedded in its cultural heritage. Rich customs, tradition, and spirituality of minds have contributed this place with holy charisma. Tibet is a well-known tourist destination provides instances of unique tangible culture. The Chinese government has identified Lhasa as an effective tourist destination and has focused on the development of the area. Renovation plans have been made for Barkhor, which is an old town in Lhasa. Theme parks and hotels would also be constructed on the outskirts of the city to increase the number of tourists (Radio Free Asia, 2017).
However, some conflicts are encountered in the renovation procedure that the Chinese government should focus on making Lhasa the most suitable tourist spot.
1. Barriers form Proponents of Conservation: The London-based Free Tibet group has formed a campaign to fight against these developments. They are concerned with the impact of the visitors on the site and their immediate environment. The main argument provided by this campaign is that it can relegate the significance of heritage within Tibet. They are of the opinion the intervention of the Chinese government and the renovation and development of theme hotels would bring in the Chinese culture thereby destroying the ancient Tibetan Heritage. This serious conflict needs to be addressed as soon as possible (Harrison, 2013).
2. Political Breakdown: The political breakdown can result from the presentation of the heritage and culture to the visitors. Considering the current situation at Lhasa, another conflict of interest that can arise is the breakdown of political scenario. The Chinese government has supported the new plan of renovation while the interest groups and detractors are against it. The situation can be even grimmer if not addressed immediately. Apart from boycotts there can be other harmful action taken by the critics.
3. The conflict between accesses versus conservation: Lhasa upholds stunning Tibetan culture in through their hills, monasteries and other artefacts. Improper planning and land use can create significant impact on the conservation of the areas. Hence, it is essential to curate them so that it remains protected. Often, allowing tourist in such places can adversely affect the interest of the conservation as it can create conservation threats. Increased access can create a negative impact on the visitors on sites resulting in wear and tear of the designs, motifs and carvings.
4. Vandalism: Timothy (2011) commented that vandalism is yet another issue that can arise with further growth of tourism on the site. People can deliberately harm the sites by graffiti or remove the items from the heritage. Laws have been implemented to prevent vandalism in tourist destination or places significant to culture and heritage but still, damages are done which needs to be addressed effectively.
5. Brownfield sites vs Greenfield Sites: Brownfield refers to the place that has been built before while Greenfield refers to the rural areas that has not been built before. Development of Brownfield is sustainable as it increases pressure on the Greenfield. The development of tourism in Lhasa would encourage development of Brownfield sites that would that would create new employment opportunities. Again creating Greenfield would improve infrastructure. Hence, the decision maker of tourism development encounters issues related to site development in Lhasa
Protecting the culture and heritage of a place is often a difficult task. These places have to be preserved and maintained in their original condition for future. People visit these places to experience the grandeur and magnificence of ancient culture and heritage. The British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum are the two famous places in England that act as a storehouse of ancient artefacts of different ancient culture. The main purpose of the British Museum is to preserve as well as exhibit human history, art and culture. It does not want to marginalise itself within Britain but recast itself to the entire world. The main purpose of the Victoria and Albert Museum preserve the art and design of millions of objects developed about 5000 years ago (Timothy, 2011).
Both the two museums have been successfully able to meet the needs and requirements of different visitors. It is for this reason the British Museum (BM) occupies the first position among the top visited museum in England with 6,420,395 visitors in 2016. Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) occupied the sixth position with 3,022, 086 visitors. There are different types of tourist based on needs and motivation who loves to visits this museum. The students are the education tourists who visit museum for their studies and projects. The scientist also forms another group of visitors who come to explore the ancient culture that would be beneficial for their research. Families with children from another group of tourist visit these places for leisure or gather knowledge. Media also visits museums to evaluate the types of artefacts stored here (Timothy, 2011).
The different customers have different needs, which are satisfied by both the British Museum the Victoria and Albert Museum as seen here.
Palumbo et al. (2009) commented that the heritage sites are liked after by the government, however, there are some sites that are under the ownership and management of the private business. The commercial heritage and cultural organisation primarily focus on providing effective advice related to the maintenance of architecture and culture.
3.2 Roles and responsibilities of organisation in the heritage and cultural industry
National Trust is the largest membership organisation in the UK. This is a charity, which runs independently for preserving and protecting the historical places and sites. This trust was established in the year 1895. The trust is developed for presenting the English Country houses. The main roles and responsibilities of National Trust are:
Woodland Trust is another significant Conservation Trust in the UK. This trust is concerned with the development, protection and restoration of native woodland heritage. The trust possesses the ownership of nearly 1000 sites that covers an area of 22,500 hectares. The prime roles and the responsibilities of this organisation are listed in this section:
Task 4 (Management Report)
To: The Management of Heritage and Tourism Cultural Organization
From: Research Assistant
Subject: Different Methods and Media used in the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum for Interpretation
The British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum stores different artefacts of ancient culture and heritage. The museums employ different provisions that attract different visitors with varied purpose from all astound the world. To help the visitors understands the different artefacts stored in the museum, different methods and media are used for interpretation. Proper interpretation is significant for enhancing the experience of the visitors. The British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum have focused on technological development and innovation and hence they utilised modern interpretive tools that are aimed at attracting the customers and improving the experience of the visitors.
The British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museummake use of personal media such as a guide. All the rooms have a guide who is willing to help the visitors with all the information that they require. The exhibitions that are held in V&A also act a guide andattendants for the visitors who visit there. To help the children and common people understand about the ancient culture and history theatres are organised. Plays are organised to help the process of learning easier. The live characters are allowed to ask questions after the play is over by the visitors. Music festival of a different culture is also organised. The main motive of all these activities is to interpret the heritage and the culture of different aspects that are stored in this museum. The use of interpretation for visitor experience in the exhibition in BM has increased the visitors by 13 % (Independent blogs, 2017).
Non-personal media also form significant tools for communicating the visitors. These include the supply of the printed materials. In BM and V&A, brochures, as well as guidebooks, are provided. These are supplied to the visitors when they purchase the ticket. Besides all the artefacts that are stored in BM and V&A, placards are provided to help the visitors obtain adequate knowledge about the displayed items. Scale models are also used in both of these museums to convey the historical significances of these cities.
Technological innovation has played an essential role in the development of the museum and this has helped them to attract people from all over the world. In the era of digitalization, different modern systems are used. British Museum is always focused on inventing ways to attract visitors. The museum has an audio description guides in 11 languages. It was meant for the visitors who do not understand English, for the visually impaired people. The new Multimedia guide provides audio and visual experience to the victors with touch screen device. The Children's Guide offer micro-tours that focus on different parts of the world and these are accompanied by small interactive games (Britishmuseum.org, 2017).
It is quite disappointing to mention that V&A Museum does not provide any audio guide to the visitors. There are personal guides and assistants who are ready to provide all the information to the visitors. The guides and the attendants dress as per the costume of the period and share short stories with the visitors. There are real life actors within the museum who take their position with different artefacts and these actors are allowed to ask questions by the visitors.
The present assignment discussed elaborately the different aspects of heritage and cultural tourism. The rise of new technology and passage of time has brought several changes in the life of the common people. Modernism has affected the people and they are now coming out an ancient plethora of culture. Heritage tourism began since the ancient times when people used to go for pilgrimage. This is because tourism management organization ensure proper maintenance of the heritage sites.
The heritage sites express the aesthetic value of the culture and region. The heritage sites preserve information about the past such as the British Museums and V&A Museum. They focus in catering the needs of different customers like students, teachers, researcher and families and thereby help in creating intrinsic and attributed value. There are different public and private trust that looks after the protection of heritage sites like National Trust, Woodland Trust Association for Cultural Enterprise (ACE) Historic England. The different management sites possess roles and responsibilities. Usage of different media to communicate with the customers also evaluate the success of museum. It can be concluded that proper management of the heritage sites is essential for the maintenance of the sites.