Q: Discuss the meaning and significance of sustainable development in tourism industry.
Sustainable tourism indicates being green, environmental friendly and it embarks on eco- tourism holidays. Sustainability is potentially significant in travel and tourism industry. In order to have a positive impact over the communities more travel agencies are pertinently developing and embracing sustainable travel projects. This paper aims to understand the rationale of tourism planning and also sheds light on different approaches of tourism planning and development. Along with that the study evaluates the necessity of sustainable tourism and analyzes prevalent issues and impacts of tourism with a brief discussion of the economic, environmental and socio-political aspects of travel and tourism.
Rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry
Sustainable tourism is significantly gaining popularity in recent years as many academic publications provide information regarding Asia-Pacific destinations and most of the researches are case study specific but there are some publications that deal with broad national and industry level inquiries. According to the 1987 Brundtland Commission Report sustainability can be defined as development that meets the needs of the present and the process occurs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Schroeder, 2015).
The concept of sustainability is applied in the study of tourism development in order to associate the elements of sustainability with tourism system. The elements of sustainability such as economic sustainability, ecological sustainability and equity are considered to be the key variables of sustainable development.
P1.1 Benefits of the stakeholders from planning tourism developments
In each destination the stakeholders can be classified into three distinguishable groups as per their respective interest and requisites. In a destination the stakeholders can be classified as the National government, the tourism sector or industry which is operating in the destination and the local destination. In tourism the national government has its own interests and it is generally represented by the DOT and other attached agencies (Camillo et al, 2017). Apart from national governments other resource oriented departments are Agriculture, Agrarian reform and the environmental and the Natural resources. Sustainable tourism helps in increase these resource oriented departments to be involved in tourism development at a national policy level.
There are numerous local stakeholders and they can be identified as following:
•Local Government Units (LGUs): barangays, local members of civil society and NGOs.
•Community based organizations
•Managers of local tourism resources
•Private business establishments which are engaged in delivering accommodation, transportations and similar services required by the tourists.
All the three different groups of stakeholders have their own interest and benefits in development of an area to be a tourist destination and it indicates cooperation and coordination among theses three stakeholders are necessary to some extent for sustainable tourism development (Tan ). The scope of sustainable tourism development lies in combining the interests and benefits of the three stakeholders along with the core elements of sustainability.
In Philippines the economic growth level reached at an increased rate of 6.4% at the end of 2016 and the key potentials for sustainable tourism in the country are the islands, rainforests and the rich cultural heritage of the country. There are several benefits of sustainable tourism in the country. At primary level it can be stated that near about 10.5% profit from tourism is contributed in the GDB Philippines (Aguila and Ragot, 2014). The country can be immensely benefitted from increased tourism and travel investments as the reduction of poverty as well as the employment opportunities are some of the positive trends in the country. The related benefits from planning of the tourism development can be summarized as following:
•In reference to the national government, the country can obtain its target economic status by enhancing the tourism development in the country and planning effectively enables the Government to allocate different resources (Deluna and Jeon, 2014).
•Local population can work with the tourism sector which is helpful for their living and it can also facilitate the developments of the tangible properties of the country such as the roads, hotels, and transportation and communication system in the country.
•Tourism associations can be equally benefited from the stance as it is helpful in the process of designing their tourism activities for promotion of the local places.
•Different business organizations like the hotels, tour agencies can be benefited from the plan by acquiring their required data like tourist information, statistics and vistiors’ details which can prove to be helpful in developing strategy to attract tourists from allover the World (Hanafiah et al, 2017).
•The plan can be helpful in convincing the financial institutions to invest in the tourism sector to get good returns and it can help in the sustainable development and the improvement of the industry as well.
P1.2 Advantages and disadvantages public/private sector tourism planning partnerships
It is important to establish collaboration and coordination among the networks as the networks play significant role in the tourism industry. The public or private tourism planning partnerships have been facilitated the process of having a sustainable outcome for all the stakeholders wit the tourism planning (Roxas and Chadee, 2013). However, there are several advantages and disadvantages as well. Private and public partnership is necessary for the infrastructure development, risk sharing and community involvement.
Advantages of the partnerships
•It is helpful in reducing the cost factor of the operating capital investor.
•The maintenance of the development projects can be functioned effectively and easily.
•It can prove to be helpful in exploring the opportunities of introducing innovative services that can not be provided by the conventional service providers associated with the industry (Hanafiah et al, 2017).
Disadvantages of the partnerships
• In case of the Philippines government losing the control over the partnerships can result in emergence of unethical practices.
• The sharing partnerships can bring future conflicts among the stakeholders and the partners.
•It is possible for the project to get affected adversely for avoidance of duties and the misunderstandings among the partners.
Different approaches to tourism planning and development
P2.1 Features of tourism development planning
In the process of developing a tourism planning it is important to identify and locate different levels which are associated with the tourism industry of the country. It is important to identify the characteristic features of the organizations before beginning the development procedure of the planning system. Because of the high potential in the development of the travel and tourism industry the tourists are also much interested in the country and it is important to reduce the conflicts of the visitors with the local people of the country in order to maintain a positive impact over the visitors. As per the case study the conflict with the local people can prove to be negatively impacting over the visitors in long run.
It is important to analyze the features of the tourism planning in the following manner:
National and international features: organizations like Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or OECD which operates in an international level has an aim of enhancing the aspect of social and economic welfare of the people of the country along with the people across the world. Such organizations prefer developing tourist destinations like Philippines (Alampay, 2005). Their aim of boosting the economic growth of a destination is done through their working with the Central government of the country and this also proves to be significant enough in increasing the employment rate and employment opportunities in the service sector through an international exploration of the tourism industry.
Considering the national level it can be stated that both the private and the public organizations are considered as the primary supporters of the travel and tourism industry operating within the country. As per the reports, The Department of Tourism of Philippines has undertaken several initiatives in order to support the tourism of the country and in last few years this support has proved to be helpful in the expansion of the tourism industry (Waligo et al, 2013). The department of tourism of Philippines has implemented several strategies regarding the issue of international tourism within the country at a national level. In order to increase the number of the tourists it also has undertaken the strategy of simplification of the international relations. The modification of the international relationship policy is one of the important factors that require to be mentioned in this regard. One of the examples of such simplification of the policies is granting free visas to citizens of India, UK, Japan etc.
Sub-regional and regional: the sub-regional bodies play as important tools in creating a link between the regional and national. Plans related to the sub regional aspect is often strategized in order to protect the travel destinations and it also helps the tourists and the visitors to understand the sentiments of the local people as they are work in an elementary level. Sub regional plan proves to be helpful in explaining the future benefits and also reduces the conflicts among the locals and the government.
As far as the regional bodies are concerned, the characteristic features of such bodies have more parity and it is more specific as it includes only the local communities and their planning process. It has a prime and potent role in spreading awareness among the local people and the visitors and it is also instrumental in sharing the feedbacks with the people of the local community.
P2.2 Significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism development
The experts have noticed that developing tourism in a country often creates several issues such as population congestion and environmental damage. The major reason behind such hazard is the insufficient tourism planning and the conventional planning are often does not have the required parity. Because of the stated disparity it often serves as the primary reason behind the possible conflict among the partners (Alampay, 2005). It is important to develop an interactive planning system as it serves the purpose of brining collaboration and cooperation among the participants and it is helpful in attaining the desired object. The unplanned tourism development in Philippines has its own adverse effect over the environment of the country along with that it has also increased the social and living cost of the country. It is important to develop an interactive planning system because of the following benefits:
1.A proper and interactive planning always helps the government of the country to undertake beneficial decision which includes involving all the people who usually live in the coastal areas as this is on of the places of development and it also includes people from the areas that are developing.
2. The negative impact of the tourism plan can be hindered from emerging with the active participation of the stakeholders in the interactive planning procedure.
3.Such planning effectively helps in identifying the deficiency of meeting the environmental benchmark and it often proves to be helpful in future as it facilitates the path for developing sustainable plan to serve the requirements of the tourists without hampering the natural environment of the destinations.
P2.3 Different methods to measure tourist impact
The effectiveness and the impact of the tourism can be identified through different methods. The methods that can effectively identify and analyze the measure of tourist impact are:
The environmental factors that need to be taken under consideration are measured and evaluated through Environmental Impact Assessment. In this method first necessary information is collected regarding the place and then a calculation is commenced regarding the nature of environmental hazards and the environmental damages (Waligo et al, 2013). However, the calculation regarding the environmental damages can not be absolutely accurate and it can also hinder the development activities associated with the tourism in Philippines.
The socio cultural impact is one of the major considerations in the travel and tourism industry. This aspect is qualitative in nature and therefore it is difficult to measure. But there are methods to measure this aspect and the potent methods are interviews and surveys that help to identify and understand the cultural aspects and information that impact the tourism. In some cases, Human Development Index is taken under consideration as an important tool in understanding the social and the financial divergences (Alampay, 2005).
For countries like Philippines the economic growth and development can be assessed through the consideration of the tourism related factors (Waligo et al, 2013). Some of the moot tools for measuring these aspects are Scarborough Tourism Economic Activity Monitor.
Process in tourism planning for sustainability
Monitor adapt, learn, evolve
Current issues related to tourism development planning
P4.1 methods of resolving a conflict of interests to ensure the future wellbeing of a developing tourism destination
With the collaboration of different stakeholders and their different objectives a conflict arises associated with their interest. The government and other voluntary organizations require resolving their conflicts in order to promote sustainable tourist development. In regard to the provided case study it is evident that the president of Philippines has a motive to enhance the tourism in Philippines for long-term tenure and increased revenue (Waligo et al, 2013). The case study sheds light on the violation of the ecological environment and also the sentiment of the local people was also hurt. This created conflict among the stakeholders especially in the local communities. Based on this respect the methods that can be undertaken are being discussed and scrutinized as follows:
Mediation is one of the voluntary processes which ultimately results in the mutual agreement that is pertinent to a specific situation. In this method of resolving the conflict the parties that are subjected to the conflict, actively participate in the proceedings in order to resolve the conflict and to find effective solution of the conflict (Waligo et al, 2013). The conflict can be resolved with offering the locals with job opportunities. The local people in this case can be incorporated in a process of discussion and they can be ensured of the fact the ecological harm is not going to take place in the future and it can resolve the misunderstandings with the local communities.
Negotiation is considered to be one of the basic methods to resolve any conflict among the stakeholders. In order to conduct this method successfully it is important to have well accumulated communication among the participants. The participants involved in the negotiation process need to come across a successive decision that can prove to be beneficial for both the parties. In regard to the case study it can be recommended that the local government can arrange for a detailed group discussion in order to understand the motif of the conflict in details. The primary aim of the meeting is to develop a plan for the benefit of the local communities of Philippines (Jamal and Camargo, 2014). However, it is important to understand that this method is difficult to follow as both of the parties do not easily sacrifice their interest.
P4.2 the implications of balancing supply and demand
As per the recent reports the annual revenue regarding the travel and tourism industry of Philippines has been decreased by 28% as the major portion of income is due to the visitors of USA, Japan and Korea. The tourism industry contributes 10% of the total GDP of Philippines and the tourism industry has also supported the employments of the Philipinos in recent years (). The country has major potential for the growth of tourism industry and it has the ability to offer approximately 4 million jobs for the eligible Philipinos. The primary reason behind the increasing demand of the tourism in Philippines is due to the visitors from USA.
It is important to consider the rate of supply and its ability to meet the current demand in the tourism industry of the country. It is important to satisfy the requirements of the tourists in order to boost the economic development effectively. The National Tourism Strategy of the country effectively identifies the critical factors that require attention in order to develop the tourism environment in the country (Cheng and Wu, 2015). This team has focused on the environmental issues, community welfare and infrastructural development in order to boost the revenue of the tourism industry of the country. Tourist satisfaction is one of the moot criteria of success in the travel and tourism industry. Therefore, it is important to identify the needs of the visitors. In order to better the accommodation facilities investments driven strategies have been undertaken effectively. Product development is another important strategy that requires to be taken under consideration in this regard. DOT and DENR have focused their strategy towards the product development and organizing events in order to entertain the visitors with facilities like scuba diving, Akian and Iloilo.
P4.3 moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
Enclave tourism is one of the activities which usually undertake a small geographic area with accordance to satisfy the requirements of the visitors (Horner and Swarbrooke, 2016). Enclave tourism as far as Philippines is concerned is limited mainly to the coastal areas of the country and the enclave tourism is done majorly by equipping the tourists with adequate accommodation and transport facilities. The moral and the ethical considerations associated with enclave tourism are:
Firstly, the local community will not be benefitted because of the restriction regarding the accessibility as the business organizations are the dominants participants in the areas.
Secondly, in most of the cases it has been identified that the sanctioning of the licenses are majorly commenced unethically and the local authorities are instrumental in such unethical activities.
Thirdly, many experts have identified the gradual degradation of the cultural values of the country as the expansion of the buildings and tourist accommodation has adversely effected the cultural heritage of the country.
Fourthly, the cultural aspect of the country is being hampered due to the advent of the transitional culture which is being imported by the unethical activities that have been increased due to excess demand of tourism.
P 5.1 current issues associated with tourism development in a developing country and an emerging destination where the impacts of tourism are different.
Tourism development in the developing countries and emerging tourist destination are influenced by several external as well as internal factors. In order to understand the issues that affect the tourism destination, it is important to compare a developing tourist destination with an tourist destination that is emerging. In order to understand the nature of these two genres of destination, it is potent to understand the difference underlying in the emerging destination and a developing destination. In order to understand the differences Bhutan shall be taken as a developing tourist destination and Hungary as an emerging tourist destination (Schroeder, 2015).
Both of these two destinations have similarities as well as differences in the aspect of facing problems as a tourist destination. It is important to understand that both of the countries are under an immense economic crisis (Schroeder, 2015). The major problem that theses two destinations face is that because of slowdown of Global Economy, visitors have become reluctant in visiting these places. Another important factor is the recent changes in the tourism choices of the people. As per the recent studies, people now prefer to visit famous places that offer lavish tourism services and thus the tourism of these destinations are lacking because they are not considered to be famous places in the global tourism map.
Bhutan and Hungary can be compared based on certain factors. For better understanding it is important to focus on the comparative table below:
Environmental factors Environmental factors are one of the major factors that influences. Bhutan is one of the Himalayan kingdoms and this region gets often affected by landslides and earthquakes. Even because of global warming the existing snow melts on an irregular basis. Therefore, the environmental condition of this destination is not stable. If the environmental condition of Hungary is concerned it is stable enough as compared to Bhutan. The biodiversity of this place is rich and the place consists of mountains, forests and lakes. As compared to Bhutan, this place does not have any major environmental issues.
Tourism infrastructureIn Bhutan the tourism infrastructure is comparably poor. The tourists face several problems which are majorly associated with transportation and accommodation (Schroeder, 2015). Because of the major cultural differences, language becomes another issue for the tourists.Hungary is far more developed as far as infrastructure is concerned. But the language problem remains in this destination as well to some extent. The local people of this place are not proficient enough in English and thus the English speaking visitors often face major issues regarding the language.
Tourism policies As far as the policies and implementations are concerned Bhutan does not have clearly defined tourism policies and it often leads to several ambiguous situations for the tourists.Hungary has clearly defined tourism policies and there are no such ambiguities regarding the policies that the tourists face. The government of this country implements several policies regarding the tourism industry of the country and these policies have facilitated the path of progress in the tourism sector.
Manpower and GDPThere is a scope of development in the manpower skills of Bhutan. The tourism industry of the country significantly contributes to the GDP of the country.Hungary has retention issues and low labour charges and thus faces issues regarding skilled manpower.
Tourism sector of this country also significantly contributes in the GDP of the country.
P 5.2 – Evaluate, with recommendations, the future development of tourism in these chosen destinations as a Magazine Article
Evaluating both of the tourist destinations it can be stated that there are prevalent issues regarding tourism in both of the countries under study. However, it is true that because of the increasing spending power of the people, the tourism industry is developing in a high rate. The expansion of social media has ensured the promotion of the places and theses two country have gained much popularity in the recent years. It is important for both the countries to promote specific places for adventure tourism and also the government requires to strategize necessary steps for the extensive marketing campaign of the places. The marketing campaigns are helpful in showcasing the places to the tourists (Schroeder, 2015).
Another significant factor that requires to be taken under consideration is the accommodation, infrastructure and the transportation of the tourists. Such factors play a huge role in the development of any tourist destination. Considering Bhutan, the necessity of developing the accommodation and the infrastructure is strongly felt (Karst, 2017). In Bhutan the government needs to take necessary steps to develop the local transportation facilities that the tourists can easily avail. It is important to build world-class hotels restaurants for more luxurious experience of the tourists. It is on e of the primary factors that leads to tourist satisfaction which is one of the important areas that the tourism industry is based on.
As far as Hungary is concerned the infrastructure of this destination is commendable but ther area of Human Resources needs to be developed by the government. It is important for the Government to grant necessary steps in order to increase the effectiveness of the human resources or the manpower of the country (Hardy and Pearson, 2017). One of the changes that can be implemented is the skill development procedure of the tourist managers and the tourist guides to reduce the communication problems regarding language problem and conversation. Both of the countries need to take necessary safety and security measures for the tourists and the visitors. Implementation of the necessary safety and security policies and related policies needs to be granted in order to regulate the tourism industry of the country sufficiently. This can also prove to be helpful in the promotion of tourism industry in both the countries.
In this report the benefits of the stakeholders have been elaborately analyzed from the planning of tourism development prior to which several advantages and disadvantages of partnership between the private and the public sector have been identified. Along with that several methods of interactive planning sector has been evaluated in the light of the case study. In the light of the evaluation, the problems of developing and emerging tourist destinations have been compared and analyzed which has led to the possible recommendations and implementations in order to resolve the problems.