Topic: Domestic Violence in Australia
Analyse the broad shifts that have taken place in Australian society since the end of the Second World War, and how those historical changes have shaped the contemporary nation.
You should seek to undertake some of your own research and analyse relevant historiography. Draw on the further readings provided, but also look to find other materials related to the topic and Australian post-war history more broadly. Make sure you use academic research, not general websites.
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN AUSTRALIA
The essay focuses on analysing domestic violence within Australian society and the way it has changed after World War 2. As stated by Arrow (2018), domestic violence appeared as a grave problem for the Women's Liberation programme during the early 1970s. The Royal Commission of Human Relationships (RCHR) is rendered just a negligible role in the history of reaction to this problem in Australia. Nevertheless, it was the primary continued government review into the occurrence, reasons and effects of gender and domestic violence. The RCHR voiced and validated developing feminist indulgences of home violence. It played a vital role in implanting activist expressions and explanations of such ferocity in public disclosure.
The essay discusses the way the shift has influenced the modern society of Australia in terms of domestic violence.
The separations that the Second World War accelerated in the Australian culture remained into the post-war age, determining deportation, remembrance, social life and politics. The war broadened the cracks between the classes and between catholic values and protestant. One universal truth that applies to all nations, communities and cultures is fierceness against women is not tolerable, acceptable and justifiable ever (Bradley, 2018). Bradley (2018).) stated that domestic violence includes any abusive behaviour, violent behaviour and threatening at home between adult family members and adult children. However, maximum people comprehend domestic violence as the behaviour, which is applied by one close partner to show control and influence over the other partner by pressure and fear. Domestic violence is a major public health issue and a basic degradation of human rights of women.
The historiography of home violence is astonishingly spare in Australia. In this field, modern scholars developed ground-breaking findings by listing the occurrence of violence on women by their male partners by analysing police and court proceedings in appropriate authorities and time. Although the words, domestic violence became standard in 1970, the words' wife-beating' had been using for so long for explaining the violence of male partners against their female partners. The term was gradually replaced by the term' battered wife' in the 19th century. Feminist historians recommended long ago that the feminist activists were famous for raising awareness of the incidence of domestic violence. For most of the 20th century, the demotion of domestic violence to public regulation and psychoanalysis de-politicised it (The Conversion, 2019). It made it possible for the new regulation and the government to repudiate its gendered roots. Nevertheless, the occurrence of women's freedom from the late 1960s started a shift of approaches toward family violence.
History since 1970 has emphasised on the section of women's reawakening of such forcefulness and activist and policy reactions to it. In Victoria and Western Australia, the founding of the feminist harbours was documented. The state responded to the refuges and policy effort through activists and democrats for obtaining government subsidies for them. Although, women’s movement and activists could not eradicate domestic violence, they successfully renamed it publicly and influenced the change in attitude toward the force. Before 1970, no authorisations were there against family violence. However, the emergence of women's liberation escorted in fresh outlooks to family violence (Howe, 2017). In Australia, the focus of women's liberation was not on ferocity against women. Women's movement involvement such as the Women and Violence 1974 offered new activist language and unique spaces to define violence as a part of a wider pattern of female victims and male committers. Near about 350 women attended the two-day forum, which provided a stage from which the victims of ferocity could raise their voice and share their incidence, providing their exemplified proof of the omnipresence of masculine violence. The movement also created a lasting and new reaction to issues of men violence in the custom of feminist women’s retreats (Arrow, 2018).
Howe (2017) identified that in Australia, women are mainly abused by their intimate partner, followed by alcohol abuse. Post-conflict societies face high degrees of gender and domestic violence consistently against children and women. Although the force in the public domain is decreased, the violence in the private area is escalated.
The Royal Commission was established in 1973. It focused fighters of domestic violence; however, it approved bolthole employees as those with women's libber proficiency on domestic violence as well. Several of the suggestions made by the organisation would reinforce Australian policy reaction to domestic violence eventually. The institution projected and backed to the wider change in the state's reply to the social issue in the ultimate eras of the 20th century (Arrow, 2018). However, as argued by Alexander (2015), it is the Family Law Act, 1975 that has helped brining new changes in regarding domestic violence. The Family Law Act of 1975 defines domestic violence in Australia. The law deals with parenting preparations between separated parents, divorce, finance maintenance and property separation engaging children, separated, or divorced actual parents. The act is amended in 2006 and takes care of problems of family violence, neglect and child abuse. The law provides power to the court for making commands to confine domestic violence and other areas (Dimopoulos, 2018). Hayes & Jeffries (2016) remarked that, it is well-noted by the feminist international legal academics that gender and sexual-based violence adapts to the appropriateness of peace agreements and armistices rarely but bears past them. Researchers have confirmed it hat post-war societies have higher rate of domestic violence for children and women — the rate increases when the former fighters reappear to their homes. To protect girls and women from domestic and family violence in post-war societies, the necessity for implementing international human rights increased.
Second World War affected Australia in several ways. The impact on the home was significant. In 2015, the federal government declared that violence against girls and women had become a national predicament. In spite of widespread economic and social advances in the women status since post-war and specifically 1970, increasing awareness and activities around gender violence, its occurrence remains disturbing. Australian Bureau Statistic data revealed that 1 out of 23 Australian women are abused physically, and one out of 5 women are assaulted sexually (Dragiewicz & Burgess, 2016). In 2016, almost one out of five adult females reported that they had been abused sexually within the last 1 year. Other data shows that each week, one female is killed by her intimate partner and family violence is an essential factor in a 3rd of all homelessness cases. The subsequent stress on government services and lost efficiency is projected to cost A$13.6 billion per year to the Australian economy. Domestic violence appears to have touched a specific critical moment in the country. However, as pointed out by Richards & Haglund (2015), violence against women is often showed as a worldwide and eternal occurrence. It develops the view that issue is too huge to solve or only the nastiest abuses are earnest of attention. Flay (2017) in this context argued that, today it is regarded as a silent epidemic, which is immersing Australia silently. A culture of quietness at the individual level denotes that sufferers are too ashamed or fearfully and witnesses also conflicted or uncomfortable to speak out. It may fight gender violence was unseen in the past of the country to that it was documented recently as a social issue. However, this is not true. Gender violence was evident in the past as well, and after World War 2, since 1960, it was recognised as a social problem. Despite, event today, the issue is unresolved. During the 19th and 20hth century, men were told to be mentally and physically hard, that regulated male violence. On the other side, housewife manuals regularly coached women as the mild sex, which it was up to them to cope with the tempers of male around them. It inferred that a true woman could forestall a man's violence or anger. It created a culture that appreciated hyper-masculinity as a national model. These bequests of Australia's past played its role in the development of specifically infectious poisonous maleness that continues today. Another critical driver was gender-based economic disparities in the past Australian society. Historically, the low-paying and limited nature of work done by women disallowed several from leaving men, who were rude to them and the children. When husbands were accused of physical assaults, wives used to appeal judges often for mercy to ignore the economic decay, which would come if the breadwinner were imprisoned (The Conversation, 2019). However, the female was employed after the war that brought the incidents of domestic violence into the light. Even at present, when men largely control the economic livelihoods of women mostly, it continues a cultural domestic and sexual abuse.
Historically, the efforts to prevent domestic violence usually struggled, as legislation was unsuccessful in solving the fundamental reasons allowing the culture of gender violence. Women human rights improvers and feminists have fought hard to permit act against gender violence in Australia from the 19th century. These range from disagreeing position to increase the age of agreement in the 1980s and 1990 to outlawing spousal rape an era later. Historical advantages against domestic violence in the country only took place due to the readiness of some to opine against satisfaction. The guileless protest of the time will not resolve the issue. Action is required.