Conduct a detailed study about drinking water issues in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Identify the reasons of current problems and suggest possible ways to reduce the hardships.
Drinking water problem in people’s livelihood of Kathmandu valley of Nepal
In this research, detail research on drinking water problem in people's livelihood of Kathmandu Valley of Nepal has been done. The Kathmandu valley is rapidly expanding and moving towards urbanization haphazardly, the total built up area is also expanding which has resulted into the formation of the peri urban areas, slowly giving rise to urban areas, now transforming into urban cities. This transformation is requiring more surface area and more usage of drinking water both personally and commercially, making it scarce and polluted (Upreti, Breu, and Ghale, 2017). This paper aims at examining and identifying factors that are impacting the water demand in the area putting extraordinary pressure on the ground water sources. On the basis of the literature review, the study has found that the water scarcity has been the result of the lowering of ground water in Jhaukhel. The dependency of the local residents has also increased over the past years. The other factor responsible for the depletion of the water level has been identified as the sand mining practices followed in this area, which has also greatly impacted the traditional water sources. The absence of strict regulations and policies are adding to the threat of water scarcity and its impact on the livelihood of the native people (Udmale et al, 2016).
The Kathmandu valley of Nepal occupies about 656 kilometres square area and is located in the central part hill location. The valley’s central part is a flat land. The valley also has mountains. Despite the much awareness the area still suffers from water scarcity issues and water pollution. Therefore, the people are dependent highly on the available contaminated water with bacteria and other pollutants. The water is also contaminated with toxic metals which affect the health and livelihood of native people, as these people are highly dependent on agriculture, and agriculture in turn is highly dependent on water resource. According to the review, there are factors that have been identified which are responsible for the water pollution, these include, improper disposal of waste from municipality, the waste accumulation from industries being disposed off in the water bodies, the use of fertilizers, the damaged waste treatment plants (Adhikari, Shrestha, and Shakya, 2018). This research has shown the statistical data of the drinking water in Kathmandu Valley and evaluating the strategies undertaken by the government to strengthen the quality of the water available in that particular place, however, due to the drinking water problem in that area, the price of the water from public sector tanker has increased and resulted toUS$2-2.4 per kilolitre of water, while it is 20-30 percent higher for private tankers
The main problem statement in this research is related to assessing the drinking water problem in people's livelihood of Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. This will help in exploring the reason of scarcity of the water in Kathmandu Vallley of Nepal and assessing the possible future options to mitigate these issues. This research also divulges the requirement of fresh waters for the sake of health of people in Kathmandu and role played by the water supplying agency has agreed that with the increase in population and urbanization in Kathmandu Valle
The aim of the study is to explore the reasons for the scarcity of water in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal and the impact that the water scarcity has on the life of people affecting their livelihood.
The application of the project is imperative to work towards sustainable environment and take up effective measures to reduce the water pollution in order to preserve the existing clean drinking water and work towards cleaning the water from natural resources which otherwise has been contaminated through factory waste.
According to the review, the major sources of water for the native people of Kathmandu valley are Bagmati River and the associated tributaries (Khanna et al, 2016). There are other sources such as mountain ranges surrounding the valley for ground water resource from stone tap, wells and borings, further, the dams and reservoirs are created at Sundarijal to collect water from Bagmati river is collected, the review shows, that there is a network of pipes to carry and distribute water (Thakur, Neupane, and Mohanan, 2017). The groundwater which is extracted each day has a high rate in comparison to the rate at which the water is naturally recharged back to the ground, according to a report this is the major cause of depletion of the ground water level every year and poses a threat on livelihood (Regmi, and Mishra, 2016). The review also supports the fact that 90 percent of the overall rainfall in the Kathmandu valley takes place between June and September month, which leaves the other months dry. There is no or very less wastewater treatment plants and solid waste disposing mechanism, which affects the water quality. According to a report, there is a lack of water for self cleansing of sewers. This is the major cause of the spreading disease due to which thousands of people suffer their health and livelihood activities (Kurokawa et al, 2017). According to a report, however, before the introduction of the centralized water supply system, Kathmandu valley had self sufficient water supply system. Earlier the system was in the form of rain fed later modified into wells and canals from ponds and springs. Later the piped system was introduced with the urbanization. The urbanization pushed pressure on the groundwater, which is the cause of drying of wells and bores (Gautam, Thapa, and Prajapati, 2018). Water pollution: as it has been seen from the review, that Nepal has been facing water problems in terms of scarcity and pollution, these are the challenges pertaining to the quality availability of drinking water. According to a study, the water supplying agency has agreed that with the increase in population and urbanization in Kathmandu Valley, there is an increased demand for drinking and fresh water which is increasing at an increasing rate every year (Udmale et al, 2017). The demand for water is more than the supply of water. The people are dependent on water for their personal and livelihood activities, however, because the natural resources are depleting, they are dependent on water availability from tankers, packed water bottles, and private borings (Shrestha, Roth, and Joshi, 2018). The increased demand has increased the use of ground water and in turn adds to the decrease in ground water level. The water extraction from ground water has other reasons as well, according to the review; it is easy, convenient, cheap and low cost (Shrestha, Semkuyu, and Pandey, 2016). The increased number of commercial buildings and multistory residential buildings are largely dependent upon ground water resources, such as, housing, hotels, hospitals, large and small companies. The public health is deteriorating due to the intake of contaminated water, which affects their capacity to work (Shrestha, 2017). Waterborne diseases are increasing at a larger pace. Amongst the other diseases, bacterial contamination is the most common and a potential threat to the public, which causes diarrhea, cholera and nausea. The other leading waterborne diseases affecting health and work include typhoid, paratyphoid fever, Jaundice, gastroenteritis and colitis (Pant, Poudyal, and Bhattacharya, 2016). In Jhaukhel alone there are 11 community drinking water supply scheme being introduced by the government. The largest amongst which is the change Duwakot-Jhaukhel Drinking water supply system. This system is, however, based on the ground water extraction system, near the bank of Manohara River and Changunarayan VDC from two infiltration galleries being present on the banks (Tripathi, 2016). The other 10 systems are also dependent on the ground water source. There is still presence of such households which do not have piped water connection in their houses and they are dependent upon the public along with private ground water source (Yadav, 2018). The households with tap connection make use of the community water source for domestic as well as commercial purposes for their livelihood. In terms of livelihood, the agriculture and brick production are two major occupations in which people are involved for their livelihood. There are approx 12 brick industries in the Valley, the major water extraction is from ground water, and the depletion of ground water level has taken a number of jobs in recent past (Sandholz, 2016). The brick industry is majorly dependent upon the continuous flow of water; ironically, the only reliable water source is ground water. On an average in Jaukhel the annual brick production is 31.8 million, and the literature suggests that on an average .75 liters of water is required per brick, the estimate volume of water demanded is excessively high than the supply of water to the industries (Roth et al, 2018). The depletion of ground water is the major reason behind closure of some of the brick industries in Nepal which is negatively impacted the livelihood source for a number of workers working in those industries (Bjornlund, and Bjornlund, 2019). The ground water extraction for personal and commercial purpose has started in 2002 with another industry of water bottling. The ground water was the major source for industry revenue generation. The water in tanker and tractors also came from ground water. The other factor which has been identified from the review is the amount of precipitation which has also declined. There is a climatic shift in the Kathmandu Valley, there is an extreme weather event noticed by the researchers. According to the reports the number of rainy days have been declined thereby declining the precipitation. . The review also explores the fact that around 90% of the electricity in Nepal is the result of hydropower (Bhatt, 2017). For the availability of water, Dadhikot had a debate with the Gundu, which is a village in the Valley. During the dry season, and the uncertainty of the rainfall has an impact on the electricity availability (Manandhar et al, 2017). The agriculture is still flourishing and because a large number of workers are dependent for their livelihood in agriculture industry, however, the heavy rainfalls affect the crops causing damage to them through severe rainfall. The soil moisture deficit, on the other hand, is the cause of the dry season of the year. There are certain farmers who have now stopped working in this industry. The farmers, who were dependent on the rainfall, are now more dependent on the irrigation. However, it has been seen from the literature review, it is been reviewed that in order to sustain productivity, irrigation is imperative, nevertheless, the schemes made for irrigation also depends upon the uncertain and non predictable climate change. Due to the fact that fresh water is depleting, people are using water for their irrigation purposes. The quality of water that has been used to irrigate crops impacts the crop quality and yield. Contrary to which in areas of drought, the crop loses its capacity to resist diseases and enhances the pest and pathogen development, also the carbohydrate concentration is increased which attracts more insects (Kurokawa et al, 2017). According to a report plant disease growth is at critical growth and the increase in pathogens is also the result of the increased precipitation and wet environment, in such environment the soil dwelling insects grow at a high rate (Levy et al, 2016). In order to overcome the issue of water scarcity and pollution to safeguard the health and livelihood of people in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal few steps have been taken by the Government, such as, Kathmandu has recently completed the Nepal’s longest tunnel excavation, the tunnel is 26 kilometers long, and the water from Melamchi River will travel through this tunnel to reach to the Kathmandu valley to overcome the problem of water shortage. The tunnel is the result of the daily shortage of drinking water due to its leakage and wastage of water. The project has a budget of approx 335 million USD in building tunnel and providing access to the households. However, the system ensures that each household will receive adequate water supply each day for 24 hours at least (Kurokawa et al, 2017). Apart from this initiative, rainwater harvesting is a continuous recyclable method to conserve water that is being naturally supplied to the people. This method has an easy installation and the government also contributes in the cost, which reduces the overall cost of installation and usage. However, there is a need for more awareness programs in order to publicize the cost and benefits of the rainwater system (Gautam, 2017).
There are provisions which help in decreasing the contaminant inflow from different personal, commercial and industrial means into the public water supply and natural resources. The catchment protection method is used to prevent the disposal of contaminants in the areas such as springs and groundwater (Schraml, Uhlir, and Hübl, 2017). These areas are declared as restricted zones where cattle and people cannot enter. Spring protection is another method which helps reduce the contaminant inflow at the point of supply which prevents interaction between surface and spring water. In order to achieve this, a closed box type structure is made around the spring to divert its flow and restrict people to contaminate the water (Sharma, 2016).
The conceptual framework is used to assess the research and evaluate the possible course of actions to present a preferred approach for eliminating the drinking water problem in people's livelihood of Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. In this research, data analysis part has been used to evaluate the detail research on drinking water problem in people's livelihood of Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. It is analysed that if government and people wants to eradicate the drinking water problem in people's livelihood of Kathmandu Valley of Nepal then government needs to undertake possible strategies and policies to support the people. However, support of the people with the undertaken strategy would also be required to strengthen the government action and policies. Due to the fact that the most important and big industries such as agriculture and brick are dependent upon the water, the decrease in precipitation affects the livelihood, which is interlinked with the rainfall pattern annually (Poudel, and Duex, 2017). However, not only decreased precipitation, any change whether increased pattern affects the livelihood, health and majorly the agriculture in the Kathmandu Valley, because the major purpose of the water is irrigation, hydro power and use of water for drinking, cooking and sanitation. The shift towards urbanization has led to the increase in water demand, and a constant worry of the availability of clean drinking water
In order to conduct the review study to explore the factors responsible for the depletion of the ground water level and the impact of the water problem on the people’s livelihood, the secondary sources including journals, thesis and other literary sources already published in journals have been referred. In addition to this, some of the primary sources such as observation, questionnaire and meeting with the concerned person is totally avoided to strengthen the quality of the research. There are several other research methods which has been used to gather the quantitative and qualitative data on the selected topic in this research. Nonetheless, the main focus has been made to assess the statistical view points and problems faced by the people for drinking water problem in people's livelihood of Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. All quantitative and qualitative data have been gathered by using the secondary sources which authenticate this research. Nonetheless, most of the data gathered in this research is based on the secondary sources such as journal articles, books and documents. After using the secondary sources, it is inferred that there is no or very less wastewater treatment plants and solid waste disposing mechanism, which affects the water quality. According to a report, there is a lack of water for self-cleansing of sewers.
All the data sources are genuine and based on the qualitative and quantitative data. This research is supported by the secondary sources and references have also been given to strengthen the transparency of this research paper.
This research paper is prepared by following the organized research framework which accompanied with the different sections and heading. This research is organized to evaluate and assess statistical view points and problems faced by the people for drinking water problem in people's livelihood of Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Literature review part based on the gathered data reveals the deep understanding on the research paper and assess what possible improvement could be made to resolve these issues. In addition to this, research aims and objectives are used to organize the main aim and objectives of this research. All the data selected is based on using the secondary data sources which is given in the research mythology section. This divulges the strategies to gather primary and secondary data. This research paper has organized in proper research paper and divulges that waterborne diseases are increasing at a larger pace. Amongst the other diseases, bacterial contamination is the most common and a potential threat to the public, which causes diarrhea, cholera and nausea. These diseases are becoming life threat to the people who are living in that. The other leading waterborne diseases affecting health and work include typhoid, paratyphoid fever, Jaundice, gastroenteritis and colitis (Pant, Poudyal, and Bhattacharya, 2016).
Project Budget and Budget Justification
|Particular ||Project budget ||Justification|
|Literature review ||$ 500||This is the main part of the research which will evaluate the asses the gathered data. However, cost would be involved to gather peer reviewed literature review.|
|Data analysis ||$ 500||It is the mid part of the research paper in which data would be analyzed to support the research. |
|Research methodology ||$ 1000||This will be highly costly part of the research which requires collection of the primary and secondary sources by using the possible data collection methods. |
|Finding and conclusion ||$ 100|| In this part, only conclusion will be made which will require some printing and other stationery expenses. |
The project budget for this research paper is way too low which reflects the
It is the graphical presentation of the data which reflects the time involved in research. There are several steps have been followed to prepare this research.