School of Education
Course Unit Outline
|Name of unit|
|EDEC101 – Foundations of Teaching and Learning|
|It is essential that initial teacher education students are familiar with the nature and functions of: education, teaching and learning; schools and schooling; and the responsibilities and roles of classroom teachers. This unit provides a broad overview of the goals of education, including the promotion of equity and excellence and support of young Australians to become successful learners, confident and creative individuals, and actively participating, contributing and informed citizens. The unit introduces the role of the teacher as a planner of teaching and learning, as a user of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), as a classroom manager, and as a contributor to a teaching/learning community. The unit also considers some of the legal and moral responsibilities of the teacher.|
From an examination of general issues pertaining to formal education, the focus of the unit shifts to teaching and learning for young children, with particular attention paid to teaching and learning for infants and toddlers. There is an emphasis on the way in which the philosophy of an early childhood setting is reflected in all aspects of what happens in the curriculum framework, or Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF). The childcare context of early childhood education and care is also addressed, including arrivals and departures, settling new children, separation anxiety/fears, and responding to distressed children. Particular attention is given to routines which are an integral part of a daily infant-toddler room.
|Learning outcomes for the unit|
On successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:
|1. Appreciate and define the function and goals of education, including goals pertaining specifically to Christian schools and prior to school settings.|
|2. Explain the roles and responsibilities of teachers.|
|3. Recognise the classroom as a teaching and learning community and identify practices of effective teachers.|
|4. Explain the role of primary care in infant and toddler settings in the context of attachment theory and the concept of attachment based learning.|
|5. Discuss strategies for effective and safe routines including feeding, sleeping, changing nappies and toileting as part of the early learning experience.|
|6. Identify teaching and learning processes and resources that promote neurological development in a play based, safe and secure environment|
|Graduate Standard 4: Create and Maintain Safe and Supportive Learning environments NQS: QA 5 - Relationships with Children (Standards 5.1 and 5.2),|
QA 6 - Collaborative partnerships with families and communities (Standards 6.1)
|Assessment tasks||When assessed|
– year, session and week
(for example, Yr1, S2, Wk3)
(% of total marks for unit)
|Cross reference to learning outcomes|
|Essay (1500 words)||Week 8||40%||1-3|
|An essay, informed by theory and personal values and beliefs focussing on creating a stimulating and caring classroom environment where optimal learning can take place,|
(1) Examples of types of assessment tasks include: assignments; examinations; group projects; online quizzes/tests; presentations; work-based projects; and reflective journals. Ensure that details of the types of assessment tasks are included such as specific topics, duration / length / word limit of assessment, and any specific formats.
2.1 Prescribed and recommended readings
Provide below, in formal reference format, a list of the prescribed and recommended readings for the unit
FOUNDATIONS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
The aim of the essay is analysing the way personal beliefs and values help crating a motivating class environment for learners so that they can gain optimal learning. According to Clarke & Pittaway (2014), for creating a caring environment for students, teachers must set up clear expectations and procedures. Students must be taught a silent indication, which needs to be used consistently. An appropriate classroom management system plays a vital role in this.
Hence, the study involves analysing various theories and then linking them to the way a caring learning environment can be developed.
Developing an inspiring and caring classroom environment, where best learning can take place
For making the learning process for students more comfortable, a productive classroom environment is necessary. The significance of a positive classroom environment is crucial for successful learning of students. It is the responsibility of the teachers developing a welcoming atmosphere, where learners feel benign and intended to share. Classrooms must signify all the students equally, and all the students must know the names of each other (Goodlet & Collier, 2014). In the words of Irving & Carter (2018), the classroom environment is not just essential for students, but the teachers a well. Everything including the wall colours and desk arrangement conveys an impression to the learners and can influence the learning process. For example, desks positioned circularly conveys the idea of sharing. Besides, the physical environment, the emotional environment is equally essential, as it determines the way students accept teachings. Therefore, in the classroom, all the students must be felt appreciated, and their contributions are valued. No student should be secluded or singled out, and everyone must feel wanted, respected and accepted within the learning environment.
Fyson (2014) opined that for improving the effectiveness of a classroom environment, active engagement of the students must be achieved in the first place. It involves engaging students both physically and mentally. Such learning often include communication with a team or a partner. Talking over concepts, solving problems collaboratively and considering others’ viewpoints are all essential in the process of active learning. Therefore, for experiencing shared success, students must learn to show care and kindness to each other and treat everyone respectfully.
In summary, they need to engage their hands, minds and heart in the classroom. Hence, the first step for any teacher is building a caring environment for everyone, where active learning can embellish. The optimal classes provide a supportive and loving atmosphere besides, establishing clear boundaries for behaviour. In this context, Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer (2012) commented that whatever time it takes, but establishing vibrant procedures and expectations for learners at the start of a year is essential. It helps them understand what the teacher is expecting from them in terms of their academic performance and behaviour. Students must be clearly instructed that unkind behaviour and words will not be endured and no bullying will be entertained. Whenever the teacher needs the attention of the students, he/she can use a noiseless signal such as a bell, hand in the air or a rain stick. He/she must be sure about the focus and concentration of the students are in the class before giving them any direction.
As per the viewpoint of Harries, Margetts & Bridie (2013), the way teachers manage the classroom environment and students is a crucial part of attaining a proper learning atmosphere. Educators have the idea that pupils learn differently and using the right teaching style can address the behavioural issue and help in providing proper instructions. Therefore, classroom management approaches and instructional theory are the essential aspects of education. While the method of classroom management is developing continually, some fundamental theories stand out when applied to contemporary culture. Application of these theories can facilitate educators identifying their own classroom management techniques and deciding the best strategy interactions with the learners. Skinner’s operant conditioning theory is one of the significant theories mentioned. They are based on the notion that education is an activity of change in observable behaviour. As per the viewpoint of Skinner, behavioural changes are an outcome of a person's reaction to stimuli or events take place within their environment. When an incentive or stimulus-response form is content, the person is habituated to react alike further. The core of the theory is support or anything, which reinforces the preferred response. It may contain good grades, praise, a prize or even a sense of achievement. Negative reinforcement also takes place when a stimulus leads to improved response when it is reserved. The critical principle of Skinner’s thought is that confidently strengthened conduct will reoccur. Therefore, information is offered in little amounts. The response can be enhanced, and reinforcement will be used to comparable stimuli. As stated by Loughran (2012), the theory in operant training is combined into both instructional development and classroom management. As per the theory, practice must take place in the format of question-answer, which depict learners to information progressively through a sequence of stages. The students must response every time and receive feedback immediately. Excellent performance must be paired with ancillary supports such as good grades, prizes or praise. Instructions must attempt to arrange questions by effort, so the answer is always right to develop favourable execution.
Thus, by applying Skinner’s theory, teachers are encouraged to show appreciation toward ethical behaviour and performance of the students. Giving rewards and immediate praise also help educators obtaining the desired change in the problematic behaviour of a student. ‘Token economies' is also naturally used for rewarding learners.
Another theory is Glasser’s choice theory developed in 1998 by William Glasser. The theory suggests that all the behaviour of people are chosen and they are influenced by genetics to fulfil five fundamental needs, including love, survival, freedom, power and fun. In this theory, the most crucial requirements are belonging, and love, a relationship with others, is needed as a mean for meeting all different needs. Therefore, the classroom has to be a place of satisfying all the requirements for the students. The theory influences learning in various ways. It is applied in schools around the world and has changed the method of delivering instructions to the students (Loughran, 2012). As commented by Rosenshine (2012), the theory postulates that teachers are like managers, and they should perform their tasks efficiently for ensuring that students are learning successfully. Therefore, teachers need guiding pupil in understanding that working with dedication and being obedient is worth it. It will influence others' lives positively. The teacher can attain this by developing a positive connection with learners and developing relevant and active learning experience, which allow students to establish success and mastery. Teacher, who apply choice theory while developing lessons, they ensure that the classroom activities are appropriate for satisfying students’ requirements. It enables learning to improve besides reducing disruption. Students gain the feeling of power and competence, they have some independence, and they enjoy in a secure and safe environment. In such a class atmosphere, the pressure is minimised, as it never encourages quality. Students are not motivated to behave using punishments and rewards; rather, teachers focus on developing a positive connection with the learners and manage them properly.
Thus, the educators focus on quality, the expert the expertise of ideas, and inspire students to repeat their tasks and retry until they have shown their high-quality work and competence. The focus is on in-depth learning through practice. Self-evaluation helps students being responsible for their actions and reaching their goals besides becoming expert decision-maker, who have engaged actively in their learning.
According to Rosenshine (2012), at the present time, innovative learning techniques and strategies have been applied in the learning process. Hence, opportunities for identifying students' abilities and talents are created. Inopportunely, lack of beliefs of teachers, create obstacles in the method of exploring students’ skills and skills. Teachers' opinions are essential in the way of introduction of the learning process and debate. The belief of teachers that only talented students can participate in contest obstructs the growth of other students. Teachers' understanding and value can encourage the way students acquire knowledge, behave and think. Rosenshine (2012) commented that unproductive learning approach, lack of encouragement, and failing to support students could act as barriers toward the learning process of the students. Teachers must believe that they can change the attitude of a student toward learning and thus, they can help students improving their ability to acquiring knowledge and learning new things. A teacher must consider himself/herself as a change agent. Teacher-experts can identify and implement the most accurate teaching methods, organise learning process ad update interdisciplinary connections. Achievements of all the students are essential to them. Therefore, they pay attention to a caring learning environment.
Developing and maintaining an inspiring and caring classroom environment is essential for ensuring students are doing progress and acquiring appropriate learning and knowledge. Teachers play the most crucial role in creating such a situation, which is comfortable and caring at the same time for the learners. Learners must feel motivated to engage in the learning activities enthusiastically that requires giving emotional support to the children. Different theories are there that help educators understanding the way they can develop a productive learning environment for students and making their learning success.