Written assignment 1- Nursing (On campus)
Must Complete: Yes
Word Length: 2000 words
This assessment relates to:
Learning Outcomes 1-5
Choose one of the case studies and respond to the following considerations in regard to the chosen case study
Case Study 1
This question is based on the Sharon case study and you will need to engage with the case study information prior to commencing this assignment.
Sharon Munroe, 26 year old caucasian female, has recently been diagnosed with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). Medical history includes, irregular menses for the past 5 years, 12 kg weight gain over the past 2 years, increasing hirsuitism, episodes of severe acne and infertility.
Case Study: Justin
This question is based on the Justin case study and you will need to engage with the case study information prior to commencing this assignment.
Justin has been practising unsafe sex and experimenting with his sexuality. Because of his unsafe sex practices he is at risk of developing a number of sexually transmitted infections (STI's).
Structure and presentation
Your response should follow essay format (Introduction, Body, and conclusion, using paragraphs). Do not use dot points, lists or tables. The use of headings are recommended for this assignment.
You need to include in text referencing (using resources as described above) and a Reference list. APA is the required referencing style in the School of Health. Follow the link at the top right of this page for examples.
Written assignment 1- Nursing (On campus)
The specific assignment would emphasise upon the case study of Justin who had practiced unsafe sex and often experiment with sexuality. Due to the practicing of unsafe sex, it is vulnerable towards development of sexually transmitted diseases. In this regards, the assignment would reflect upon the relevant assessment needed by Justin. The role concerning the sexual health team members would also be outlined in the study. Lastly, the assignment would interpret the educational needs for Justin in regards to the health issues he is experiencing.
In regards to the above-mentioned case study, the nurse practitioner of the clinic thinks that the patient has been contracted with the Herpes Simplex Virus. Justin aged 24 is presently having blisters in the penis. He did not experience any such symptoms in the past. However, report suggests that Justin had sexual affair ten days back with a partner he met at the night club. Apart from sexual intercourse, they also had oral sex, knowing the fact that the girl had a clean STD screening off late. For making relevant assessment needed for the patient it is essential to get an overview of the patient’s history.
While considering the history of Justin, it could be stated that he does not smoke, however, he drinks at regular intervals./He had sexual affairs with several individuals and hardly uses condom for having sex. Justin is immune from any type of medical and surgical history. He does not having the habit of taking illicit drugs either. He is experiencing malaise and bad headaches recently. There was no occurrence of sore around the genital portion of Justin either. While considering the physical assessment of the patient Justin appears to be comparatively healthy.
However, considering the viewpoints of the Nurse practitioner, it could be stated that the patient could be experiencing Genital Herpes which is a sexually transmissible infection initiated by the Herpes Simplex Virus. In medical terms, it is stated that there is still no total cure available for patients suffering from Genital Herpes. However, Medications could take active participation in easing the symptoms and mitigating the risk of getting spread in other individuals. Using of condoms is mandatory for preventing further spreading of the infection (Martinez, 2018). For getting a better overview of the Herpes Simplex Virus, physical examinations and specific laboratory tests are required which are mentioned below:
Viral Culture: The specific test reflects upon gathering a sample of the tissue or the scrapping within the sore region for further laboratory evaluation (Healthline, 2019). The sample is placed at a dish and kept under observation for sixteen hours to seven days respectively for getting a proper overview of the Virus growth.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Test: PCR is utilized for copying the DNA of the patient from the sampling of the blood, tissues from the sore region or from the spinal fluid (Acquah, winter, Jackson & Gunson, 2017). The testing of DNA would take the initiative of identifying the extent to which the patient is affected by HSV and the type of HSV is also taken into consideration. The virus could be of two types- HSV-1 and HSV-2 respectively. The existence of HSV-1 gives birth to symptoms such as cold soaring and fever blistering which is not the case with the patient. HSV-2 usually comes into effect due to sexual contamination with partners. HSV-2 results into Genital Herpes which Justin is experiencing presently.
Blood Testing: The test takes active participation in analyzing the sampling of the blood for evaluating the existence of Herpes Simplex Virus antibodies for detecting any past infection of Herpes. The testing of blood does not take the initiative of detecting the virus actually; rather they probe for the anti-bodies which is the immune response of the body within the blood.
After assessing the medical condition of the patient, the nurse practitioner has prescribed Acyclovir 200mg q4h for a span of 10 days. If situation suggests, Valacyclovir could also be prescribed to Justin.
The sexual health team members play a vital role in providing assistance to the patient suffering from the infection of HSV. There is a necessity for accurate assessment concerning the behavioral risk which mainly involves determination of the sexual behaviour in putting a person at risk in regards to HSV infection and biological risk (Hall, 2019). The sexual health team members should take active participation in accumulating the sexual history of Justin for addressing the reduction of risk in an effective manner. Proper interviewing, skillsets of counseling and avoidance of any judgmental aspect would allow the team members to gather accurate information and disseminate prevention messages accordingly. The sexual health team members should try to build a good rapport with the patient and ask him open-ended questions for getting a better overview of the health condition.
Apart from carrying out the assessment of behavioral risk, the STD screening should be taken into consideration for understanding the prevalence of Genital Herpes. The sexual health team members should also ensure the fact that every individual receives an empathic care which curing the Genital Herpes (Aravantinou et al., 2017). They should take the initiative of promoting effective practices of sexual health. They should always abide by a non-judgmental approach so that the patient does not feel uncomfortable which disclosing information related to privacy.
Prevention counseling is an effective measure initiated by the sexual health team members for treating a patient suffering from Genital Herpes (Sauerbrei, 2016). The counseling should be carried in a way so that the behaviour of the present and previous sexual partners could be traced. Motivational speeches could also prove to be effective for Justin in treating his medical complications (Bourne et al., 2019). The sexual health team should ensure the fact that Justin is able to cope up with the situation and in this case empathic assistance would play a key role. It is a notable fact that the identification of Genital Herpes could be causing embarrassment, anxiety and anger within Justin and he could become hesitant in engaging in sexual affairs in the future. He might also fear rejection from his current partner, thus ruining the sex life in a negative manner. The primary motive of the sexual health team should be to ease the situation by boosting the confidence level of the patient (Jiang, Feng, Lin & Guo, 2016). The team members should ask Justin to communicate with the present partner. Justin should openly share his feeling to the partner and should not indulge in blaming each other. The sex health teams should also take the initiative of stating experiences of others and how they recovered irrespective of having genital herpes. At times, presence of Genital Herpes could lead towards depression. In this context, the sexual health team members should help Justin in leading a normal life. The idea of using preventive measures is must for such a patient and it is the duty of the sexual health team members to create awareness amongst the patient for practicing safe sex. They serve as mental support and guide for patients suffering from Genital Herpes.
While considering the case of Genital Herpes for Justin, he should be accustomed to start living with the present condition and avoid spreading to the infection to other partners. The patients should be educated about the options of treatment as wells as determine the tactics of managing outbreaks (Workowski & Bolan, 2015). Only medications cannot cure Genital Herpes, the patient also needs to alter the living style and practice options of safe sex. In this regards, it is essential for the nurse practitioner for addressing the educational needs of Justin in an effective manner. Presence of videos and presentations could provide the necessary information to Justin for preventing further spreading of the infection to the partners. The patient should be properly educated regarding the usage of condoms and the needfulness of routine screening.
One of the primary educational tips that the nurse practitioner would stress on is to avoid Oral or Anal sex while indulging in sexual affairs. Justin should also be asked to reduce the number of the sex partners for overcoming side effects of Genital Herpes. It is a known fact that specific behaviors enhance the chances of STDs within an individual. Justin needs to avoid unprotected sexual contact with immediate effect. The nurse practitioner should take active participation in educating Justin by stating that safe sex is more pleasurable by nature and will keep him immune from any sort of disease or discomfort (Gnann & Whitley, 2016). Justin should be educated considering the fact that safe sex is the real form of sex. Justin should be asked to share sexual information with the partner and identify various ways of satisfying each other through safe sex. Safe sex is proved to be effective because it restricts the entering of semen within the body, thus reducing the chances of spreading Genital Herpes. Furthermore, Justin should be asked not to indulge in sexual activities until the time he is under medical supervision.
In the future, if Justin still is willing to get involved with new sex partners, he should be advised to use condom on every occasions he is having sex. If Justin is willing to have anal sex, he should be using a lubricated condom for avoiding any chances of getting infected (Grooves, 2015). Justin should be advised to avoid any form of self-medication and always consult a doctor upon necessity. The patient should also be asked to complete of the total course of the treatment procedure. It is often noticed that as soon the symptoms starts disappearing patients stop taking medicines, thus resulting in failure of the treatment. The patient should also be well rehearsed with the procedures of avoiding re-infection. In this context, an in-depth counselling is required where a patient should be taught regarding the scientific benefits of using condoms.
At times, it is heard that the usage of condoms could not help in preventing STDs on certain occasions. Instead of the condom breakage, the improper way of using condoms is one of the major reasons for spreading of infection. The nurse practitioner should advice Justin regarding the proper way of using condoms. Justin should also be advice not to overuse a condom (Draeger, 2018). He should be altering condoms if he is having sex twice or thrice with the same partner. It is also advisable to check the condom whether it is subjected to any prior leakage or not. In this case, the patient can drip the condom in water to check whether bubbles are coming out or not. The nurse practitioner should advice Justin preferably not to have physical contact with sex workers as on numerous occasions they have unprotected sex. Justin should also be advised to use Polyurethane condoms as they are usually safer than normal latex condoms. The inclusion of partner services could also prove to be effective for Justin. The nurse practitioner can guide Justin with written information and justification which he can share with his respective sex partner.
For proper usage of condoms, the following educational needs for Justin are analysed. Using a condom with every acts of sex is preferable. Careful handling of the condom is essential for avoiding any sort of damages with the finger nails , tooth etc. The condom should be put on the onset of penis erection, before indulging in anal, oral or vaginal sex (Crosby, Sanders, Yarber & Graham, 2003). If the patient is using latex condoms, he should be using water-based lubrication with utmost priority. Application of oil-based lubrication could be weakening the holding of the latex. However, if the patient is willing to utilise oil-based lubrication, then he could take into consideration the usage of synthetic condoms. Ensuring of adequate lubrication is essential particularly in case of anal or vaginal sex. Application of exogenous water base lubrication is advisable in this case. For preventing slipping of the condom, there is an essentiality of holding the condom steadily against the penis base while withdrawing and the withdrawal should be considered when the penis is still in a erected position.
Consideration of the above-mentioned steps would assist Justin in further spreading of the infection. Apart from the educational advices provided by the nurse practitioner, he should be following the medicinal procedures as well. Justin could join support groups who spread awareness regarding safe sex. The nurse practitioner should also advice Justin regarding the needs of self-education while minimizing the impact of sexually transmitted diseases. Justin should take the initiative of going through relevant journal and articles stating the ill effects of unprotected sex. He should also be well aware about the adverse effects of Genital Herpes so that he could take all the necessary measurements for alleviating any chances of relapse. Instead of condemning the situation, he should be open regarding the medical condition and create awareness amongst others as well. Once the educational needs of Justin would be attained, then he could be leading a better sex life in the mere future.
On the contrary, it could be concluded that, Justin should take active participation in following the medicinal procedures as wells as initiative preventive measures for alleviating further spreading of the HSV infection. In this context, he is always advised to use condoms for a safer sex act.