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Effective Business Communication Assignment Sample

Task Description:
The purpose of this assessment is to provide students with the opportunity to engage in reflective practice, using a range of diagnostic tools and feedback, to identify two key areas of personal capability that can be addressed (improved) to increase their communication effectiveness. This assessment is aimed to assess your ability to demonstrate advanced knowledge in written communication and your skill to autonomously reflect about good practices in workplace communication. Through the process of self-reflection, you will be able to improve your communication competencies through your knowledge of and ability to perform contextually appropriate communicative behaviours. 

This assignment has three specific components. 

1. Diagnosis and Reflection

  1. Using 5 diagnostic tools related to communication, you are to analyse your own communication style across various areas such as verbal communication, active listening, non- verbal, and assertiveness perception. You will be given the individual diagnostics during the tutorials. Your tutor/lecturer will check and sign-off that you have completed each individual diagnostic during the tutorials.  This means that if you fail to attend some or any of tutorial you will not be able to receive and complete the diagnostics. The signed diagnostics must be submitted as a separate PDF file. 
  2. You are to present the findings of the tools. The scores for each diagnostic must be included in your essay. In doing so you will show your understanding of the results as they apply to your personal situation. 
  3. Based upon your analysis of the findings you are to identify two key communication issues that you have identified as requiring development. 
  4.  Reflect on two recent professional interactions that you have had within the past 12 months. Analyse these interactions from the perspective of the two key communication issues that are identified as requiring development. To what extent are these evident and support the need for personal communication development? 

2. Literature review
You are to identify and explain the two issues from your diagnosis and reflection. You are to define the concepts, outline key models and or behaviours that need to be developed to demonstrate effective practice. This literature review needs to outline both the conceptual (theoretical) and behavioural (interpersonal) skills that you need to acquire to demonstrate competence in your chosen area of communication. 

3. Action Plan
As a conclusion, you are to develop an action plan of key events and activities that you can undertake over the next 6 months to acquire the knowledge, skills, and behaviours identified as requiring development in component one. This can include the following: 

  1. Undertaking specific short courses, to develop skills based on actual courses that are available. 
  2. Undertaking advanced post-graduate communication courses at CQU or other institutions. 
  3.  A reading plan to acquire conceptual knowledge, which may include specific communication texts and self-help books which must be specified. 
  4.  Maintaining of personal journals reflecting on communication interactions. 
  5. This section must include actionable items with timelines (such as a Gantt chart) and an indication of how you will measure their successful completion.  

Answer


The essay would represent and evaluate personal communication abilities of mine along with styles associated with communication areas. The areas, which would be reviewed tend to be verbal and non-verbal as well. In addition to the areas, capability of active listening along with positivity in perspective would be evaluated too. The evaluation would be based over result that 5 key tools for communication would represent. I would also portray forward the result of tools and scores achieved from every diagnostic tool. Furthermore, it would deal with identification and exploration of 2 communication barriers which I would identify by usage of diagnostic tools. Additionally, 2 amongst current interaction of mine where I encountered with issues because of communication barriers would be represented.     

I would further explain about diagnosis and define essential concepts along with models associated with my communication issues as well. The behaviours and theories, which would be applied for development of effective practice at communication issues of mine, would be dealt too. Finally, I would provide action plan, which prepare to apply as well as undertake in next 6 months. Taking up courses of short-term, reading books for self-help, maintenance of journal and others are important aspects in the action plan, made by me, which would be discussed within essay.  

For analysis of self-communication procedure, I managed in selecting 5 essential tools of communication, which could be applied for development of business function. The initial technique was "Self-perceived Competence scale” during verbal communication. It assisted me in indicating my personal skills and competency of communication during verbal interaction with stakeholders or customers (Cardon & Marshall, 2015).  

2nd technique, which I chose for making is “Nonverbal Immediacy Scale Self-report" over individual emotional effect over communication of mine. For understanding issues, which controlled me during communication could assist me in understanding specified causes behind personal feeling along with method of conversing to them (Chaudhri, 2016). Another 3rd tool, which was explored by me for writing and analysing my fear along with anxieties during communication with other people is “Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension” tool. It regarded as a chance for me for understanding issues effectively and I could emphasise over specific behaviour during communication with other people (Christensen, 2014).

Subsequent to making individual reports, I realised that it tends to be crucial for analysing and focusing vitally over my problems of communication as per others’ viewpoint. Therefore, I managed accessing to “Talkaholic Scale”. With it, I have explored opinions of others through discussion. I involved my colleagues and prepared group discussion over business topic. Depending on Coombs (2015) views, the critical analysis as per others’ viewpoint is helpful for me in implying my errors accurately. The final technique was the “Tolerance for Disagreement”, which I evaluated, is entirely emphasised over my forbearance ability. As suggested by DuFrene & Lehman (2014), power of tolerance tends to be most essential factor, which could assist a businessperson in assessment of patience during speaking to others.             

Considering the tools mentioned above and applied, I identified my communication ability properly. As per planning of self-perceived communication, I evaluated scores that represented my weaknesses and strengths. In accordance with SPCC score, I was lowest position in talking to strangers. I scored 30 according to SPCC score that indicates my lowest competency in such case. I reflects that I faced issues with my skills of verbal communication during communicating with strangers (Malhotra & Ackfeldt, 2016). 35 marks in case of that stranger’s large meeting defined the case that I do not have ability of attending meeting effectively with unfamiliar people. As per discussion made, I comprehended that I possess moderate ability of verbal communication during talking in big groups. On the contrary, during talking to an individual, I face difficulties in communicating properly.

According to PRICA report, I accessed emotional barriers, which influence my communication competency. I realised that although I am capable of managing various conditions, I possess specified troubles during communicating to people belonging to diverse culture (Lucas & Rawlins, 2015). Score 37 is concerned with application of hand gestures along with inappropriate body language during talking.

Score associated with “Tolerance of Disagreement” was 45 that were fair; however, required development referred in report. It is concerned with my capability of communicating properly within a compatible team. It preferred my capability of staying with the people that follow similar viewpoint. Independence in workplace as well as enjoying argument over different things is part of the report’s agreement. My nature involving in various communications helps me in communicating more; however, ignoring people having different perspectives are too part of the result (Engdahl & Lidskog, 2014).

As per report of Talkaholic scale 27 was the score, which indicated that I prefer talking much. It is the inappropriate feature, which could damage business image and my impression before my co-workers. I require talking; however, it must not be much, which could affect negatively my business persona repute (Hannon, 2018)  

Considering the report of non-verbal propinquity scale, I attained 83 score, which reflected low ability of communication. The problems specified here is avoiding contact of eye, frowning, kinetics, hand gestures. As a male individual, I require following certain general guidelines while talking. The challenge I identified mostly in this portion is moving closer during talking with them. Based on views of the Lauring & Klitmøller (2015), it could damage my abilities of communication along with my personality before my colleagues.      

In analysis of the report associated with competency of self-perceived communication, I comprehended 2 key problems, which influence significantly over my communication skills. The self-diagnose tools have assisted me effectively in making vivid emphasis over such perspectives. Furthermore, they are liable of enhancing consciousness of mine critically related to exploration and identification of specified easy for modifying and improving my skills an accordance with business perspective (Turnage & Goodboy, 2016).    

That initial issue, which I recognized from the SPCC scale, was verbal communication shortage in talking to stranger. As viewed by Mishra, Boynton & Mishra (2014) for execution of business effectively, communication tends to be key towards business development as well as helpful for the owner in maintenance of quality of formal representation in procedure of business. During meeting with the strangers, I feel uneasy and unconfident. It is during talking to a stranger and not during communicating to group of people. As reflected in SPCC score, I analysed my requirement of development of my communication skills. 

The other issue based over “Tolerance for disagreement” score, represents my fear and anxiety during communication. Although, the part’s result is moderate that reflect high level of anxiety in me. As per suggestions of Ocasio, Loewenstein & Nigam (2015), high nervousness and anxiety could influence my speaking abilities. Additionally, it misguides and misunderstands my words towards other person while talking. I possess nature of avoiding various diplomatic situations and conflicts, which are foreseeable in business procedure. Therefore, the problem should be remedied rapidly. On the contrary, on the similar scale, certain moderate score was gained by me because of my capacity of being in different conversation, which is effective in gaining more information from others’ viewpoint (Tourish, 2014).   

          

Professional communication tends to be a crucial principle associated with business’ communication, which functions in the businessperson’s favour for convincing ad controlling various personalities. As suggested by Trittin & Schoeneborn (2017), open conversation must become appropriate and effectual, which must not become affected by personal problems. 

Since last twelve months, I could remind of business meeting along with 25 people as well as three organisation representatives related to partnership along with my organisation. Firstly, I was available in meeting where I interacted effectively to everyone. Prior to commencement of meeting, I was nervous regarding the talking flow. I knew certain specified causes behind the individual interest at approaching partnership of ours; however, I felt quite confused if they need making deal in other way. Subsequent to that, my skills and experience assisted me in overcoming the issues effectively.

In contrast to the condition, I encountered with real issues during private meeting along with the representatives of company. As those were very superior from me, I was afraid of being inappropriate as well as irrelevant in talking to them. Luckily, all the representatives were understanding enough in nature and possessed sound patience in understanding my words effectively.

“Tolerance of disagreement” is other event, which I could refer towards communication barrier, which I experienced during my visit to a firm. I was assigned with the task of making detailed survey related to work practices within that firm as well as identify properly the flaws. I was inexperienced in dealing directly with workers. Although, I had no idea of facing such cases, I committed my task. I experienced the challenge conisting anxiety along with fear in talking from strangers. Furthermore, I had fear of arguing to strangers over various workforce faults. Because the staffs were not interested much in explaining the mistakes, I solely marked the mistakes and fulfilled my task.

As per diagnosis, it could be observed that 2 amongst my skills of communication are low. Amongst the 2, one is competence scale of self-perceived communication and another is the “tolerance of disagreement”.

Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale- The technique was established to obtain rate of competence that people observe while communicating to different kind of people (Haegeman et al., 2016). The capability of communication of persons differs at various conditions. Lam & Hannah (2016) stated occasionally an individual would react as much competent at a condition in comparison to other. Some people feel bashful regarding communication in meeting whereas they could communicate freely in general. Amongst groups of friends, they could have open communication; however, in front of strangers they might face issues in communication. It is reflected that verbal skills of communication of mine are low   

Tolerance for disagreement- The technique represents the level of forbearance during disagreement of thoughts. As Wagenhouser et al. (2016) opined, persons having elevated level of argumentativeness would manage enhanced disagreements. Such report represents that the people having little tolerance percent change often the argument topics. Either, they circumvent facing arguments or do not talk to the people that disagree to them. On the contrary, occasionally arguments tend to be sound for participation as it establishes skills of communication (Tourish, 2014). In workplace, people with low level of tolerance prefer working independently for avoiding disagreements with the colleagues.       

Various models of communication exist such as Schramm model, Berlo model and Barnlund model. Since commented by Cardon & Marshall (2015) the following Berlo model is easiest to be applied while communication to people. As supported by Chaudhri (2016), it involves information’s source, message, encoding language, communication channels, decoding message as well as message’s receiver. On the contrary, as argued by Christensen (2014), Schramm model implies that process of communication involves conveyance of information through different sources to receiver by 3 various level. Nevertheless, it is identified that varying from 2 models explained above, Barnlund model suggests a unique transactional model of communication (Sepúlveda et al., 2015). Persons are engaged concurrently in receipt along with conveyance of message.

In case of Berlo model, communication factors involve skills require for communication, awareness level, social and cultural system along with person’s attitude. DuFrene & Lehman (2014) argued that Schramm model depicts the initial activity is examination of whether message is affecting both targets of message. As argued by Engdahl & Lidskog (2014), Barnlund model implies that message’s sender and receiver should be connected internally and reciprocally. As supported by Coombs (2015) it could be regarded as constitutive and constructionist model. As Hannon (2018) stated that constructionist model primarily focuses over an individual’s communication by determination of factors helping interpretation of message. On other side, as argued by Johansson, Miller & Hamrin (2014), factors associated with Berlo model influence the communication procedure amidst two specified persons.           

There exist certain other models connected with people’ communication named as linear model as well as interactive model. Linear model tends to be directional model for communication to other people. As argued by Lam & Hannah (2016), linear model comprises with sender for encoding message and channelizing it to receiver in availability of noises of various kinds. On contrast Malhotra & Ackfeldt (2016) opined following interactive model consisted of 2 models of liner communication that are stacked over each other’s top. Here sender channelizes message to receiver. Subsequent to that, receiver is changed into sender and conveys message to original sender. Lucas & Rawlins (2015) stated that there is absence of feedbacks or responses in linear model. The respective model may facilitate the reliable exchange of the messages or information. Johansson, Miller & Hamrin (2014) contracted that Interactive framework include feedbacks and answer that depict that the interaction is not only two or one-way procedure.

Hence, I feel that at time of interaction between two individuals, both need to respond equally to establish a fruitful communication (Mishra, Boynton & Mishra, 2014). The analysis testimony highlighted that my response skill is highly improved. While I feel withdrawn to talk within the group, I can easily discuss and argument in the friend circle. The Linear model referred to as the single directional framework, where messages initiate to travel from a single direction and shift towards the end-points. Conversely, an interactive model includes message moving in distinctive tracks.

There is some behavioural model under communication skills as well including Social Cognitive and Social-Learning theory. A Social-Cognitive theory is utilized within psychological communication and education of individuals. The model explained that little portion of the individual's knowledge attainment might be relative to the inspection of different people in several social communications, experiences and media influences (Ocasio, Loewenstein & Nigam, 2015). On the other hand, the social-learning model discussed that individual learn from others through distinctive interpretation, modelling and imitations. The social-learning theory is called the bridge between behaviourists and learning theories.

Depending on the literature pieces explained above, I have recognized it may enhance my interaction skills from varying facet. I require developing all factors of my interaction to be better communicator within my working places. I need to conquer the problem of linking with varying individuals that have been recognized with the support of analytic measures. Additionally, I ought to improve my non-verbal and verbal communication skills to make other individual agreed on my opinions ultimately. The message projection and expressions should be clear enough to make an individual understand better. I require enhancing my facial expressions and speaking words. 

This segment of the report consists of the action plan outlined to establish within the next six month time to conquer the my interaction problems. I am undertaking so to gain and develop required techniques, behaviours and related knowledge to improve my communication problems (Stacks & Salwen, 2014). Initially, I have planned to sign up myself under a practical short term itinerary for addressing the communiqué problem. I have picked out some teaching centres that offer quality communication practices and have selected the PDT education centre or Professional-Development preparation Centre. They have numerous centres across Australia involving Brisbane, Perth and Sydney. 

I will sign up myself under PDT as I believe they will offer adequate training relative to good speaking and active listening in varying circumstances practical to address my communication imperfection (Cornelissen & Cornelissen, 2017). The teaching centre mean to enhance the body language whereas involved in the interaction. Furthermore, I believe my imperfection in verbal communications recognized by SPCC tool may be effectively compact with the enrolment within the course. I often encounter an issue at the time of speaking in a meeting or engaged under communication with strangers. Hence, I felt that considering the short term source with the PDT is likely to support me to triumph over my ineffectiveness in verbal interaction (Watson & Hill, 2015). 

The communication expertise education itinerary place focuses on reliable interaction techniques such as using appropriate body languages. The directness on enquiring, placing self-assured questions, establishing STAR model at the time of interaction and others are also its part (Chaudhri, 2016). Hence, I believe that my imperfection in non-verbal and verbal communication recognized by TFD as well as SPCC tool may be enhanced by exercising the communication advance course at PDT.  

Secondly, for intend to effective learning and advancement of communication skills, I am prepared to undertake improved post-graduate interaction courses at CQU. Under the respective course, I will build a course insight related to my communication problem and later, the itinerary will be an advantage for the lengthy term in the communication profession (Berger, 2015).  

Later, I made a plan to proceed with some reading strategy to acquire knowledge most relative to the communication problem. Hence, I have planned to establish secure strong interaction skills by considering direction and assistance from various self-help manuscripts (Cardon & Marshall, 2015). Some of the books have been shortlisted by me to be read within six months mentioned under the action plan. The books that are useful to enhance communication skills are ‘101 ways to improve your communication-skill instantly, Difficult conversations: How to discuss what matters most. The assertiveness workbook: How to express your ideas and stand up for yourself at work and in relationships, the message workbook: powerful strategies for effective communication at work and home, Message: The communication skills book' are also some essential books (Jaber, 2016). I anticipate reading the self-help manuscripts is likely to help me enhance my non-verbal and verbal communication issues by offering that offer a useful guide on developing communication and get rid of my communiqué imperfections.

After all, I have planned to keep a private journal for the purpose to note each occasion where I have committed mistakes in communication (Mottet, Richmond & McCroskey, 2015). In my view, it would help me to have a clear vision and outpoint flaws with intend not to repeat it.

Actions1st month2nd month3rd month4th month5th month 
Recognizing issues and improvement   tools




Post-graduate courses relative to   communication




Short term courses relative to   communication




Impact of self-help manuscripts




Evaluate the areas which need improvement   




Ability of decision making 




Conclusion 




Table 1: Time scale for action-plan

(Source: Created by author)

It is concluded that by utilizing diverse communication tools, I have recognized and analyzed by two of communication issues. The essay includes two current communication of mine resulted because of the interaction problem of mine. I felt that two ongoing communications had supported me to recognize my weakness in the same. I have, therefore, understood and explained the models as well as concepts related to enhancing communication skills. I have learned that implementing and utilizing several models and theories of interaction is supportive of improving my communication imperfections. Moreover, following the interactive approach explained within the essay, I felt that interaction problem of mine might be conquered.

Finally, it may be noted that for developing my communication skill, I need to opt for the action plan of six-month duration. The action plan prepared by me has been outlined for the purpose to expect goo improvement in my communication issues. I believe that PDT as short-term courses is likely to be useful for me to develop my communication knowledge. The implementation and application of training courses are going to help me to improve my imperfection within communication approach ultimately. Moreover, I aim to accomplish competent skills and knowledge from reading popular self-help manuscripts on communication proficiency I moreover feel to maintain a journal on a routine basis to note down the activities occurring on daily to ultimately analyze and understand my existing weaknesses or imperfections.

     



Reference List

Books:
Berger, A. A. (2015). Media and communication research methods: An introduction to qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage Publications.

Cornelissen, J., & Cornelissen, J. P. (2017). Corporate communication: A guide to theory and practice. Sage.

Jaber, M. Y. (2016). Learning curves: Theory, models, and applications. CRC Press.

Mottet, T., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (2015). Handbook of instructional communication: Rhetorical and relational perspectives. Routledge.

Stacks, D. W., & Salwen, M. B. (Eds.). (2014). An integrated approach to communication theory and research. Routledge.

Watson, J., & Hill, A. (2015). Dictionary of media and communication studies. Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Journals:
Cardon, P. W., & Marshall, B. (2015). The hype and reality of social media use for work collaboration and team communication. International Journal of Business Communication, 52(3), 273-293. Retrieved on 23 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2L3SzUi

Chaudhri, V. (2016). Corporate social responsibility and the communication imperative: Perspectives from CSR managers. International Journal of Business Communication, 53(4), 419-442. Retrieved on 26 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/download/38648206/CSR_and_the_Communication_Imperative.pdf

Christensen, M. (2014). Communication as a strategic tool in change processes. International journal of business communication, 51(4), 359-385. Retrieved on 24 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2xsOMOK

Coombs, W. T. (2015). The value of communication during a crisis: Insights from strategic communication research. Business Horizons, 58(2), 141-148. Retrieved on 24 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://iranarze.ir/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/E2626.pdf

DuFrene, D. D., & Lehman, C. M. (2014). Navigating Change: Employee Communication in Times of Instability. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 77(4), 443-452. Retrieved on 25 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2ITXyX1

Engdahl, E., & Lidskog, R. (2014). Risk, communication and trust: Towards an emotional understanding of trust. Public understanding of science, 23(6), 703-717. Retrieved on 25 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2sg5M5x

Hannon, P. D. (2019). On becoming and being an entrepreneurship educator: a personal reflection. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 12(6), 1-24. Retrieved on 25 May 2018 Retrieved from: https://www.entrepreneur.lu.se/media/entrepreneur/forskning/artiklar/4.%20Hannon%20ERD%202018.pdf

Lauring, J., & Klitmøller, A. (2015). Corporate language-based communication avoidance in MNCs: A multi-sited ethnography approach. Journal of World Business, 50(1), 46-55. Retrieved on 28 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2IT8bgX

Lucas, K., & Rawlins, J. D. (2015). The competency pivot: Introducing a revised approach to the business communication curriculum. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 78(2), 167-193. Retrieved on 26 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.956.6866&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Malhotra, N., & Ackfeldt, A. L. (2016). Internal communication and prosocial service behaviors of front-line employees: Investigating mediating mechanisms. Journal of Business Research, 69(1), 4132-4139. Retrieved on 28 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2IYDV09

Mishra, K., Boynton, L., & Mishra, A. (2014). Driving employee engagement: The expanded role of internal communications. International Journal of Business Communication, 51(2), 183-202. Retrieved on 24 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.856.7762&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Ocasio, W., Loewenstein, J., & Nigam, A. (2015). How streams of communication reproduce and change institutional logics: The role of categories. Academy of Management Review, 40(1), 28-48. Retrieved on 26 May 2019 Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0eec/9bba5ceba8c7d39022335313ee11726745a9.pdf

Tourish, D. (2014). Leadership, more or less? A processual, communication perspective on the role of agency in leadership theory. Leadership, 10(1), 79-98. Retrieved on 26 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2J7JexJ

Trittin, H., & Schoeneborn, D. (2017). Diversity as polyphony: Reconceptualizing diversity Management from a communication-centered perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(2), 305-322. Retrieved on 28 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2IUV3Uo

Turnage, A. K., & Goodboy, A. K. (2016). E-mail and face-to-face organizational dissent as a function of leader-member exchange status. International Journal of Business Communication, 53(3), 271-285. Retrieved on 26 May 2019 Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2sfZrXZ\

Online-Articles:
Godoy, S., Labarca, C., Somma, N., Gálvez, M., & Sepúlveda, M. (2015). Circumventing communication blindspots and trust gaps in technologically-mediated corporate relationships: the case of chilean business-to-consumer E-commerce. Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research, 10(2), 19-32. Retrieved from https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0718-18762015000200003&script=sci_arttext [Accessed on 15.2.2019]

Johansson, C., D. Miller, V., & Hamrin, S. (2014). Conceptualizing communicative leadership: A framework for analysing and developing leaders’ communication competence. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 19(2), 147-165. Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A717783&dswid=-2717 [Accessed on 15.2.2019]

Lam, C., & Hannah, M. A. (2016). Flipping the audience script: An activity that integrates research and audience analysis. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 79(1), 28-53. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2329490615593372?journalCode=bcqe [Accessed on 15.2.2019]

Santini, C., Marinelli, E., Boden, M., Cavicchi, A., & Haegeman, K. (2016). Reducing the distance between thinkers and doers in the entrepreneurial discovery process: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1840-1844. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296315004890 [Accessed on 15.2.2019]

Sollitto, M., Martin, M. M., Dusic, S., Gibbons, K. E., & Wagenhouser, A. (2016). Assessing the supervisor-subordinate relationship involving part-time employees. International Journal of Business Communication, 53(1), 74-96. . Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2329488414525462?journalCode=jobd [Accessed on 15.2.2019]


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