Evaluation Of Articles On Institutional And Social Inequality

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Question :

This individual assignment provides you with an opportunity to develop your critical thinking skills and skills in reading and understanding academic journal articles.

Your task is to compare and contrast three academic journal articles. You need to: 

  1. Summarise each article 
  2. Analyse the articles 
  3. Provide recommendations 

As a general guide these three main parts should be roughly equal in word count. The introduction and conclusion should each be approximately 10% of the length of the paper.


  1. Select ONE of the articles listed in the table below
Option 1: Adams, J. S. (1963). Toward an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology67, 422-436.
Option 2: Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology41, 417-440. 
Option 3: French, J. R. P., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Eds.), Studies in social power (pp. 150-167). Institute for Social Research: Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Option 4: Schein. E. (1984). Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture. Sloan Management Review, 25(2), 3-16.

  1. Use the library databases and search engines to find two additional journal articles published on the same topic of your chosen article

The two additional journal articles must have been published between 2012 and present and must be selected from the following list of journals: 

Leadership Quarterly

*It is recommended that you start your search within one of the journals marked with an *. These journals principally publish topics in organisational behaviour. 

**Note: These are the exact names of the acceptable journals. Click on the journal name to go to the online library access page (La Trobe sign in may be required).

Read each article thoroughly. 

Pay particular attention to the introduction, literature review, and discussion sections. You can skim the methods and results sections. You will use this information to analyse and compare and contrast the articles. 

Write your essay 

The individual assignment should be written in a neat, professional and engaging manner using an essay format. 

Your essay should have the following sections: 

  • Introduction
    • Try to write something engaging to capture the reader’s interest.
    • Clearly identify the topic that ties the three articles together (e.g., motivation, organisational citizenship, etc.).
    • Include a brief overview of the assignment and how it is organised. 
  • Article summary
    • Briefly summarise the articles. Focus on describing the key concepts and main points from each article (e.g., the theoretical concepts). 
  • Article analysis 
    • Identify and discuss on which points they agree and on which points they differ. Can the differing opinions be synthesised? If you deem an author’s position more credible explain your arguments. If you disagree with an author’s position, explain your reasoning. Do the research findings matter, and can the research be applied in real work settings?
  • Recommendations 
    • Based on the above analysis, what specific recommendations can you make for managers or organisations? Aim for 2 to 4 clear and concise recommendations. 
      • Don’t simply re-state the authors’ recommendations from each article; develop your own recommendations based on all three articles. 
      • If it isn’t possible to make any recommendations (e.g., all the articles were severely flawed), explain your reasoning. 
  • Conclusion 
    • Summarise and integrate your findings. 
  • References 
    • Provide references as a separate page at the end of the document. 

You need to use the APA or Harvard Referencing System. 


  • Focus your discussion and analysis on the key concepts and theories in the articles. 
  • Focus your discussion and analysis on the information contained in the three articles, and only the three articles. 
  • You can skim the methods and results sections for each article, especially for highly complex statistical analysis. Teaching staff understand that these sections are often complex and difficult to understand, and they will not expect detailed analysis of these sections. The paragraphs just before the Methods section will usually give a brief overview of how the study or studies were conducted, and the first few paragraphs of the Discussion section will usually give you a brief summary of the results. 
  • Use in-text citations throughout your report and include a separate reference page at the end of the document. 
  • In the main body of the report, use in-text citations to identify the articles and the source of your ideas. In APA and Harvard style, this means you should provide the author surnames and the year of publication when discussing something from that article. For example, ‘Smith and Jackson (1997) argued that Concept X …’ or ‘Concept X can be defined as … (Smith and Jackson, 1997)’. 
  • Ask for help if you are unsure about what to do.
  • Refer to Assessment Help Guide (located on the LMS).
  • Only use the three articles as references
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Answer :

MGT5OBR Organisational behaviour


In this assignment, three articles have been selected for presenting the overview of institutional inequity and also social inequality in the industry. Institutional inequity and social inequality in the industry are interlinked. It has been referred to by the institutional inequality that the individual or a group is mistreated by the society. Gender inequality in the industry is a very complex phenomenon and by which the organisational structures, organisational practices, and processes are affected. The procedures of operating, laws, policies, and objectives of the industries can codify the institutional inequity.  The institutional inequity consists of several factors such as retaliation amounts, bullying, and discrimination. Institutional inequity is happened due to the social inequality. However, it is very difficult to incorporate the equity in the industry as all people are different from each other, so their perspectives are also important. Institution inequity can affect the economic outcomes of the business of the organisation. In the industry, the gender inequality is seen as social inequality, and for this reason, sometimes the eligible employees are also rejected.

In this assignment, it has been explained that the overview of the main concept of the selected topic. The summary of the concept of each article has been described in this assignment. In this assignment, it has also been defined that the critical evaluation of each article. It has also been defined through this assignment that the personal point of view of the assignment writer. According to the evaluation the recommendation has also been defined in this particular assignment.

Article Summary:

In the article of the author Adams (1963), it has been televised that inequity one of the pervasive concerns in the industry. In this article, it has been mentioned that the equity does not refer to the proper payment to the employees for the significant performance. Similarly, the inequity does not refer to the un-payment of the employees. This article has also defined that the economic success of the industry is related to the equity as well as inequity. Adams (1963) stated that social justice could reduce the economic disadvantages of the industry. In this article, it has also been .mentioned that according to the theory of Festinger, the equity needs to be defined before engaging, the employees in the industry. As an example, it has been mentioned n this article that if anything is exchanged by the two individuals, then it can be very sure that the exchange is accepted by one or two of them inequitably. Adams (1963) mentioned that inequality is the term by which it has been analysed that the discrepancies between the job outcomes and job inputs of a man and these discrepancies are occurred due to the behaviour of the man. However, by the results of discrepancies, the better understanding is created on the social aspects of one.

In the article of the author Teraji (2011), it has been represented that the theory of the institutional inequality for understanding the market structure of the labour inequality. By this article, it has been clarified that the differences in the economic outcomes of the industry are created by the differences in the industry. The hierarchical system is encompassed by the institutional poverty's aspects. Teraji (2011) mentioned that the accessing of profitable occupation is denied by most of the women and the ethnic minorities. For this reason, the lower-paying jobs are represented. It has also been explained in this article that un-equalised opportunities for employment are happened due to the differences in wage payment method. Teraji (2011) mentioned that the income distribution is affected by the technological innovation. It has also been proposed by this article that the analytical framework to understand the institution nature, by which the earning divergence is contributed. This article has also defined that the economic inequality is occurred due to the demonstration of the effects of institutional performances. Teraji (2011) mentioned that the scholars have encouraged by the theory of the social exclusion for considering the political, economic and social dimensions of the deprivation. 

In the article by the author Blackburn (1999), it has been described that the social inequality is referred to as the growing problem. The social inequality provides an impact over the work, earnings and the technological developments of the industry. The social aspects are related to the several factors such as family life, education, the course of life, political change and geographical nobility. It has also been mentioned in this article that the inequality is one of the important aspects of the society. Blackburn (1999) mentioned that the financial terms are also affected by the inequality, and the economic inequality is especially focused by this article. The author has also defined that there is huge discrimination in the society that the poor people do not have facilities and on the other side, the rich people always have the facilities. Thus it can be assumed that social inequality is the important variable by which the development has occurred in the financial sectors. Blackburn (1999) mentioned that the technological development is also the important factor for determining the income levels as well as inequality in the industry.

Article analysis:

In the article by the author Adams (1963), social inequity has been stressed. The author especially has considered the inequity in the wages in this article. The author has aimed in order to screen an inequity theory that assists in order to understand the phenomenon. I have felt that this understanding can be beneficial in order to cope up as well as control the situation. In addition, it can be stated that the author also has spotted his lights on promoting the social justice. Therefore, I personally feel that understanding of the social inequity is helpful in order to promote the social justice. Moreover, it also can be stated that understanding of the social inequity can be fruitful in order to mitigate the chaos in those industries that are going on the phase of economically disadvantageous. In this article, the author has spotted his light on the impact of inequity, in which the author has screened that if inequity is present in a person, it can result in tension and the presence of this tension would help the person in order to combat the inequity. I also agree with the author as I personally feel that this presence of inequity along with the tension can inspire a person in order to combat inequity as well as achieve equity. The author has shown some supporting evidence in his article. He has stressed some experiments in this article. In his experiments, the author has screened that a person can be able to mitigate inequity, if he gets overpaid than others, by escalating the inputs of him. The inequity has been analysed in this article in accordance with the discrepancies between the job inputs and the job outcomes of a person. This article also has shown that the behaviour resulting from the discrepancies is helpful in order to understand the social conflict aspect and increases the mitigation formula. 

The article of the author Teraji (2011) has highlighted the social exclusion along with the inequality. As per the author social exclusion is the direct consequence of the unequalized opportunities. In this article, the author has televised a theoretical framework, which is helpful in order to understand the institutions’ nature that is adding to the development of the difference in profit. In this article, the author also has screened that incentives’ structure is shaped by the social exclusion that causes the differences in the economic performance. Moreover, the author has mentioned in this article that economic inequality results in socially embedded. I also agree with the author. I feel that socially embedded can happen if the individuals have been discriminated against by their ethnicity, race, language as well as the other characteristics of their society. The author has stated in this article that the improvements of the performance can be impeded by the social embeddedness. I personally agree with the author in this case as I feel that when a person gets discriminated by his or her social characteristics, it hampers the phrenic condition of the person, by which his or her performance can be diminished. In addition, it can be stated that the author has stated that both the educational attainment along with later earning get determined by the cognitive ability. He has mentioned that cognitive skills can contribute to the intergenerational persistence. In this article, he has also stated that cognitive skills, as well as non-cognitive skills both, are influenced strongly by the parental abilities as well as behaviour. I agree with the author and feel that another mechanism that is driving the intergenerational persistence can be provided by the parents if the non-cognitive skills get related to the background of the family. In this article, the author has stated that individual’ characteristics consisting of discrimination, differential information access etc. can influence the economic success. Furthermore, he has shown that social relations have value and I agree with the author as those connections help to characterise people's feeling of self, or the personality, on which singular conduct is based. 

The article by Blackburn (1999) is on the basis of social inequality. It has been stated in this article that social inequality has imposed several impacts on our lives. I also agree with the author and understand that social inequality is resulting in growing problems in the society as discrimination among the people a society always hampers the harmony. The author has stated in his article that the issue of social inequality is clearly very important as good reasons are present there to identify the vital problems that have been faced by the world. I agree with the author as I feel that numerous people are there in the world, who are starving to death, whereas, some individuals are there, who are controlling enormous wealth. I for one feel that riches and destitution are in no way, shape or form the main critical parts of imbalance, yet they serve to clarify the significance of the subject. In this article, it has been stated that inequality is social essentially a social aspect. I also agree with this fact as inequality can come in numerous forms and it affects all the elements of life as well. This article of Blackburn (1999) shows that retirement, unemployment, childbearing, education, physical and mental disability, caring, as well as ill health involve all to the exclusion from the waged employment and this exclusion is able to bring significant consequences. I also agree with this fact as the unemployed and retired people generally suffer due to the income loss.


Some recommendations can be suggested to the organisations along with the managers so that they can cope up the unexpected phenomenon that can be occurred in the organisations due to social inequity.

  • The social inequity theory can be implemented by the organisations as well as the managers as this theory will be helpful in order to mitigate the inequity by upgrading the performance of the workers. 
  • Moreover, the analytical framework of social exclusion along with inequality can be implemented in the organisations by the managers as it helps to recognise the behaviour of the people of the organisation.
  • It is also being observed that there is literature gap in the article of author Adams and thus future research is required to be conducted on this article. The concept of social inequity is a very harmful practice and this can be mitigated by providing the equal opportunities to every worker as well as providing them the equal right. 
  • The social inequity on the basis of gender should be diminished and women should be given the freedom as well as equal rights in the society. 


After analysing the three articles, it can be concluded that inequality is seen in the boy the industry and society. However, these two are interlinked with each other. It can also be concluded that the economic development is hampered by the inequality in the industry as well as in the society. The development growth can be declined by the ine1quality. However, it has also been concluded that achieving equality in the industry is impossible as every people has individual as well as different perspective and for this reason, their choices are also different. If all the segments of the people are valued by the society, then the great development can be achieved in the economic sector. It has also been concluded that the equality needs to be defined before employment in the industry. It is very important to implement the social inequality in the industry.