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Explanation of Obesity Based on an Individual Case

PLANNING A DIET


AIM

To evaluate the obesity problem of an individual and determine a recommended course of action within a limited time frame; and using available information and resources gathered within that time frame.

Project aim

PROBLEM BASED LEARNING PROJECT

Develop a factual and informative presentation to be given to an individual who is currently classified as obese, who is suffering from health concerns as a result of their obesity and who would like to lose weight to improve their health.

The purpose of the presentation is to educate the individual about the obesity and the associated risks to their health as a result of obesity related diseases. You are expected to provide clear, simple guidelines for dietary intervention to ensure weight loss and improve health to enhance their overall wellbeing.

You may choose to base your project on someone you know  a friend or relative perhaps. Alternatively, you may choose one of the people from the list below.

These people are seen as possible examples of people who represent different demographic groups.

  1. Age 52, height 156 cm, weight 79.5 kg, non-smoker, employed, female, diabetic, occasionally walks a dog belonging to a friend and tends to comfort eat when alone
  2. Age 30, height 176 cm, weight 110 kg, non-smoker, self-employed, female, stressed, eats   out with business clients, rarely cooks at home and drinks 1-2 glasses of wine every night
  3. Age 17, height 183 cm, weight 106 kg, smoker, student, male, IBS sufferer, enjoys

fast food regularly, doesn’t exercise and is increasingly isolated from peers

In your project it must be clearly identifiable which person you base your project on, whether it is one of these examples or someone you know. If you decide to base your report on someone you know, you should list their personal information, for example, their height, age weight, employment status etc.  this is helpful for your marker.

Learning Outcomes

  • Explain the basics of obese state of the individual who is the basis of your project, explain fully the symptoms linked to obesity which they experience and discuss their personal health concerns
  • Identify nutritional deficiencies for the individual based on their current diet
  • Identify and convey in the presentation the importance of diet in obesity related disease prevention
  • Determine your responses (suggested improvements) based on the information learned about their dietary patterns
  • Compare and contrast dietary intervention and medication or other treatments in the prevention, cure and/or management of the disease
  • Discuss the challenges of maintaining the appropriate diet for an individual on a strict weight loss program
  • Present complex health and nutritional information in a clear, simple format, readily understandable by the individual assuming they have little or no nutritional background
  • Present clear, concise and readily understandable guidelines suitable for the individual to take home and follow

Problem Definition

You are required to discuss the individual’s obesity and the health risks they are experiencing and demonstrate your understanding that their health concerns are linked to being obese. You should make dietary suggestions for the individual to follow which would encourage weight loss and improve their health as a result.

You will be required to research using your available resources (internet, library, textbooks, nutritionists, doctors, obesity/weight loss support groups, disease sufferers etc.). The information gathered 

Answer

1. Introduction

Obesity is currently one of the dangerous health issues and is a righteous leader of deadly diseases like hypertension and coronary heart diseases. Type 2 diabetes and cancer are also some of the following diseases that are usually overlooked. It is also evident that both genders, be it any age, are at equal risk of obesity. The reasons that facilitate obesity are many and some of them are a bad lifestyle and binge eating. Smoking, drinking alcohol, fewer amounts of sleep and genetics also add fuel to the fire. This assessment includes explanation of obesity based on a 30-year-old woman. Causes of her obesity, requisite diet and performance review will be present.

2. Explaining obese state basics of individual, explaining symptoms linked to obesity and discussion of health concerns

2.1 Cause

Current case is of a woman who is self-employed, stays stressed and mostly eats out with her business clients. Since enough information is not provided in given case study, it can be assumed that her diet is relatively heavier than normal. This is evident by her weight which is 110 kg. Looking at her weight and comparing her BMI, it is clear that she is overeating. Frequencies of her meals are not possible to be understood since there are limitations to case study. It has been evident that she rarely cooks for herself and intakes a glass or 2 of wine each day. These aspects of her life are actually the reason she is obese. It has been observed that she does not smoke; however, her Body Mass Index (BMI) shows stark results. She is 176 cm tall and has a body weight of 110 kg. This indicates that her BMI is equal to 35.5. BMI categorizes different aspects of body type based on numbers. A BMI of 35.5 indicates that this woman is obese and requires immediate intervention.

2.2 Symptom

As the current conditions imply, this woman is in grave danger and soon will find herself in the cobwebs of morbid obesity. This will happen if she does not immediately change her daily lifestyle. Obesity leads to a lot of symptoms and looking at her condition, she may have a plethora of symptoms. Breathing disorder like sleep apnea, breast and uterine cancer, coronary heart disease and diabetes are the current symptoms that are to follow. Depression is known to be a likely outcome in case of chronic stress.

2.3 Concerns

In persons who tend to stay ignorant about their own health, especially obese people, bad news is evident to follow. In the case of this woman, her daily lifestyle compels her to be busy. She hardly gets time to cook for herself, which leads her to eat outside. If she continues her lifestyle like this, many more grave diseases will follow. High blood pressure, heart diseases and hypertension are some of them. Since she stays stressed, high cholesterol will also add up.

2.4 Weight reduction

Weight reduction is an important part for patients that are currently obese. This woman must follow a strict lifestyle that will aid her in losing weight. After her daily business schedule, she needs to cook for herself and has to base her diet on more lean protein and fiber. White meat like fish, chicken and many more things are available for that purpose. Apart from these, she will also require to add more leafy vegetables like celery, lettuce and broccoli. Finally, there is an immediate requirement to exercise and meditate.

3. Identification of deficiencies based on current diet

Her current diet mostly contains fast food and looking at her current lifestyle, it is possible that she may be staying with fad diets. This is another reason women mostly at this age stay depressed. There is a reason to have a balanced diet. This diet must have lower carbohydrates and more proteins. There is a need to have more satiety, more lentils and more leafy vegetables. There is also a need to cut back on any kind of artificial sweetener.

4. Identification and conveyance of importance of diet in obesity-related prevention of disease

4.1 Nutritional importance

An imbalance between energy expenditure declination and high calorie is the prime determinant of obesity. Low energy expenditure relates to less amount of energy spent on physical activities. Excessive calories come from binge eating and fast food as they contain a lot of sugar and starch. A good and well-balanced diet, especially self-cooked, provides a boost of confidence to physiology and brain. Increasing activities based on kinesthetics and reduction of carbohydrates is able to provide better living options. It will also able to alleviate future problems linked with obesity like heart diseases and cancers.

4.2 Specified nutrients and reason

As seen in the aforementioned example, the woman is based her diet mostly on outside food. Since she is a businesswoman, she must have a very less time for herself and has to eat fast. This leads her to choose a diet that is cooked and delivered fast. Such diets are full of sugar and starch that just adds up inside body as extra fat. Low-density lipoproteins get easily converted into high-density lipoproteins which are harder to burn. Consumption of alcohol also leads to build of such lipoproteins and increase chances of cholesterol build-up.

4.3 Other symptoms

There are many more symptoms that are less known to current general population. These symptoms are very much related to obesity and require immediate knowledge. Firstly, chronic diseases of kidney will occur if there are larger amounts of sugar inside blood. This condition is otherwise known as hyperglycemia which is a follower of diabetes. Secondly, neuropathy is a symptom that leads to numbness and pain in appendages. Thirdly, obesity has been slowly increasing chances of polycystic ovarian syndrome. This also facilitates ovarian cancer and is untreatable. Women with high BMI must follow strict diet so that such type of cancers does not follow.

4.4 Comparisons 

Topic ProsCons 
Diet Benefits of her current diet are that she will only gin calories in the times of busy schedules. Better diet in requisite time will provide her the boost she lacks.Eating out daily will cause harm and increase obesity levels. Better form of diet will rectify that but requires time to maintain.
Medication Phentermine and Adipex-P are good for the lady.Blood pressure may arise due to such medications
Treatment Diet change and physical activity are best for her.She will require creating time from her busy schedule that may affect her work.

Table 1: Comparisons

(Source: Created by Author)

5. Determination of response based on learned information

5.1 Consequences of long-term

There is a need to follow a strict diet plan so that long-term consequences are avoided as much as possible. Following edibles are to be taken:

  1. Whole grain items like whole wheat, cut oats, quinoa and brown rice. 
  2. A loads of leafy vegetables like celery, lettuce, broccoli, cauliflower and asparagus. Potato needs to be excluded from this list of vegetables.
  3. Whole fruits that may account of any seasonal fruit.
  4. Nuts, lentils, seeds, and lean proteins like fish and chicken must be included.
  5. Butter or any similar fat inducing material must be excluded and olive oil must be incorporated.

If this diet is not followed, grave diseases like coronary heart diseases, heart attacks, cancer of breast and ovary will follow. Depression will convert into chronic depression and incurable diseases will take over her life. Following is a diet plan that the woman must include:

Meal Portion Serve number
Breakfast60g of cereal
250 ml toned milk
200 g yoghurt 
1
1
2
Brunch 150 Tea with milk1
Lunch40 g chicken
2 bread slice
1.5 cup vegetables
1
1
1
Afternoon break50 g nuts
150 ml milk
2
1
Dinner 100 g pasta
50 g kidney beans
100 g leafy vegetables
150 g fish
1
1
2
2

Table 2: Diet plan

(Source: Created by author)

5.2 Expected loss of weight

It has been evident that obese patients that follow a strict diet are bound to lose weight at a steady pace. However, since this woman stays on fad diet, it will become increasingly tough to manage weight. Nevertheless, if this woman stays on aforementioned diet and also follows better form of lifestyle, there is a chance of steady weight loss. This woman is tall and large; hence she will require eating more so that her daily supplemental needs are met. This will show that there is no large gap in weight. In the first month, it is expected that 5 kg will reduce and in following months 7 to 8 kg per month reduction will be evident.

6. Performance review

After my careful observation and detailed analysis, it has been observed that this lady has to follow a strict dietary plan. The things that she needs to eat are mentioned in the previous explanations. There is no need to include any type of medicines however; she needs to increase her physical activities. There is also a need to increase meditational activities so that depression is alleviated. I will believe that this will help her in reducing depressed state. 

I have observed that there may be challenges that may be faced during strict diet and lifestyle. Since the woman is a businesswoman, she has more work hours and must have less time for herself. This will lead her to provide less time for cooking and exercise. Strict weight loss programs also lead to issues of withdrawal and she may continue her alcoholic consumption. This is the reason, meditation is asked to pursue so that she may have more control over her mind and body. In my observations, I have noticed that this woman has less knowledge regarding her nutrition requirements. She needs to have a low-carb diet and more leafy vegetables and must lose her alcoholic consumption. 

Alcohol increases the chances of cholesterol and higher density lipid buildup which is dangerous for women. I have noticed that many patients ask that continued weight loss may lead to different symptoms. I must add here that a well-balanced diet will never add up any negative effects on body. Losing additional weight or cellulite is needed and additional exercise will just make patients fit. Finally, I must interject that there is a certain myth with dieting is that eating nothing for longer hours will help lose weight. This is not true and will lead to protein depreciation in body.

I faced numerous strengths and weaknesses during the assessment of provided case. I got to learn about relation of BMI and diet. My study also led me to assess deep about value of good nutrition. My notions about eating out regularly showed what kinds of issues may arise and that too if alcohol is added to the system. The weaknesses that I faced are the limitation of provided information. Since case studies are just limited up to 3 sentences, it is impossible to figure out what interventions must proceed. I leaned that nutrition plays a significant role in determining weight control. Requisite dietary materials will either gain weight or will do the vice versa. It is evident that carbohydrate rich diet causes increase in stored fat. On the contrary, protein and fiber rich diet aid in reducing weight.

7. Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is concluded that a strict diet is a must for obese patients. Better lifestyle and requisite exercise will provide better opportunities for future health. Good diet and well-balanced lifestyle will lead to throwing away chances of any deadly disease.

Tags:obesity
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