Fact Sheet: Pneumonia

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Question :

Client Information Pack: GUIDELINES This document provides guidelines for the Client Information Package. This document is intentionally designed to be clear and give an accurate guide to what is required to complete the assessments.

ASSESSMENT Grading Schema 1 Item On-Campus Assessment Value Presentation Present a client education package for a given disease. Formative peer feedback will be used in the development of the package

General Information: 

This assessment is worth 30% of the semester’s mark. You need to choose a specific condition or situation (it may be a specific disease) related to one (or more) of the body systems we cover in this unit. You will then build sequentially through these different assessment tasks that culminate in the presentation of a Client Education Package about that condition or situation to the class. Your task is to prepare and present an information package on that particular topic and how the situation or condition (or disease) impacts and alters the normal anatomy and physiology of that particular body system. It is important to keep in mind this unit is about normal anatomy and physiology. So, while we are using pathology examples to present in our Client Information Package, the emphasis should be on the normal anatomy and physiology of the body system affected and then what has gone wrong. More specific detail about how the assessment is broken down is given below

What is the aim of this assessment?

In terms of skill development, this assessment is specifically designed to develop your initial skills in interpreting a question, researching the topic, organising material, making a plan, critical thinking about what should be presented (due to restricted time and space), and structuring a clear verbal expression of your understanding. Quality verbal communication is a transferable skill, that is to say you can apply it to any content or employment situation you may need to. It is also a skill employers value and expect university graduates to have, especially in health-related areas.

In terms of understanding content, this assessment uses the principles of repetition: the repeated access of information in different forms to increase depth and integration of understanding. The fact sheet, practice presentation, and final presentation give you the opportunity to study a specific area of anatomy and physiology in more detail and repeated consideration of this information should promote deeper learning. We are intentionally providing you with an example of how anatomy and physiology is an integrative science and how you can integrate information for your studies, this should be kept in mind while studying this and other units.

First Task: Decide on a specific condition or situation (it may be a specific disease) Deciding on a specific condition or situation (or disease) will be very easy for some people who have a specific interest in an area or disease, for example, you or one of your family members may have a disease they want to know more about. For others, however, it may take a little bit of thought. The key is to get this done quickly so you can start thinking about the information you need. Below is a table with several options you may like to pick from. These are recommendations, if you have a different idea; please contact me to discuss it. Please keep in mind that most diseases will be associated with more than one system and in this unit and this assessment, we are predominantly interested in normal anatomy and physiology

Musculo-skeletal system

Acromegaly, Giantis, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis. Bone spurs, Craniosynostosis, Osteoarthritis, Osteitis deformans, (Paget’s disease) Osteitis pubis, Osteomyelitis, Fractures, Myasthenia Gravis, Synovitis, Ankylosing spondylitis

Cardiovascular system

Anaemia, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Deep vein thrombosis, Haemophilia, Hypertension, Hypotension, Myocardial Infarction, Pulmonary embolism, Mitral valve prolapse, White coat hypertension, Syncope, Haemolytic disease of the newborn.

Respiratory system

Asthma, Emphysema, Hyperventilation, Hypoventilation, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Pneumothorax, Hypercapnia, Hypocapnia

Renal/Urinary system

Nephritis, Glomerulonephritis, Polycystic kidney disease, Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Glucosuria or Glycosoria, Renal calculi Incontinence

Gastro-intestinal (GIT) system

Reflux (e.g. gastroesophageal reflux), Gastritis, Colitis, Pyloric stenosis, Constipation/diarrhoea, Dysphagia, Peptic ulcer

Reproductive system

Reproductive tract infections, Placenta previa, Sexually transmitted infections HIV/AIDS, Benign prostate hypertrophy, Cryptorchidism, Ectopic pregnancy, Dysmenorrhea, Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), Impotence, Endometriosis

Fact Sheet Structure: 

Remember, the aim of the fact sheet is to convey information to someone. Therefore, it is good if it looks like a fact sheet you may see at your doctor’s. As you know from lecture slides and handouts, a good structure with not too much information is useful if the aim is to convey information. Within the Fact sheet, a good way to structure something is with headings or subheadings. You do not have to use headings, however, if you think they help your structure please do use them. It is important to remember the purpose of the fact sheet is to inform someone who needs this information. To achieve this, the fact sheet should also be set out well. It does not need to be over-the-top with many pictures; one or two pictures should be enough (they must be central to the presentation content). However, it does need to be something easy to read. Two pages of line after line of words is not attractive for the reader and is not a fact sheet. Try and space it out with subheadings, pictures and some blank space or text boxes (for example). It is fine if the text is single spaced but it should be typed, in an easily legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 pt font) and remember, this is being designed as a handout so keep presentation in mind. It is not an essay and should not be presented as such. 

Who is my audience? Because we are presenting this in class, the content needs to be at least at the level that has been presented in the lecture. This does not mean it needs to be complicated, it just means you will generally need to get down to the cell level. So it can be written in a simple style for a lay audience, however, the detail still needs to be covered. This is something I try to do in my lectures. 

Format: The assignment should be typed, in an easily legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 pt font) and remember this is being designed as a handout so keep presentation in mind. It is not an essay and should not be presented as such. Subheadings, at least for the different sections (fact sheet, definitions, and references) are encouraged. Diagrams or pictures are allowed, however, they must be central to the presentation. 

Order of content for the fact sheet: As you are talking about a disease it would be good to start with a brief introduction of the disease and the associated symptoms. Then go on to talk about the normal anatomy and  physiology and how the disease results in abnormal anatomy and physiology. Finish with the disease, perhaps some interesting facts would be appropriate in this section. About half of the talk and fact sheet should be on the normal anatomy and physiology and the rest on the disease and abnormal anatomy and physiology. If you keep in your mind that it is for someone with the disease, so they can understand more about it, that should help. 

How many systems do I need to cover?

Regarding the systems of the body, you only need to cover one system but it must be a system we are covering in Systems Physiology. For example, several people have enquired about doing diseases of the nervous system; unfortunately we are not covering the nervous system this semester so that talk and fact sheet would be marked down. However, if you can relate the nervous system disease to the muscular system (for example), that is fine. The disease you choose must be related to at least one of the systems we study. It does not need to be related to more than one system. However, when you choose a disease it is often associated with more than one system but that is just because of the inter-relatedness of the human systems. You can talk about more than one system if you feel it is appropriate or required. However, remember your space and time limitations.

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Answer :

Part A: Fact sheet definitions and reference list 


Pneumonia is an acute respiratory infection which directly and severely affects the lungs. The condition of the lungs in Pneumonia is severe due to filling of pus and fluid in alveoli, which are small sacs which constitute the lung. When a person breathes, the alveoli sacs fill up with air. In case of pneumonia, due to the presence of pus and fluids in the lungs, it becomes painful and difficult for a patient to breathe. 

Pneumonia has been known to have caused 16% of the deaths among children globally. It is not easily curable once it reaches a state of extreme severity. It is required that there be focus on understanding the symptoms in great detail in order to identify pneumonia in its early stages. This can help increase the chances of curing pneumonia to a great extent. 

Pneumonia can be caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi. Each of these result in similar symptoms thus making it difficult to identify the nature of the pneumonia except for the fact that it is affecting lungs severely. It makes it important to ensure that antibiotics are given in case of bacterial infections leading to pneumonia. 

Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are the most common bacteria causing bacterial infections leading to pneumonia. Pneumonia is one of the largest cause of deaths in children below 5 years. Pneumonia spreads very easily. It spreads to lungs when common virus and bacteria which are commonly found in children’s throat and nose are swallowed or inhaled. 


Pneumonia may spread based on air borne infections where in droplets from sneeze or cough can infect others. In case of infants, it is possible that pneumonia spreads through blood transmission from the mother. Treatment of pneumonia and its prevention are extremely important. Antibiotics can help cure pneumonia in case of bacterial infections. 

In case of pneumonia, most healthy children and adults can fight the infection on their on based on their immunity systems. But in case of malnourished or under nourished children, or in case of infants who are not breastfed or even in case of children whose immunity systems are compromised the chances of pneumonia are very high. 

The following environmental factors also increase a child's susceptibility to pneumonia:

  • indoor air pollution caused by cooking and heating with biomass fuels (such as wood or dung)
  • living in crowded homes
  • parental smoking.


Symptoms like excessive cold, rapid breathing, fever and inward movement of chest while breathing should not be ignored as this may indicate pneumonia. It is essential that doctors be consulted in case of cold or fever prolonging for more that 3 to 4 days. Medical tests and pathology reports become essential in such conditions to be able to identify the cause and type of infection. 

The symptoms of bacterial and viral pneumonia infections are very similar and pathological tests become essential in order to identify the nature of pneumonia. Only based on these tests, accurate medication becomes possible. It is required that doctors prescribe medical tests in case of fever more than 3 to 4 days and common cold not subsiding even after 5 to 6 days.


Under normal circumstances, a common cold or fever, when ignored or not treated on time can become severe and result in dire conditions of pneumonia. In case of infants pre conditions like HIV and measles can also increase the chances of pneumonia to a large extent. 

The effects of pneumonia can be severe and can also lead to death. In case of pneumonia, immediate treatment based on antibiotics becomes essential. It is also required that there is effective detection of the disease and immediate and effective treatment for pneumonia. In case of pneumonia immediate treatment can help reduce the chances of severances’ and death in most patients. 

Pneumonia can be prevented by immunization, adequate nutrition, and by addressing environmental factors. Pneumonia can also be cured using antibiotics. It becomes extremely important that there be treatment provided to patients suffering from pneumonia in order to help them survive in conditions of painful and difficult breathing.


Prevention of pneumonia can help patients to a great extent. Awareness becomes essential in order to prevent pneumonia. It is required that we do not take common cold and fever in children lightly. It is important to keep a tab of symptoms and also ensure that a doctor is consulted in case of prolonged cold or fever. 


  1. Pneumonia: Pneumonia is a form of acute respiratory infection that affects the lungs. The lungs are made up of small sacs called alveoli, which fill with air when a healthy person breathes. When an individual has pneumonia, the alveoli are filled with pus and fluid, which makes breathing painful and limits oxygen intake.
  2. Alveoli: The lungs are made up of small sacs called alveoli, which fill with air when a healthy person breathes.
  3. Air borne: Carried or transported by air 
  4. Antibiotics: a medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms
  5. Immunity: the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells or resistance to, resilience to, non-susceptibility to, lack of susceptibility to, protection from, ability to fight off, ability to withstand, ability to counteract, defenses against