Assessment 3 — Final Policy Project
Assessment Item 3 Assessment Type Project<See list of assessment types>
Assessment Name Final Policy Project (3000 words)
Description Each student will be required to write and present a policy project related to a core topic in health policy and governance (maximum 3000 words). The policy project comprises a document for consideration for implementation by hypothetical Decision Makers (DMs: e.g....
Assessment 3 — Final Policy Project
Assessment Item 3 Assessment Type Project<See list of assessment types>
Assessment Name Final Policy Project (3000 words)
Description Each student will be required to write and present a policy project related to a core topic in health policy and governance (maximum 3000 words). The policy project comprises a document for consideration for implementation by hypothetical Decision Makers (DMs: e.g. a hospital CEO, the Department of Health). The document should clearly state what the objectives are (e.g. efficiency, equity, quality, coverage, cost-effectiveness, feasibility and consideration of core ethical principles). A suggested structure and marking guide can be found in the UILG. Final Policy Project (30%) The final submission will be built upon the policy project LOs, including responsiveness to feedback. Feedback and mark will be given before the examination.
Demonstrates learning outcomes ULO 3, ULO 5, ULO 6, ULO 7, ULO 8
Demonstrates graduate attributes Communication; Critical and creative thinking; Social interaction; Independent and lifelong learning; Ethics; Social justice; Global perspective; Interdisciplinarity; In-depth knowledge of a field of study
Completion By Individual
Cohort Internal and External
Teen Smoking Prevention Policy
This report will discuss teen smoking prevention policies. This report discusses Australian health department policies to prevent cigarette smoking among teenagers. This policy helps to reduce the ill effects of tobacco among the adolescent. This report estimated social cost due to the consumption of tobacco products. This report mani aim is to reduce preventable morbidity and mortality caused due to heavy smoking. This report also provides Canada and UK policy frameworks and outcomes for preventing teenagers from smoking. This report also recommended some policies which sustainable and effective for preventing teenagers from cigarette smoking.
1) Why is this issue important?
Smoking among adolescents and youth is an important issue that affects several countries globally. Smoking is defined as negative health behaviour. Approximately 90% of cigarette smokers started smoking from the age of 18 (Worley, Julie 2019). The tobacco smoking rates have increased in the early 1990s among high school students. It is identified that if the current smoking trends are continuously increased among the young generation, then 5.6 million youth will die in future prematurely (Tobaccoinaustralia. 2019). According to Kenneth Warner, to maintain the market value and a total number of smokers, the tobacco industries required to serve their products among 5000 new young smokers. The age of over 35 years people died because of cigarette smoking (Comcare.gov, 2019). In 2016, it was identified that 4 million high school and middle school students used tobacco products by the Center for disease control and prevention (Worley, Julie 2019).
According to the researcher Kerryn Riseley, smoking rates among the young generation mostly higher, in particular, some Australian Disadvantaged group such as lower socioeconomic people, mentally ill people, and Greek, Eastern Mediterranean and Vietnamese communities' people are more addicted by the cigarette smoking (Health.gov, 2019). Different policies and programs are organized by the Australian Department of Health Government to improve the health of the young generation or teenagers. The policy and program of the health department main aim are to reduce preventable morbidity and mortality caused due to heavy smoking (Ghaderi et al. 2016, 9). However, it is identified that school programs for preventing the use of tobacco are quite ineffective because the adolescence is influenced by the inside and outside of the school premises for cigarette smoking.
The Australian health department banned the smoke on the ground of the school. But the majority of the students reported that the teachers smoked outside the premises of the school. However, according to the health department of Australia, it is identified that students smoking behaviour directly linked with the teachers smoking behaviour. Because the majority of the students follows the style of the teachers (Ghaderi et al. 2016, 9). Additionally, it is also identified that the school's students are not found any Anti-smoking policies within the school premises; it is another reason for the increasing use of tobacco among the high and middle-school students. According to the research of the Australian health department, it has been shown that 36.6% of students in eight standards already tried the cigarette, in which 5.5% are regular smokers, and 12.2% are smokers. 61% of students in 12th standard tried cigarette, where 19% are habituated, and regular smoker and 29.5% are standard smokers (Ghaderi et al. 2016, 9).
Due to regular smoking, adolescents are affected by several health issues. Tobacco is one of a critical risk factor for health, which is increased the chronic disease that includes cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and lung diseases (Tobaccoinaustralia. 2019b). It affects the physical fitness of the addicted sport person people; tobacco addiction increases the risk of lung cancer among adult and teenage smokers (Health.gov, 2019).
According to the Australian health department, Collins and Lapsley have estimated that smoking is the main reason for increasing diseases and death in Australia. The Health department identified that 15.551% of total civilization died because of cigarette smoking, 9.7% of people are suffering from cardiovascular diseases, and 20.1% of the people suffered from lung cancer (Aihw, 2019). In 2004-2005, cigarette smoking's economic cost was $31.5 billion, which is increased by 23.5% from 1998-1999 (Ghaderi et al. 2016, 9). It is estimated by the Australian health department that Labour cost has increased due to the absenteeism for regular treatment and premature death of the labour for smoking-related health issues. The Collins and Lapsley estimated that social cost is also increased in 2004-2005 for cigarette smoking, that includes $12 billion costs for tangible and $19.5 billion cost for intangible cost.
Collins and Lapsley include several resources to estimate the tangible cost that includes lost productive capacity of the labour due to the smoking-related illness and premature death, fire attributes to smoking, health care treatment for smoking-related illness, purchasing tobacco cost (Health.gov, 2019). They estimated the intangible cost, which is the sum of the premature death's psychological cost and losing enjoying moment of life due to the smoking-related issues. Only the cost of premature death is included in the estimated chart of Collins and Lapsley. Collins and Lapsley also estimated the pharmaceutical products cost $77.3 million in 2004-2005 (Comcare.gov, 2019). They identified that smoking at the time of surgery increases the amount of the complication of pulmonary and cardiac issues. Cost of the orthopaedic surgery for smokers is 38% higher than the nonsmoker's people. The health care cost is increased $318.4 million in 2004-2005. Collins and Lapsley estimate ed that total gross cost is $669.6 million in 2004-2005 (Health.gov, 2019).
The health department of Australia has been initiated different policies to reduces the ill effects of tobacco among the adolescent. In 1988, the Australia public service was initiated the smoke-free work environment policy (Comcare.gov, 2019). This policy applies to the commonwealth workplaces. Smoking is banned in workplace location where the environmental Tobacco smoke could affect the health of the person during the time of entering and leaving the workplace. To encourage the employee's health, some health care agencies are organized the Quit smoking programs, and also they sponsor the health promotion activities (Jankowski et al. 2017, 3). They also support the employee's participation in Quit smoking programs. The federal government of Australia also played an important role in smoking banned policies on domestic flights. This policy is the first legislative action which is applied on the domestic flights from 1987. This policy has also followed in international and domestic flights from 1990, buses and coaches from 1988 and all Australian international flights from 1996 by the federal government of Australia (Health.gov, 2019).
The health department of Australia has developed the National Tobacco strategy from 2012 to 2018. Its aim is to motivate the smokers for quitting the smoke and reshape the social norms which are about smoking (Health.gov, 2019). Australian government organized the national tobacco campaign to encourage cessation and increase community support to legitimize the policies of tobacco control.
If the Australian health department fails to take adequate action for preventing cigarette smoking, then it creates different health-related issues among the young and adult aged population. Smoking harms every organ of the human body, reduces the energy level of the human. It creates several cardiovascular diseases that include coronary heart diseases, which are a common cause of sudden death, cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke. Smoking is the reason for lung cancer (Health.gov, 2019). The smoking not one effect the health of the smokers, it also affects the health of the smoker’s relatives and friends. Cigarette smoking reduces work capability and effects the mental condition. It causes the exacerbation of asthma and increases the infection in the respiratory system of the young generation. It reduces the lung function of the young generation and declines the fitness of the body with the increasing consumption percentage of the tobacco products (Who.int, 2019). Active cigarette smoking causes the impaired growth of the lung during adolescence and childhood. The regular smoking damage the circulatory system of the young generation. It increases the dental problem and increases the oral cavity disease. It is evident that it increased the fracture risk and reduces the peak bone mass of the young generation.
According to the research by the wood 2019, many factors are related to teenagers for adopting and rejecting smoking. The environmental, socio-demographic, personal and behavioural childhood nature indicate the adolescence for adopting and rejecting smoking. The combined effect of the social, personal and wider environment indicated the intention of the adolescence and took an ultimate decision for accepting the smoking or not (Tan and Qian Hui 2016). The researcher identified that lower socioeconomic status, increased age, poor academic performance, family influences like parents smoking, sibling smoking, peer affiliation, and friendship, smoking images in popular media, tobacco marketing exposure, are influenced the adolescence for smoking (Jankowski et al. 2017, 3). The Australian health department has launched several policies to reduce the smoking percentage among the adolescence, but the policies have not been effectively enforced to the adolescence for preventing them from smoking. The Australian government organized tobacco control programs to improve the well being and health of the adolescence of Australia across their lifespan (Jankowski et al. 2017, 3).
The Australian government enforces the laws for minimizing the sale of tobacco among the adolescence. The health department of Australia organized the national tobacco campaign, labelling the products with updated health warnings (Sanders and Princaya 2018). Prohibits the advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products to support the smoker for quitting the smoke. The Australian government banned the smokes in public places that include bingo and gaming centre, restaurant, shopping center — this policy approached by South Africa and Victoria. The legislation policy of Queensland prohibits smoking in the residential areas, workplaces. But this legislation policy not effected on all workplaces of Australia. The Queensland also prohibited the smoke in a car with the child whose age under 16. The law passed in 2010 (Tan, Qian Hui, 2016).
After applying the several policies and legislation, the researchers find that the Anti-smoking policies are sometimes ineffective to reduce the smoking percentage among the adolescence. After organizing the National Tobacco strategy, national tobacco campaign to reduce the health-related issues, there has many loopholes in policies and legislation of Australia (Sanders and Princaya 2018). The first loophole is raising the federal tax on small cigars, cigarettes and roll your own tobacco, and the Australian government applied low tax on larger cigars and pipe tobacco. Due to this taxation policy, the pipe tobacco and larger cigars consumption are increased among the adolescence. The second loophole is giving authority to the food and drug administration to regulate tobacco products (Tan and Qian Hui 2016). The use of flavours in cigarette influences the smoking habits among the adolescence, high and middle school students. These loopholes are infected the Australian government’s rules and policies to prevent the adolescents from smoking. This situation created many risks among the teenagers of Australia and increased health-related issues. They are affected by several chronic diseases, lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases (Jankowski et al. 2017, 3). This ineffective rules and policies increase the smoking percentage among the adolescence. It reduces the energy level, the working capability of Australian teenagers.
Canada teenagers smoking prevention policies:
Canada is a well-known tobacco control community. To control tobacco use, Canada has been taken several policies to reduce the high rating use of tobacco products. This policy included a high rate of taxation policy on the tobacco products, prohibited the tobacco sales among the teenagers, school-based education for providing concept about the bad impact of the tobacco products, president setting package warnings, by controlling the promotional and advertising activities of the tobacco industries, and by restricting the smoking in public places and also workplaces. In the 1990’s dramatical increase rate of smoking among the youth, the rate increased from 21% in 1990 to 28% in 1996 for reducing the tobacco tax and cutting the cigarettes' retail prices raises this problem (Tan and Qian Hui 2016).
The federal government of Canada develops the Non-smokers health Act in 1988 to control the smoke in workplaces of the federal government, international and inter-provisional transport modes. It restricts the smoke in motor vehicles, trains, and ships, marine passenger terminal, bus and train station, and airports. Canada introduces many laws to provide more restrictive control over smoking in public places and as well as workplaces. The British Columbia government was governing smoking in the restaurants, pubs, bars, lounges, gambling casinos, nightclubs, bowling alleys, bingo halls (Sanders and Princaya 2018). The Columbia city Ottawa has the most restrictive controls in smoking on public places and workplace. The city prohibited smoking in restaurants, pubs, bars, lounges, gambling casinos, nightclubs, bowling alleys, bingo halls. And it has also prohibited smoking in limousines and taxis. The Canada government applied this policy to prevent the health of children and youth. According to the health statistics of Canada, it is identified that 11% of young generation habituated in smoking between the age of 15 and 19 in 2013 (Sanders and Princaya 2018).
UK teenagers smoking prevention policies:
The health and social care department of the UK government develop a plan tobacco control plan to reduce smoking in the UK. The health and social care department of the UK government aim is to create a smoke-free generation (Sanders, Princaya 2018). The main objectives of the tobacco control plan are to reduce the number of teenagers 15 years old age who are regularly addicted to smoking from 8% to 3%, to reduce the smoking prevalence during the pregnancy from 10.5% to 6%, to reduce the percentage of smoking among adults from 15.5% to 12% (Azodi et al. 2017, 9). The previous tobacco control plan substantially reduced the percentage of adult smoking from 20.2% to 15.5% (Sanders and Princaya 2018). The UK government ensure the legislation operation that includes standardized packaging design and proxy purchasing to reduce the smoking percentage among the young generation. This tobacco control plan support pregnant women to quit the smoke. It organized training for the health professionals for supporting the patient to quit smoking, especially for mental health patients.
This tobacco control plan maintains the high duty rates over the tobacco industries for tobacco products to make tobacco products less affordable for the people. According to the estimation of the health department of the UK, it is identified that 77% of smokers aged between 16 to 24 who are started smoking before the 18 years in 2014 (McCabe et al. 2017, 2). Therefore, many teenagers are affected by health-related issues due to regular smoking. The tobacco control plan wants to reduce the percentage of adult smokers for reducing the smoking percentage of the young generation. The tobacco control plan reviews the sanction papers for tobacco retailers who constantly break the law by selling tobacco products under the age of 18 (McCabe et al. 2017, 2). The local area of the UK developed their own tobacco control strategies for controlling the smoking percentage among adults and teenagers. The UK health and social care using carbon monoxide monitors to monitor that pregnant women or women are smoking or not and this policy also provide support to quit the smoke among the pregnant women (Azodi et al. 2017, 9 ). The health department, despite the availability of the treatments and effective medicines for supporting the smokers to quit the smoke. Due to this reason, many smokers are used as an e-cigarette to help them for stopping smoking. Because it is evident that e-cigarettes are less harmful than tobacco products.
After analyzing the UK and Canada's smoking policies for teenagers, it is defined that UK and Canada develop several policies for preventing the teenagers from smoking. Various policies are promoted by the UK and Canada to minimize cigarette smoking among the young generation (Sanders and Princaya 2018). Australia also can maintain high duty rates over the tobacco industries for tobacco products to make tobacco products less affordable for the people and also can review the sanction papers for the retailers and prevent them from selling the tobacco products to the young generation under the age of 18 (McCabe et al. 2017, 2). Australia can include a high rate of taxation policy on tobacco products to reduces the profit margin level of the tobacco industries. It helps to reduce the market value of the tobacco industries. This situation helps to protect the young generation from smoking. Australia can develop treatments and effective medicines for supporting smokers to quit the smoke (McCabe et al. 2017, 2). These policies help to diminish cigarette smoking among teenagers and young generation.
After analyzing the different wide range of smoking-related policies, following recommendation helps in improving the smoking-related policies. It helps to reduce the health effects among teenagers and reduces the percentage of smoking among the young degeneration in Australia.
The all above recommendation is sustainable and effective for preventing the teenagers from cigarette smoking. It will help to maintain a healthy future without the consumption of tobacco products.