|Subject Code and Title||GIT201: Global Innovations and Trends|
|Assessment||Assessment 1, Essay: Exploring a trend|
|Length||1,700 words (+/- 10%)|
|Learning Outcomes||Subject Learning Outcomes that are addressed in this assessment:|
SLO a) Identify and examine the key factors driving global trends within the hospitality and tourism industry
SLO b) Investigate and assess major future trends within the hospitality and tourism industries
In order to complete this assessment, please follow these instructions:
In weeks 1 or 2 choose one (1) of the following trends to explore for Assessment 1.
Once you have choosen your trend, conduct research into the history, implementation, and impact via the academic databases, government and industry websites and publications, and the professional media. Please be sure to include:
You will then need to present your findings in essay format (please see the academic writing guide for the Essay Writing Style Guide that must be followed). It is recommended that you use the following structure:
Your submission will be assessed via the Turnitin submission point and feedback and a grade will be provided within a maximum of two weeks of the submission deadline.
This assessment must be submitted in compliance with the following:
‘Wikipedia’ or similar unsubstantiated sources will not be accepted.
GIT201: GLOBAL INNOVATIONS AND TRENDS
Topic Chosen: AUTOMATION
In order to cope with the advancements in technology, it is essential for businesses operating in the hospitality and tourism industry to be able to incorporate the modern and upcoming trends that are becoming popular with the customers. Automation refers to the actions involved in technology, which requires minimal assistance from humans. Automation has been vehemently implemented in the tourism and hospitality sector in terms of almost everything. From reservation of hotel rooms for trips and tours, to reserve tables at restaurants, automation is integrated into this industry. This study would discuss the brief history of automation in the tourism and hospitality industry, along with the major factors influencing the same. Furthermore, the predictions for the future impact of the trend of automation on the tourism and hospitality industry have been established in this paper, along with the concerns and criticisms related to automation in this specific industry.
Automation can be defined as the utilisation of the automatic instrument to speed up the regular work in various industries. There are three types of automation are there such as fixed automation, programmed automation and flexible automation. The aspects of technology, especially the role of IoT, is to be strongly emphasised in this regard. The linking of bank accounts, reservation of hotels, are all performed through customer-oriented software. If the history of the automation is analysed then it could be found that it started in the time of Aristotle and Socrates. In the recent era the automation is entirely captured by the artificial intelligence and robotics. Concept of the AI has been emerged in the ancient greek and the journey of the automation begins in that time. In seventeenth century industrial revolution contributed a lot in the history of the automation. In 1837 the history changing innovation made by the Charles Babbage called as Analytical Engine. It can be said that the actual journey begins in the time of industrial revolution where the demand of cotton, paper increases drastically and revolution in the production was needed. In order to meet the demand the introduction of the automation happened. According to Intelity (2019), the beginning of technology can be cited to 1894, where telephones were introduced in Netherland Hotel, NYC, followed by another significant achievement was the introduction of electricity in hotel rooms in 1910. Revolution in the automation begins in 1948 when William Grey Walter created robot which can work without human involvement. The Westin in 1969 had implemented a 24-hour room service, while in 1973, Sheraton-Anaheim stated in-room movie facility (Intelity, 2019). Hotels like Hyatt and Promus Hotel Corporation had launched websites on the internet in 1994; while back in 1983, the Westin had introduced the facility of payment through major credit cards (Intelity, 2019). The first mobile app for hotels was introduced in 2009, while the recent opening of the Henn-hotel in Japan in 2016, is considered as the first robot hotel in the world (Intelity, 2019).
The major factors which are thoroughly involved in facilitating the global automation within the tourism and hospitality industry have been established as:
The technological developments and innovation intrigue the clients and also provide convenience to the consumers. In addition to that, the increasing cost of labour and gaining profitability can be simultaneously managed through cost cut down, which is further aided by process automation in the tourism and hospitality industry (Buhalis& Leung, 2018). Furthermore, the implementation of newer technology adds to the competitive edge or advantage for the hotel.
The implementation of IoT for check-ins and online reservation or booking facilities had been initiated several years ago. These automated processes were followed by online booking management and on-site kiosks for convenient check-outs by consumers (Ivanov, 2019). Additionally, airlines and airports, which are major components of the tourism industry, have also online booking facilities as well as self-service kiosks. This may further be justified by a survey conducted by Travel Leaders Group, regarding the massive availability preference of self-service and check-in kiosks for tourists, in which about 78% of the participants answered positively (Hotelnewsnow, 2019).
Another example can be cited that of the use of robotics, which is increasingly being implemented by hotels, in order to automate major processes that require human assistance. For instance, house-keeping activities are increasingly being automated in order to reduce human interference. Considering the instance of an in-room automation system, it may be stated that the occupancy sensors monitor and modulate the temperature control, light activation and more (Stringam&Gerdes, 2017). Furthermore, cloud computing had been formerly implemented for the documentation and the maintenance of the information of data related to the consumers of the hotels. Moreover, the use of AI can be attributed in providing quality services to the consumers through managing the requirements and preferences of the clients, through predictive analysis, and assist them in their venture in terms of F&B, spa and more (Cohen & Hopkins, 2019).
The future impact of automation in the tourism and hospitality industry can be ascertained and evaluated through the improvement of the existing automation processes and concurrent technology. Furthermore, it is to be noted that robotics is being aggressively adopted by several hotels around the world, which can further be improved through extensive research into the subject and the identification of key domains where the application of robotics may be fruitful. The current implementation of robotics is for the automation of housekeeping and other servicing processes. However, it may be stated that the current implementation of technology such as AI, cloud computing, robotics, as well as interactive walls and floors are passively in the developmental stage in the tourism and hospitality industry (Alexis, 2017). For instance, the Hilton Hotel uses Connie, a robot concierge, developed by IBM, for tending to their guests (Intelity, 2019). Furthermore, the use of robotics at airports for security reasons can be supported by Knightscope robots, which are expected to grow and evolve further in the future (Intelity.com, 2019). Regardless, it is to be noted that the drawbacks of robotics and technology in the tourism and hospitality industry can be established as the lack of the ability to adapt to situations instantaneously (Ivanov & Webster, 2017).
The primary reasons for criticism of automation can be outlined as follows:
The primary concern for automation is as follows:
This study chiefly focuses on the automation trend that is a subsequent rage in the industry of tourism and hospitality. The major factors driving the rise in automation in this industry have been identified as the necessity to cut down costs and provide convenience to customers. Additionally, it has been evident that there are numerous concerns and criticisms related to automation prime among them are the inability of quick adaptation to situations. Furthermore, the growth of AI, cloud computing, robotics and more have been found to be effective components in automation in the hospitality industry.