Grammatical Issues In Context Of Functional Approach To Langauge Assessment Answer

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Question :

Choose ONE of the TWO texts provided and analyse the text for evidence of grammar points that seemed to have caused the student difficulties. Taking a functional approach to language, identify three issues across at least TWO metafunctions (i.e. you may choose one ideational issue, one interpersonal issue and one textual issue with the text, or you may choose two ideational and one interpersonal issue, etc). Annotate the text to comment on these issues as if you were marking the text for the student (include the annotated text in your appendix). Then develop some strategies for teaching ONE of these areas of language. You should describe some teaching and learning activities for introducing and modelling this aspect of language, practising and consolidating it, and an opportunity for the student to use it in independent writing.
Assignment Specifications and Structure to be followed
Present your assignment in the form of an evaluative report. Use headings to structure your response. You should adhere to the following structure.
1.         Introduction
State the purpose of the assignment, provide a brief background to the text (identify its genre and purpose), and identify the grammatical points that will be discussed.
2.         Discussion of grammatical issues
Identify and describe the grammatical issues in the text. Explain what the grammar features are and their uses and meanings and how their use in the text provided to you is problematic in relation to their standard use in English. Include examples from the provided text and discuss why these issues are important and what significance they have for successful writing in English. Provide a rationale for the comments you have made on the text for the student. Remember to reference some readings form the course (both reference and pedagogical grammar sources if possible) and make reference to the text you have annotated in the appendix I.
3.         Teaching and Learning
a. Focus Language Area
Identify the ideational, interpersonal or textual language feature that you will teach and why you have decided to focus on this area of language.  At this stage you may wish to link to issues that are particularly relevant for learners in your own teaching context, although this is not an absolute necessity.
b. Teaching and Learning Activities
Describe the teaching and learning activities you could use (including situations and topics) for
• introducing and modelling this aspect of language for particular students (proficiency level should be considered here);
• practising and consolidating in guided circumstances;
• independent use of the grammar points.
Include any worksheets or resources you may produce in the appendix of your assignment.
4.         Conclusion
Conclude your report with a statement about the significance of the grammar features you have been discussing in your assignment and why they are important features of good writing. Restate how mistakes in these areas influence the effectiveness of a text and comment on what improvements your developed teaching and learning activities should achieve.
5.         References
6.         Appendices
 Make sure that you make reference to any material you provide in your appendix in the main body of your text. It is not sufficient to just include material in an appendix. You must also provide some explanation of it in your report so your reader knows what the material is, why it has been included and its significance to your assignment as a whole.
This assignment is an ‘evaluative report’. It should not be structured as a typical ‘essay’ with a thesis statement and series of arguments (exposition). Instead you are reporting on both a sample of writing and your approach to teaching the grammar points highlighted in the text. Your response still will have some elements of evaluation and persuasion (e.g. when you provide a rationale for your activities). This makes it a text type between straight ‘information reports’ which are factual texts with little evaluation, and ‘essays’ which are generally persuasive in nature.
Weighting50 % of the final Grade
Format / Length / DurationEvaluative Report of 2500 words
Assessment Criteria
  • Demonstrated understanding of selected grammar points
  • Ability to diagnose learner error
  • Clear annotation of text for feedback to learner
  • Ability to design effective teaching and learning strategies for selected grammatical feature
  • Clear rationale for suggested activities and demonstrated ability to link theory to practice
  • Clear and well organised academic writing
For more detail, see the assessment rubric linked to the Turnitin assignment on Moodle.
Subject Learning Outcomes Assessed1. Demonstrate explicit knowledge about language
2. Analyse English language texts and text fragments at various grammatical levels
3. Identify and explain common problems in learners’ use of English
4. Apply strategies for helping students improve their use of English
5. Reflect constructively on the effectiveness of their own use of English
Method of SubmissionOnline via Turnitin on Moodle
This assessment task has been set up to be checked by Turnitin, a tool for checking if it has unreferenced content. You can submit your assessment task to Turnitin prior to the due date and Turnitin will give you an originality report. You can then make any changes that may be required and re-submit your final version by the due date.

Text ONE

Year 5 English (students approx. 10 years old): Explanation

How do Flood occur?

Floods occur in almost every part of the earth. They come in any kind, massive, little or measured. They cause great damage and result in millions of death. Floods could be cause by Natural or human, often their resuilts are similar but there are a great range of factors of causing flood.

Flash Flood is one of the popular one. Heavy rains cause rivers to suddenly rise and overflow. Most flash flood occur at mountainous areas. They also occur in deserts.

Flood could also cause by human, like cutting down forest. When the trees been cut down by people. The soil has notheing to hold with. When the weather rains, the water wash soil into the river bed, the river overflow and flood.

Building roads houses and factories could also cause flood. A building site where drains are been put in to get water off the ground. Water will quickly into the drains. During a rain storm, water flows into the rivers and water overflow which makes flood.

Snow melting is one of the common on. At early spring the snow or ice from the mountain melt and joins the upstream of river. At the downstream all the branch of river join together. The river may recive 10 times more than norma beds could hold. This also cause flood.

Text TWO

Year 10 English (students approx. 16 years old): Persuasive speech

I have been given the challenge to come up with a new concept for one of the world's best and most famous written plays ever known. I have completed the challenge given to me from the New Shakespeare Theatre Company, which was to create and direct my new stage performance of Romeo and Juliet. The concept I have come up with is a Bollywood version of the play, and is set in the fictitious Indian city of Verona, where The Capulets and Montagues are two families of very high positions who run two of India's top spice supply companies. They have been fighting each other for many decades, due to the attempted destruction of either family's business. The two families are separated by a section of the town and they hold authority over either half, respectively.

This concept came to my mind when I asked myself:, in what way or style could I portray this play as one that is different to any others made before but at the same time is entertaining, colourful and would persuade viewers to come and watch? And I thought about a recent Bollywood movie I had watched and remembered it having all the characteristics that I was looking for, and I wanted my new concept to have. I thought, well it definitely hasn't been done before, it's entertaining, it's definitely colourful and I believe people would come to watch it. I think that this production will encourage audiences to come and watch it due to the reason previously said, as a large number of people wouldn't have ever watched a Bollywood style film or play. So it would be a new experience for many people and hopefully one to remember.

I have chosen two scenes that will reflect my concept and how it would be portrayed on stage. My first choice was Act I Scene V (Big party scene).

This scene is the party where Romeo and Juliet meet and fall in love. The stage will be set out as basically a big room with a long table down one side with all Indian foods, curries etc. and a raised platform where a band will be playing. The lighting will be very bright and colourful as per normal for Bollywood films, which gives the atmosphere of fun and enjoyment. Also, the lights will be positioned so that subconsciously your attraction is drawn to Romeo and Juliet. The costuming will be traditional Indian clothing as they are of the higher classed society and want to look their best in their formal clothing. Also their clothing will be bright colours as one of the main themes in a Bollywood film is that they are very colourful. The people on stage will all be dancing and talking within groups and communicating with others, so basically like any party. The voices of the characters will be talking in a calm and friendly tone, switching from a soft pitch to louder depending on what is being said. The music will be like traditional Indian music, with Indian instruments and songs played live from a band.

Act III Scene I (fight scene where Mercutio dies). 

This scene is the fight scene toward the end where Tybalt kills Mercutio, so I will have it set in the section of the town where Romeo and his group of friends and family usually associate, with tiny houses, muddy pathways and not much space to spare once they are fighting. The lighting will be not so bright and colourful as this is a moment where there is much tension between the characters on stage and results in the death of Mercutio which is basically the beginning of the end for Romeo. The characters will be wearing just casual clothing, something that isn't for special occasions as they are just hanging around with friends. Their weapons will be old handguns painted either blue for a Montague or black for a Capulet. The movements of the characters in this scene will be fast and powerful; they must show the emotion in their actions and allow the audience feel the conflict present throughout the scene. The way they must speak is to exaggerate the emotions they are feeling, whether it be hate coming from Tybalt or a lust for peace from Romeo. There will be no music played although there will be some dramatic background music that will emphasise the mood set during this scene.

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Answer :

grammatical issues in context of functional approach to langauge


In this paper, a key understanding of the grammatical errors and mistake made in the given text has been made. There are several ways to identify the grammatical issues in perspective and language approach in the given article. However, it is found that grammatical issues result in the destruction of the meaning of the structure set in the given sentence.  Before 1970, the traditional language was more prominent. But over time, especially in the last 10 years, there has been a huge amount of change in perspective and language approach. Over time, trial and error in using language have given way to “Functional Approach” in language. This approach does not consider the content's linguistic analysis but the learner's need and is more effective in terms of functionality for a learner. In the report, grammatical issues in text one would be explained in detail.  Various Grammatical features, their uses would be detailed here in the report. There are various teaching and learning activities which will be part of the report. The main purpose of this report is to define various grammatical issue comes in a functional approach to teaching. How this grammatical issues can affect the language and what kind of teachings and learnings can help in overcoming these issues. 

The text we would be using is about the flood and its occurrence.  This text is basically an expository text where the main intention of the writer is to write about the situations, actions experiences, and facts. The main purpose of these texts is to explain, describe and inform. Moreover, it's a cause-effect explanation structure. In this article, the writer has described the causes of the occurrence of a flood. The author has presented his ideas and facts to describe the reason for the occurrence of floods. These metafunction developed by the Halliday symbolizes the different aspect.

The three grammatical issues namely ideational issue, interpersonal issue, and the textual issue would be identified within the text and then further would be an explanation to resolve the issues.

Discussions of grammatical issue

In the functional approach of language has developed over time and now is a widely used approach for the languages. According to this approach functional purpose in communicating shapes the form of communication. It does not have interest informality of language like in the traditional approach. The three metafunctions of this functional approach form the basis of language. This three metafunction can also be called the basic principles of the language. These three metafunctions happen together all the time in the text. The three metafunctions are as follows:

1) Ideational Metafunction: it relates to doing or saying something which has reference to something in the world. It relates to the building of the theory of experience. It maintains the theory of experience. It is about the natural world and what is happening in it. It includes our consciousness as well. That is the ideational function is used while describing any experience and actions happens in the world. It has two subparts which are given below.

  1. Experiential Function: these grammatical choices helps listeners in understanding and speakers in creating meaning of what's happening in and around the globe. For example, if a speaker is explaining something regarding any occurrence, the experiential function helps in making meaning of explanation. A child also can be an example wherein small children while interacting uses language on the basis of their experience. He would keep learning, renovating, building up his patterns of meaning in every moment.
  2. Logical Function: in this function, the speaker chooses to two or more clauses and then decide whether to give equal importance to both or one clause can be dependent on the other.

2) Interpersonal Metafunction: 

It is analyzed that interpersonal metafunction arises when there is an issue in speaking and writing in a particular work and directly connect to someone. Whereas in ideational metafunction speaker talks about something, in interpersonal metafunction speaker speaks to someone. So it is basically the grammar choices made to convey things to another person. It depends on the complexity and diversity of relations between the speaker and the listener.  It also relates and depends on the mood, polarity, and modality of the speaker. It is basically about the social world around speaker or writer. The clauses are basically exchanges between the speaker and hearer.  

3) Textual Metafunction: Texts used in communicating always have some kind of structure and form and all this structure and forms manages the flow of discourse. These grammatical choices when coming together actually makes the flow and sense towards the common goal.  It manages the flow of the topic. The language issue can be found due to the different cultural issues among the people. This provides the theme to the topic. This indicates and determines the flow of information and is all about the verbal world (Bitchener, & Knoch, 2015).

Ideational Grammatical Issue in Text One

In the text, one writer has made the ideational grammatical mistake in paragraph 3 "Building roads houses and factories could also cause the flood. A building site where drains are been put in to get water off the ground. Water will quickly into the drains. During a rainstorm, water flows into the rivers and water overflow which makes flood". In this paragraph due to many grammatical and spelling mistakes, the speaker is not able to convey what he is trying to say and the context with the whole topic has been lost. The wrong use of verb and verb phrases show the wrong process, wrong use of noun and noun phrases shows wrong participants (Bitchener, & Knoch, 2015).

Interpersonal Grammatical Issue in Text One

Due to common mistakes of using verbs and spelling mistakes, there is no interpersonal connect with the reader. The interpersonal grammatical issue in the text arises due to the issue of understanding among the reader and interpersonal connect. However, this could be understood by assessing the examples given in the text. For instance, in paragraph 2 given, a determiner is missing before noun phrase flood, noun phrase human and noun phrase forest. Then the spelling of nothing is all wrong. This leads to the loss of connection between writer and reader (Boland, & Queen, 2016).

Textual Grammatical Issue in Text One

Textual functions help in making grammatical choices which helps in the proper flow of article, essay or topic. This helps in making the sentence more effective readable to the readers. However, the proper flow of the text and alignment with the sentence structure is the base to strengthen the interpretation of the data work program.   In text one, there are so many grammatical mistakes in paragraph 4, like no use of a comma after word downstream. The sentence “Snow melting is one of the common ones." Is all wrong as the last word should be ones and not on. There should be an article before the river. The join word plural verb and does not match with the singular subject river. It should join instead join. So because of all this message, this paragraph has lost the link with the whole topic (Di Gennaro, 2016).

Grammar Features

To understand the language words are broken down in features like numbers, tenses, and persons. it provides contemporary linguistics and helps in providing description and analysis.  The uses of these features are to make things understand which can’t be explained by the words only. Many times we need to quantify to give across the meaning of sentence. Also the singular, plural and dual words are easy to explain the numbers. Similarly the use of tenses like past, present, and future help in determining when the event actually happened (Diab, 2016). Therefore, it is found that in order to make the sentence more structure and grammatical error free, there is need to align with the tense rules with the harmonization of the models, grammatical rules and punctuations in the work. 

The grammatical features used in the text are problematic because tenses used are not right. Like are is used in place of is which is wrong in terms of personality. Articles have not been added at various places. The determiner before the noun phrase is missing (Ellis, 2018).

Many times students use the word intuition that is he/she used particular grammar because they had the intuition that it is the right one but the study of grammar makes sure that they know why they are using particular use of the noun, verb or their phrases (Hammad, 2016).

Teaching and Learning

Every text have Patterns which carries a specific meaning. Nowadays teachers are trying to use language based analysis approach so as to find the meaning in the patterns of a given text.

a) Focus Language Area

As a teacher, I would like to teach interpersonal language feature out of three language features. In today's word, interpersonal communication is very important as it can get someone project. It helps people in making contacts, relationships and vital part for the success of any organization or individual (Heift, & Vyatkina, 2017). 

If a person cannot communicate properly or make grammatical mistakes, he/ she would not be able to put forward their point of view. It is analyzed that due to the application of the wrong tense and grammatical errors, there might be an issue in understanding and interpretation of the written works. People will not understand what they are trying to say or communicate and thus left them out. People make relation only with them, with whom they found common goals, common interests. But if a person makes an interpersonal grammatical issue, the meaning of what he is saying will get lost and there would be no use of making very unique and good points even (Kılıçkaya, 2015). Therefore, it is found that being a teacher, I would better off to observe the given work, issues found then I would give the proper comments by analyzing the grammatical issues and sentence structure issue in the done work by the students.

In the text, as we see that the writer made an interpersonal grammatical mistake, the reader would soon lose interest as he would not be able to relate to the text. The meaning of the text would soon be lost to him (Larsen-Freeman, 2015).

b) Teaching and Learning Activities

There could be various activities I could include in my teaching to encourage the proper use of this language function. It has been found that if the student has contributed to the process of writing, he is more likely to get the clues of language. Being a teacher, I could easily help the student to strengthen their learning program and help them to mitigate their work issues. This has helped me to make my understanding more strengthen to identify the English grammatical issues of the students in an effective manner (Litman, 2016)

Study Groups- I can ask students to make a study group where 5-8 students come together for a certain time to study some common topic. It will help them in understanding how interpersonal communication and interpersonal language is useful. If anyone makes a mistake and could not be understood, he/she will learn the difference and from next time refrain to use it as such (Nassaji, 2011).

Team Debate Projects- The teams could be made and given a common topic. All students need to put forward their point of view regarding the topic. It will help them in noticing how others are using the interpersonal feature and how they need to make sure to use it correctly. Otherwise, the point they want to communicate will get lost in communication (Nassaji, 2016).

Articles writing- I can ask students to write about anything and then pass it along to another student. The other student has to point out all the grammatical mistakes. This will lead to an understanding of this concept. However, this will also be helpful for them to learn the critical knowledge of the article writing and assist them to improve their own work to make them more grammatical error free in the future.  

This aspect can be particularly used with students from another country like China. The grammar used by him differs slightly from the one used by an Australian Student so we can make a group with students of different ethnicity. The article writing should be made by following proper structural work and following the proper grammatical sentence in work (Phuket, & Othman, 2015).

Systematic Analysis of a known book (Practising and consolidating in a guided manner)-  As a teacher, I Can give children a common storybook and ask questions regarding it. Questions which will force them to think about the linguistics metafunction as not an advanced language study only but an important one (Prasojo,  Habib, & Mukminin, 2017). We can ask questions regarding how the language of communication differs between a male character and a female character. And how these differences set the tone of gender identity. The students would read the sentences and would do the ideational analysis. Participants would also notice all kinds of character and how they are using the grammatical choices in respect of pronouns and common sense nouns (Richards, 2015).


The report here summarizes that there is basically three grammar metafunction which makes the basis of all communication everywhere. These metafunctions are different from the traditional ones and keep updating with time as the function is to communicate effectively. These functions are used in the way of grammatical choices a writer or speaker makes. It is important for a writer or speaker to make the right grammatical choices, otherwise, the point will lose its impact and there would be no point in writing or speaking.  In the text one, the writer has made many grammatical mistakes in respect of all three principles and therefore has lost the touch with the reader. The reader reads the first line and found the grammatical issues in it, he loses interest and quit reading the article. However, in the given case, there are minor grammatical issues which we found in this report. We have used the critical viewpoint to identify the grammatical issues and wrong implication of the tense in the structured sentences. The ideational function is related to culture, interpersonal to the situation and textual to verbal context. The study of these grammar issues helps in the understanding of students as to when to use which kind of verbs, nouns and grammar functions.