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Health Engineering and Application of Health Care Engineering Program Assessment Answer

Module Details

Module TitleRequirements Engineering 

Section B: this is a critical essay in relation to a critical reflection on bridging the gap between cancer care as the business domain and the associated cancer system models and technologies with respect to a given can care problem. This element constitutes 30% (60 points) of the total coursework mark. 

Task Specification 

Sebastian Garde and Petra Knaup in their paper: “Requirements engineering in health care: the example of chemotherapy planning in paediatric oncology” Requirements Engineering  (2006) 11: 265–278 DOI 10.1007/s00766-006-0029-6 argued that “by using described grounded theory- based approach for requirements engineering, it is possible to develop an application system while developing a general theory grounded in the observations of the researchers”. 

Contrast their argument and findings to the approach introduced in this module in bridging the gap between cancer care problems and the anticipated associated systems using a process-architecture centric approach leading to business process models, and system models such as use-case, class and state transition models. Your contrast should be written in an essay style not exceeding 2000 words excluding bibliographies and references. Provide a title for your essay and a full section on both the consulted bibliography and your  references’ section. You will need to provide citations to references cited in support of your discussion. In marking this part, you need to observe the following in assessing your written essay:

Essay Assessment criteria:

70% and above: Distinction

You need to show very clear evidence of independent research and own critical evaluation while discussing the approaches attempted, but this should be detailed enough with sufficient citations to relevant references. A conclusion will have as well to follow from this critical evaluation in relation to cited or suggested future research directions that are naturally the product of such evaluation or conclusion.

60% and above:

You need to provide a critique that fully addresses the above specific essay issues, detailed enough with sufficient citations to relevant references. Also, you need to show evidence of critical analysis of the differences between the approaches attempted in the particular assignment option chosen.

50% and above: pass

You need to provide a critique that fully addresses the above specific essay issues, detailed enough with sufficient citations to relevant references.

Less than 50%: 

a straight-forward recall of approaches with no critical analysis, citations to references, and/or evaluation.




This report divulges the key information on the health engineering and the application of the health care engineering program in the various field. It is considered that health engineering is the application of engineering in all aspects of healthcare. The word engineering is the description cover every engineering disciplines for example biomedical, chemical, electrical, industrial, information, civil and system engineering. According to the definition of healthcare, almost every engineering disciplines have a significant role and brought advancement in the health care sector (Chien, Bashir, Nerem & Pettigrew, 2015). Health care engineering is likely to play a key role in emerging importance as the healthcare sector continues to become one of the largest and fastest developing industries in the world. Healthcare engineering was first described by Dr. Chyu and co-authors in 2015. The purpose of healthcare engineering is to enhance and quality of human health and wellbeing by using engineering approaches. There is a different use of engineering in healthcare such as it is involved in the establishment or delivery of treatments, preventing care, and diagnose an individual for a health care issue or issues (Clarkson et al., 2018). This particular report will critically discuss the argument and findings of a research article published by Garde and Knaup on the use of the grounded theory-based approach. 

Research question

The main research question argued by Garde and Knaup is need of requirement engineering in healthcare.  Engineering is more effectively observed. Nonetheless, it is evaluated that it is easy to develop a system application with the proper implication of ground based theory approach (Garde & Knaup, 2006)

Challenge: The main challenge faced by the author is to collect the information about the patient and market information. 

UML: The author applied the unified modelling language to document outcomes of needs analyses and prototype specification, in order to create an inclusive domain model taking the requirements.

View of Jacobson et al. 

The developed a business engineering’ form in which the opening point is business modelling by identifying processes and their plotting directly on to different cases. The main view of the authors are focusing on work and valuing customer, interaction with participants and using cases, using modelling approach to depict the application of information system, and communicating with each other about business process. 

The main conlcuso of the study 

Grounded theory-based approach

The ground based theory approach is the systematic methodology used for the social science comprising the construction of philosophies through the methodological gathering and the analysis of information. It was first described by Glaser and Strauss in 1967 (Charmaz & Belgrave, 2012). The rationale of ground based theory approach is that this specific theory assists in closing the gap between the theory and the empirical investigations. The features of this theory includes gathering data, evaluation and analysis of the gathered data, categories and analysis codes established from the data, theoretical sampling applied to describe the categories, analytical memos applied between coding and writing, and categories integrated into the theoretical model (Glaser & Strauss, 2017). The theory provides a procedure to understand the social phenomena which are pre-established with the present theories. It is also well known for investigating societal processes that have attracted little before the research attention. However, there are some disadvantages must be considered. Methods of this theory tend to generate large information which is difficult to manage, and there are no standard guidelines to follow the identification for the recognition of categories (Corbin & Strauss, 2014)


The approach used by the authors combined the grounded based theory approach to the evolutionary prototyping cantered on the continuous development and refinement of the generic domain framework.

Both the authors reported that the processes involved in complex and variable patient care system program. Health care includes various processes that are short but complex, for example, physician order entry (Garde & Knaup, 2006). 

The healthcare providers and healthcare professionals have to throughout patient care. Both the authors emphasized the use of grounded theory and concluded that with the help of this theory for requirement engineering one can develop an effective application system while establishing a common theory based on the researcher’s observations.

They further reported that the underlying technology of the application system might be outdated in upcoming years but the chemoDM will remain fresh and the theoretical saturation can be effortlessly be regained through small repetitions. The results off the study showed that implication of chemoDM can effectively help the informant acquisition process for guideline-based care (Garde & Knaup, 2006)In my opinion with this particular approach including process architecture method and system models like use-case and stat transition model can be beneficial. I think use can be used by health care professionals as the application this approach in analyzing and designing health information which can fill the gap between cancer problem and anticipated related systems. 

Use of GT in developing application system

Different researchers supported the use of grounded theory in the development of an application system.

Grounded therapy can be used as a helpful technique to advance the communication amongst the specialist and the user, to advance communication amongst the development group associates as it is easy to alter the casual models of Grounded theory into typical models, therefore refining the communication between specialist and developers is necessary. 

Nonetheless, it has been found that underlying technology of the application system might be outdated in upcoming years but the chemoDM will remain fresh and the theoretical saturation can be effortlessly be regained through small repetitions. It can similarly be used as the socio-technical method for requirements analysis, to recognize better operators’ requirements and to deal with the nontechnical problems associated with the development of information systems (Halaweh, 2012).

Grounded theory investigation includes the meticulous use of specific procedures and processes. Approaches are ‘systematic styles, processes or tools applied for collection and examination of information. While studies of GT can begin with a diversity of sampling methods, many instigate with purposive selection, followed by simultaneous data creation and/or collection and information analysis, by various phases of coding, assumed in combination with constant proportional analysis, hypothetical sampling and the memoing (Chun Tie, Birks & Francis, 2019). Nonetheless, qualitative and quantitative data have been used to gather the required details for the work assessment program. 

They also proposed a genetic domain model to be used in the oncology department named chemoDM. They argue that there are different and health care professionals can benefit from this approach as they can use it in their way. They further reported that to make it possible it is recommended to find the generic needs and develop a generic domain framework for the acquisition of protocol information for the chemotherapy planning. In the pediatric oncology (Garde & Knaup, 2006).

 The grounded theory defines an over-all way to search applicable topics and relations by three different sequential steps but provides little tangible advice on how to accomplish a grounded theory study (Hansen & Kautz, 2005).

Grounded theory covers many unique features that are designed to uphold the "groundedness" of the method. Information collection and investigation are consciously mutual, and primary data investigation is used to outline ongoing data collection (Gregory, 2011). This is expected to deliver the researcher with chances to upsurge the "thickness" and "capacity" of recurrent groups, furthermore to assist in giving follow-up events in regards to surprizing results. Interweaving data collection and study in this way is also intended to increase perceptions and elucidate the parameters of the developing theory (McCallin, 2003)

Another research recognized the need to develop grounded based theory approach in the respondent’s experience is done to gather the required theoretical framework which are relevant and could be utilised for the treatment of the patient treatment from the cancer. (Lowe, Milligan, Watanabe & Brearley, 2015). Grounded based theory approach is more useful and reliable to generate the effective outcomes for the treatment of the patient suffering from the cancer (Lowe et al., 2015). This shows the practical implication of the health engineering program which helps in strengthen the overall outcomes with the advance care program. This shows the practical implication of the data set gathered on the health engineering program. 

This is an important aspect for the set of the robust theory which have been recognized as a significant issue for discipline of software process engineering. The authors believe that well-settled GT investigations can make important contributions to the field and support the development of strong theories to inform upcoming empirical readings in the SE field (Stol, Ralph & Fitzgerald, 2016). 

In order to justify this theory,, the practicle implication of the grounded theory. For instance, oncology is Constructivist grounded theory which proposes that the communication between the investigator and members is a significant factor in the investigation process as it affects the clarification of meaning that progresses from discussions. Preliminary understanding during the information collection and study process includes placing contributors’ meanings and participation at the main focus of the process (Mulugeta et al., 2017).

Garde and Knaup also recognized the use of GT in the development of general theory in the research observations. They linked the statistics, the information delivered by the user, and the building of a theoretical outline. In the readings analyzed, ideas were deduced, groups established, and philosophy constructed grounded on figures (Garde & Knaup, 2006).   It measured to be a technique which delivers a tool of countless value in positioning research on info behavior thus as to be honestly grounded on the operators’ opinion, given that the advantages to be resulting from this qualitative technique do not remove the requirement to document the important stages of the investigation process (Shah & Corley, 2006)

All the aspects proposed by different authors supporting the arguments of Garde and Knaup and supporting the set-up application of grounded theory in the development of the application system.  


Healthcare engineering is the use of engineering methods in every aspect of healthcare to achieve improved outcomes. the grounded theory is recognized as the main approach of social science first discovered by Garde and Knaup in 1967. this paper discussed the use of described grounded theory dependent approach in requirement engineering to develop an application system during the development of general theory in the research observations. 

They combined the grounded based theory approach to evaluate the prototyping determined on the enduring progress and undertaken refinement of the generic domain model. The result also showed that the use of chemoDM can efficiently support the informative gathered process for patient care which is based on guidelines. the argument made in the report was also supported by the different researchers in cancer research and other different fields. Grounded theory can be applied as an effective technique to develop favorable communication between the user and the specialist and the associate groups. new researchers can use this framework to inform and direct the GT project in the field of oncology research as it is recognized as one of the most effective methods. Garde and Knaup proposed an approach called chemoDM as the methods of defining how the protocol information for chemotherapy planning in the pediatric oncology can properly be achieved and properly presented. After reviewing the major themes of the paper and other different researcher articles supported the argument t is clear that the statement about the use of GT in development of system application in oncology is correct, however, there is a need of more research as some investigators reported that the method is difficult to use.

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