|Assessment Details and Submission Guidelines|
|Unit Title||Management and Organisations in a Global Environment|
|Assessment Type||Group Assignment and presentation|
|Assessment Title||Research paper and presentation|
|Purpose of the assessment (with ULO Mapping)||Students are required to research a topic from a list of topics provided based on topics discussed in lectures.|
|Weight||30 % of the total assessments|
Assignment 1 Specifications
This assignment aims at ensuring that students have familiarised themselves with a general framework of at least one management related topic. Students will be required to apply relevant theoretical concepts with the use of practical examplesin most cases in a written researchpaper and discuss their topic via a live presentation.
Topics and presentation schedule:
Organise yourselves into groups of not more than 4 students and not less than 3 students. Please choose from one of the following topics from the list (see below).
Topics will be allocated on a ‘first come- first served basis’ and will be reserved by your lecturer in writing via email.
Please ensure that you include a list of all of the group members in the email. In the event of too many students choosing the same topic, preference will be given to those students who have secured the topic first and subsequent groups will be required to choose another topic.
Research on the broad topic is a group activity and each student must contribute to that work. Each student in the group will then research, in depth an individual component drawn from the broad research topic.
Written report –The written report should begin with the broad research topic which is then followed by each individual component identified by the individual student who prepared it.
Your report is to be written as a business report. It must include;
Presentation – worth 10% of your final grade and will be presented at a date chosen by the lecturer commencing week 5.
These presentations must be organised as a business presentation. Use of visual aids is encouraged.
Strict adherence to the 10 minute limit is expected. You should allocate your time to allow for a very short introduction on the broad topic followed by a few minutes allocated to each student to present their individual component
MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONS IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT:
MOTIVATION: PROCESS THEORIES GENERAL FRAMEWORK
The report goes through different concepts, theories and aspects that define the work motivation. In the study, it has explained that the wok motivation is the element which creates enthusiasm of an employee to put their full effort to complete a collocated job effectively. This enthusiasm is created by the application of several elements. These elements are explained under different theories of motivation. The report states the human motivation theory talks about three prime variables that motivate an employee, which is an achievement, affiliation and power. Employee motivation is related to the employee mind. Thus, the need theory of Maslow explains the expected needs of employee seek into an organisation. These expectations create motivation to perform. Two-factor theory, on the other hand, explains that motivating and hygiene factors are the elements that are used for boosting the work motivation within the employees. The report has highlighted an action plan that helps to narrow down the focus of an employee to direct their motivation in the right way. The goal-setting theory explains a set of activities that are required to maintain by management to plan activities for the employees. According to the equity theory, employee input must be equal and fair to output. On other words, the employees should receive equal outcomes from the employer as per their contribution or input the made. The report has also extracted an explanation of the expectancy theory, which states the management requires to learn employee perception regarding rewards that motivates them. As this reward and recognition, create their behavioural approach to complete their job efficiently.
The globalisation has enriched the scope of business growth and earning profit in the global platform. While operating in the global environment, the business management system focuses on a broader set of activities. The report is based on critical discussion on work motivation and its related theories applied in the global environment. Work motivation is a process in which an employee encourages their work and performance to achieve greater success and add a valuable contribution to the organisation (Breaugh, Ritz. and Alfes 2018). The introduction of work motivation is a necessary factor for an individual for motivation. These increase their intention to use their full efforts, skills and abilities to increase the performance of an organisation in the global marketplace. The aim of the report is to understand and learning about different concepts, theories and significance of work motivation, which could be applied to boost the performance of employees in the business entities.
The McClelland’s human motivational theory explains that motivational factors that create enthusiasm within an individual are for short term. There is a requirement of key factors that are to be introduced for a constant boost of work motivation within the individuals in an organisation. As per the human motivation theory, three major motivators can be introduced for constant motivations to the employees in the organisation.
Achievements: Achievement is one of the motivators, in an organisation, that is encouraged by the achievements and accomplishments of employees. The achievement increase confidence and desire to achieve more success in the workplace (De Vito et al. 2018). This desire boosts their motivational aspects in the workplace. The increased range of achievements by an employee such as work targets, bonuses, financial benefits, awards, recognitions and promotions boosts their work motivator factor. This increases their intensions to develop their skills and abilities and enrich their performance for the allocated job role.
Affiliation: The second factor of McClelland’s human motivational theory is affiliation; an individual in an organisation is motivated by teamwork or team achievements. The solo achievement boosts an employee in the short run, although the bonding and connectivity with the team's accomplishment increase the motivational factor for the long run (Lăzăroiu 2015). In this factor, the positive communication within the team member develops coordination and cooperation. An employee is motivated towards their work and responsibilities if there is positive support gained from the team members they are working with.
Power: The third element of the human motivation theory is power; a person in an organisation is motivated by power. The power is motivational booster as it provides independence to an employee, which they always strive for in an organisation. The employees always seek for an opportunity for controlling and directing teams or group of individuals that increase their motivational elements.
Figure 1: Human motivational theory
The work motivation is a matter of human psychology, which increases the intention of an employee to perform better for its organisation. Based on human psychology, Maslow’s needs theory states that there are five types of need desired by every employee and expects them from an organisation (Forbes 2019). Every management of the business requires meeting these needs in regards to boost the work motivation within the employees. The psychological needs describe the basic needs of human being, which are food drink, water, and shelter, clothing and human survival (Acevedo 2018). This need related to the pay scale, which can meet these psychological needs of an employee. The safety needs are followed by providing protection from security, order, law, free from fear. The safety and security needs include the requirement of corporate rules and regulations that helps an employee to be protected from any form of an illegal lawsuit. The corporate regulations provide guidance to an employee to work in a system that guides them which areas or activities should be done to avoid any legal actions. Love and belongings are related to the work cultural and social environment in the workplace (Hale et al. 2019). In this need, the employee expects to be socialised with other employees easily. The esteem needs are another employee need, which describes workplace opportunities that can give dignity, reputation, achievements for the employee. The last need is self-actualisation need; the self-actualisation includes an employee’s expectations for growth, experience, expertise and the potential opportunity of growth in the entity.
Figure 2: Maslow’s hierarchical needs
(Source: Forbes 2019)
The two-factor theory of Herzberg introduced for work motivation. According to this theory, the organisation operating in the marketplace can focus on the two factors in regards to introduce work motivation within the employees and boosting their performance. The motivating factors and hygiene factors are the two elements that increase the work motivation within an employee. The motivating factors include achievements, recognitions, working process, responsibility, benefits, advancements, growth and accomplishment (Hur 2018). These factors increase an individual’s intentions to increase their performance to provide quality results as expected by the management. The business entities require meeting all the aspects of motivating factors to create a regular work motivational approach within the employees. The hygiene factors include positive and supportive policies of the company, supervision of the managers, relationships with superiors and management, work culture, work condition, financial security, job security and pay scale (Kotni and Karumuri 2018). In the hygiene factor, the elements are related to the planning of the organisational management to provide a motivated work environment for the employees. The work motivation is introduced within an employee if they are able to relate and gain these two factors.
Locke's goal-setting theory is based on designing an action plan for motivating and guiding employees in an organisation. According to the theory, it is necessary to create a power of goal rather expecting for a general outcome from the common performance of an employee. The action plan is prepared based on specific tasks, actions, practices and training that helps an employee to be motivated and engaged in their work (Locke and Latham 2019). The theory explains that an organisation requires focusing on increasing high-quality standards of employee performance rather focused on the organisational targets. The action plan delivers the set of activities and criteria to be met by an employee in regards to achieve high standard performance. In an organisation, employees perform their best when they have a specific goal to achieve. There are five basic elements includes in the goal-setting theory:
Clarity: As per the elements of clarity, the goals are required to be measurable, understandable and unambiguous. It has stated that clarity of a goal is necessary as it provides clear information of the targeted to be achieved. This helps management to define the required time for completion of a task allocated to the employee.
Challenge: The challenge is one of the important elements of goal-setting theory. The employees of an organisation are motivated by achievements (Landers, Bauer and Callan 2017). However, the anticipated accomplishments and planning to achieve the goal is one of the elements, which boost the work motivation factor within the employees. It is necessary to take every goal as a challenge to put more effort and complete the tasks with more reliability.
Commitment: The elements of commitment states that an employee of an organisation needs to understand the requirement of goals. The increase in information and knowledge on the goal, helps an employee to pout their commitment in completion of the task. The commitment enhances confidence and enthusiasm to complete a specified task provided by the management.
Feedback: The elements of the feedback are related to follow up and review of the job and performance of an employee towards the allocated target. The feedback helps management and employees to understand the job difficulties, adjustment of the goals collection of tools and techniques, and achieving recognition (Osabiya, 2015). The benchmarking is included in the feedback that helps management to track employee’s performance to achieve the goal.
The complexity of task: The elements of task complexity states that the goals that are tough and high challenging needs specific care, planning, focus and actions. An employee, better they are able to plan for completing the task with efficiency, learns the better task complexity. Thus, the employees are required to increase their skills, abilities and knowledge in regards to understand the task complexity.
Figure 3: Elements of goal setting
(Source: Breaugh, Ritz and Alfes 2018)
The goal-set includes elements that state the review and implementation of the action plan designed for employees. The goal-setting theory and its application include direction and focus for the employees. The introduction of clear and proper goal helps employees to aim towards a specific target. As per the review, the clarity element states that goals are required to be measurable. This means the tasks or target provided to the employee includes certain milestones to achieve them. Clear information about the goal, helps the employees to learn about required skills and abilities for completing a specific target provided by the management (Kuranchie-Mensah and Amponsah-Tawiah, 2016). Thus, it could be agreed that the goal setting introduces motivation within the employees by narrowing their focus to one specific goal. The goal-setting theory introduces challenge and commitment to an employee. The challenge increases the confidence of the employees as well as the commitment-produced assurance of completing a task by an employee within the destined time. In a review of the element, the challenge produced behaviour and cognitive aspects of an employee. On other words, the challenge increase concerns of an employee over the ability to do a task allocated in the organisation. This behavioural approach increases their intentions to work upon their skills in regards to complete a task. Thus, it could be agreed that the challenge pushes the intentions of an individual and changes the behavioural approach for completing a task. The review suggests that the commitment increase power and energy of an employee for a task to be done (Breaugh, Ritz and Alfes 2018). It has been agreed that commitment creates motivation within an individual by supporting their focus and confidence towards the work targeted. The goal setting includes an element of feedback, which includes recheck of issues, barriers, restrictions and problems faced by an employee while completing their tasks. As per the review, the feedback of goal setting helps to make conversation within employment and management about an allocated task. This helps to adjust the target of the task, guidance, and proper support for an employee from the management end. It has been agreed that the feedback increases the social aspects of an employee that boosts the work motivation within them. The review of complexity element elaborates that the task complexity increase is learning about the right approach, processes techniques and tools used for completing a task efficient and effective manner (De Vito et al. 2018). The agreed factor is this element provides the required breakthrough to the employees for completion of a task. Thus, it helps to increase the motivation of an employee to accept and complete an allocated work under the goal-setting approach.
Adam's equity theory explains that there is a requirement of putting a fair balance between the input of an employee and the output of an employee. According to the theory, there is a need for equal distribution of resources for employees regarding their contribution to the organisation and benefits gained from the organisation. The equity of an employee is measured by the ratio of contribution and ratio of benefits. If the results are equals to one, it could be summarised that an employee is receiving benefits equal to their contribution in the workplace. In the work motivation, business entities plan for increasing rewards and recognitions of an employee. It also expects to give the opportunity to develop the skills (Ryan 2016). Thus, the usage of skills and abilities and employee can show the performance, which is fit for criteria of planned rewards. For example- employee brings sales of 100 smart phones in a month in a retail store, then the employee expects to get a financial bonus regarding the sales he has made for the company. The theory is focused on the explanation of inputs and outputs of an employee and outputs from the employer.
The input of an employee is defined as all of the contribution, dedication and handwork of an employee for the organisation. These inputs are engaged by an employee with an expectation of certain costs to be benefited from the employer. Time, education, effort, loyalty, hard work, experience, expertise, commitment, adaptability, accountability, flexibility are stated as some of the inputs from the employee's end (Saracho 2019). The employee's input if contribution as an asset for an organisation that it is reflected by rewards and recognitions. If an employee input is, a liability to the entity that the output in that regards will be costs to the entity. For an example- If a customer purchases a product from the influence of an employee, then that contribution is termed as an asset. This means the output against the contribution will be reward or bonus. On the other hand, if a customer is highly disappointed with the customer service of an employee, this is a liability to the entity. Thus, the output against the contribution is either a monetary penalty or termination of the employee. The power of rewards or costs to an employee is completely depended on the contribution or input made by an employee.
Outputs or outcomes:
The employee's gains against the input made by them from the organisation are stated as an outcome or output. The outcome is stated as positive or negative consequences faced or gained by an employee as per the positive or negative input made by an employee. The theory explains that when the ratio between the outputs and inputs are close to one, it could be said that the employee is satisfied with their job (Lee and Raschke 2016). However, the negative ratio of input and output is considered, as an organisation is not satisfied with the employee. The outputs are considered as salary, job security, expenses, rewards, recognition, praise, promotions, financial benefits and other factors. For example,- An employee works 8 hours more than an official working hour, the output for the employee would be extra compensation or extra salary. On the other hand, an employee contribution is related to fraud, cheating or illegal activities, the output considered as negative composition, salary penalties, no promotion or termination.
Acceding to Vroom’s expectancy theory, the individuals in the organisation selects behaviour, based on which they act and reacts with others. These behaviours are stated as the key motivator for the individuals as they expect positive result by application of their selected behaviour. The theory explains that the motivation from the behaviour is actually coming from the desired positive outcome expected by the individual. The expectancy theory is focused on defining the choice or choosing the approach of the employee for the motivational elements (Lloyd and Mertens 2018). The application for expectancy is based on understanding how the employee's processes and utilises the motivational element in regards to boosting their performance. The expectancy theory explains behavioural reasoning for selection of one behaviour over other. The employees of the organisation can be motivated if they believe there is a positive correlation between performance and effort. The theory explains that the belief of an employee is the expected performance could gain desirable rewards that could meet the desirable needs. The expectancy theory is introduced as per three basic elements expectancy, instrumentality and valance.
Expectancy: The employees in an organisation have a different level of expectations. It explains about confidence of the individual over the ability to complete an allocated job by the employer. In the expectancy element, an individual is focused on the perception and assumption of changes to complete a job effectively and efficiently. Based on the expectations, an employee creates their motivation, which is raised through confidence and commitment (Barba-Sánchez and Atienza-Sahuquillo 2017). For example,- An employee expects that he/she can sell 100 products in a month, so the employee will think about the resources and skills might be required to meet the specific job.
Instrumentality: The element of instrumentality explains the perception of an employee about the probability of completing a job as committed to the manager of the entity. In the particular element, the perception is focused on the reward and recognition that would be gained if the employee completes a particular job. Thus, there is a requirement of a tangible reward presented by the management to raise the perception of an employee. This perception boosts the desire to work hard and bring out the easiest process to complete the job effectively. If an employee precepts about receiving an extra bonus or financial reward against a job, their intentions become clearer to meet the allocated target given to them. For example- A employee precepts to get 5% commission if he/she is able to sell a house to the client.
Figure 4: Expectancy theory
(Source: Breaugh, Ritz and Alfes 2018)
Valance: The third and last element of the expectancy theory is valance. Valance explains the fairness of reward or recognition presented by the employer to the employee. The element explains that a manager or employer needs to be ensured that the reward provided to the employee for their work is equal to their contribution (Osabiya 2015). The employees get motivated if they receive a reward as committed by the management after completion of work. For example- A manager gives comp-off as promised by a manager to the employee when he has been able to crack a business deal with a client.
The report stated that business management ion the global environment requires to adopt and implement the work motivation theories and concepts. Every motivational theory provides specific information, tools, techniques, strategy and approach to boost employee’s intention to contribute more efficiently for the organization. The report elaborates the human motivation theory, two-factor theory, needs theory equity theory, goal setting and expectancy theory of motivation. These motivation theories commonly describe employee motivates through benefits gained from the organisational end. The positive elements like rewards, recognition, benefits, job security, enthusiasm, praise, appraisals and other elements to be introduced by an employer to boost the work motivation of the employees.