HLTWHS002 Stimulated Activity Hazard and Incident Reporting Assignment 1 Answer
SIMULATED ACTIVITY HAZARD AND INCIDENT REPORTING
Task 1: WHS Legislation and Manual Handling Principles
The legislation relating to workplace safety and health in NSW covers a plethora of issues and topics. The most significant of them are Work Health and Safety Act of 2011, Work Health and Safety Regulation of 2017, NSW Code of Practice, NSW Work Health Safety Act which controls and regulates the safety in the workplace (SafeWork 2019). The minimal requirements of the safety procedures have been outlined in the acts and detailed in the regulations for businesses and professionals to follow (Business 2019). The legislation stated above also supplements the National Compliance and Enforcement Policy of the country.
The legislation exists to ensure that the employees and workers are offered a minimum safe environment for them to work in where the chances of personal, physical or emotional harm are reasonably low. It acts as preventive measures as well as prescribes the legal requirements which ensure professional safety from hazards due to the disposal of the professional duties. The Work Health and Safety Act was constituted in 2011, and the Work Health and Safety Regulation was undertaken in 2017 (SafeWork 2019).
The Work Health and Safety Act of 2011 and the Work Health and Safety Regulation of 2017 were amended, which came into effect on 1st July 2019 (SafeWork 2019). The NSW Work Health Safety Act was also amended in March 2018. The main motto of the amendments is to review the relevance of the acts and if they still conquer the basic aims of the acts and regulations.
The two documents in which we could find the instructions and procedures to follow safe work practices in our workplace are Work Health and Safety Regulation (NSW) 2017 and the NSW Code of Practice (Business 2019). The documents discuss in details the various hazardous conditions and advice for the mitigation of the problems through following the regulation and also the model code of practice. The mechanical safety, handling of harmful substances practices and specific procedures to be followed for the professional and legal requirements has been detailed in these documents.
The assistance of a person with a disability to get into a car taxi or a bus is very different from helping others. There are numerous factors which must be kept in mind for the transportation assistance for a person in need. The first thing is the need for a wheelchair for getting the person down the elevator to the front gate of the taxi or the bus stand. During the wheelchair travel, safety, posture and comfort of the person have to be ensured by asking them or handling them carefully. A T-bar attachment and a Standard Sling is required for the assistance. The order of assistance is as follows:
Set-Up for Transfer
- The wheelchair must be positioned in front of the car (parked and braked) or the wheelchair accessible bus (Myshepherdconnection 2019)
- The car seat must be reclined, and the slings must be attached at the required position
- The lift base must be widest as possible, and a hand pump may be used for lifting the person
Transfer in the Vehicle
- After lifting, the person must be pivoted to enter the head of the person first in the vehicle
- When the T-bar and the person is inside the vehicle, he must be rotated again to put the legs towards the front of the car (Myshepherdconnection 2019)
- The lift is lowered, and the person is pushed back to the position in the seat whilst the slings are unhooked
There may be two people needed for the assistance, but one person may also do it effectively.
The risks involved in the assistance and transfer of a disabled person should be considerate of various factors such as the comfort, the posture and the safety of the helpers. The control measures which can be adopted for the minimizing of the risks involved in the transportation of the disabled person in the car or a bus are as follows:
- The front wheels of the wheelchair must be strapped to the floor tracking or the mini A-frames (Wsvdigital 2019)
- The length of the standard sling should be enough to carry the person inside the car or the bus
- The manoeuvrability of the person should also be ensured inside the vehicle
- The assisters must also wear proper foot and protection during the transfer
- The spasticity of the person must always be noted and carefully handled to minimize stress
- The seat must not be reclined more than 30o, which decreases the effectiveness of the safety straps and mechanisms (Myshepherdconnection 2019).
The handling of a person fallen on the street must be very careful not to cause any further damage to the person. The help which can be given to the person to stand up are as follows:
- The person must be examined carefully to assess the extent of the injury and the problem the person is facing
- After the assessment of the injury, the person is to be laid on the floor and made comfortable (Sielearning 2019)
- An ambulance or any assistance must be called if necessary
- The person’s head must be raised slightly above by placing a towel or a pillow
When it is certain that the person has not suffered any serious injury and the person is comfortable to move, the person must be rolled on to his side and asked to be on all fours before he was helped to stand up (Sielearning 2019). This minimizes the risk of any further injury due to the fall. The safety of the person is the most important factor, and the person must also be equipped to help the person by spreading his legs and hinging the knees slightly for extra support and stability.
The most notable problem which may have happened in the case is any bladder or bowel problems. The necessary steps involving the handling of the case is the dignity and self-respect of the person. The person is in a coffee shop, and hence the situation is required to be handled sensitively. The steps which can be taken are to inform the person of the problem very privately without attracting any attention. The need for further assistance if solicited by the person may be provided. However, the handling techniques are based on the worth and dignity of the person in the case (Continence 2019). The female must be given the opportunity and chance to take care of the situation, and hence, the dignity of the person is preserved by this method. The precaution which could be taken care that the individual differences, ethnic and cultural differences must be respected. This would ensure the safety of the person without infringing the personal space and obeying social responsibility.
Task 2: Managing Stress and Debriefing
The condition of the employees or professionals in the workplace to feel exhausted, weary, tired or sleepy which may have occurred due to insufficient sleep, excessive prolonged work time, schedules of work shifts, physical work or simply due to exhaustion is known as fatigue. It is only natural that a worker would be fatigued if they incessantly continue to work without any breaks or intermissions. The main impacts of fatigue may cause the worker not to be focused at work, reduced alertness, slow reaction times during the dispensing of their duties which may cause harm to self and others in the workplace. The need for attention at the workplace is the primary requirement for safety in the workplace (Safetyalliancebc 2019). The fatigue defeats that entirely and so fatigue may cause excessive damage due to the implications it may have on the worker actions. For example, the worker if handling a moving platform to move objects at work may not be focused enough to notice that an object on the platform may fall. This may cause serious injuries to others in the workplace which is not desirable.
The fatigue of the workers may also affect the clients as the manufactured or the work done by the worker may of the required standard. A low-quality product may cause disruption of the action, which may be critical for the service to the patients. For example, a wheelchair which has not been bolted by the employees properly as he was very tired and not focused at work may result in the patient falling, which may be life-ending (Safetyalliancebc 2019). Thus, the need for attention at work may affect the clients as well. The effects of workplace fatigue are:
- Reduction in physical and mental functioning
- Impaired concentration and judgement
- Scarce motivation and reaction
- Performance of the employee is also risk-prone
The management of the fatigue of the employees in the workplace must be considerate of the condition of the work, the work hours, the physicality of the work and also the ability of the worker to manage stress through breaks and intermissions. There are several steps which can be taken by the management of the company so that the fatigue of the workers does not affect the capability of the worker in dispensing their work duties and responsibilities. They can be outlined as follows:
Scheduling of work and rostering: The scheduling and duration of the work done by a professional at work reduce the chances of fatigue significantly. As the scheduling is directly linked with the amount of sleep or rest a person gets. The scheduling serves as an effective method for the mitigation of fatigue at work. However, the risks and the physical intervention required for a job varied greatly; the scheduling and rostering of the work schedule becomes very difficult for the management of the company. The number of night shifts and the conditional choice of the shifts can be offered to the employees for their facilitation (Ccohs 2019). The duration of the work shift should also be limited to a healthy level for the continued energy of the employees in the workplace.
Adequate sleep and non-work related factors: The sleep cycle of a person relaxes the mind and rejuvenates the person for increased focus and concentration at work. Hence, the sleep and rest are the most productive way of recovering from the stress and fatigue at work; the necessity of the quality and duration of the work dramatically reduces fatigue. According to Professor Dawson, a person requires a minimum of seven to nine hours of sleep to recover from the fatigue (Ccohs 2019) fully. He also pointed out that any less than 5 hours of sleep per day has a significant impact on the safety in the workplace due to impaired judgement and operational ability.
Responsible worker: It is also the responsibility of the worker to abide by the rules and regulations of the company regarding the management of fatigue. It is of paramount importance to note that it is the workers who should be aware of the requirements of fatigue mitigation strategies and safe work criteria outlined by the company as the company can't monitor and track the actions of the person during their time (Safe Work Australia 2019). The need for responsibility is endowed in the job specification, and the workers must follow them to be more productive at work by being alert and focused, which can only be done if required fatigue management techniques are used by themselves.
A voluntary and structured design for putting a stressful event at the workplace by recollecting and establishing a recovery path through clear assimilation of the events to the concerned authorities is known as debriefing (Betterhealth 2019). The debriefing is usually carried out within 3 to 7 days of the event where the required time is given to the professional to get their head straight and be rationally able to call the sequence of events, and the shock of the event has subsided. The main goal of the debriefing is to establish a clear sequence of events which has undergone to clearly identify the problems which can be used for the mitigation of the problems in the workplace (Betterhealth 2019). The debriefing is necessary to understand the experience of every individual involved any memory which might have been triggered by accident and the need for the understanding of the psychological reactions due to the accident.
Task 3: Hazard and Incident Reporting
The workplace hazard can be defined as any event or incident which has the potential to cause harm, illness or injury, be it physical, emotional or psychological, to the people in the workplace or also to the work environment or plants or factories (Safeopedia 2019). The cause of workplace hazard may emanate from a variety of sources and cannot be attributed to a single cause for it (Ccohs 2019). The workplace hazard may also cause death and physical ineffectiveness in certain extreme cases.
The reporting of hazards in the workplace is the responsibility of the workers too. The safety and security of the workers can be ensured by the management of the workers are vigilant and immediately report them to the concerned authorities (Commerce 2019). An employee is legally bound to report any potential hazards to their supervisor immediately. The management of the company must take corrective actions without waiting for the scheduled inspections. The hazards can also be reported to Safety Representatives from WorkSafe for further action (Ccohs 2019). There are designated people for the handling of hazards in the workplace.
The workplace incident can be managed through a series of interrelated steps which is aimed at managing and controlling any potential hazards. They are as follows:
Identification: The first step is to identify the potential risks and hazards which may cause injury or harm to the employees. The proper identification is essential for the mitigation as the wrong identified problem may result in failure of the actual aim of hazard control.
Assessment: The risks associated with the hazard must be ascertained to develop a theory for the mitigation process. The extent of damage and the forces at work may cause any destabilization is noted for the repair and containment work (WorkSafe 2019). The framework for the assessment must be elaborate and conclusive evidence must be gathered.
Control: The next step for the management of workplace hazard is the control of hazardous causes. The repair, patchwork, mishandling or any other reasons are handled to reduce the risk or root out the problem altogether. The control measures must be in accordance with the hazardous causes which define what type of control measures are to be used.
Review: The last stage of management is the review of the repair or hazard mitigation work done by the company (Comcare 2019). The assessment if the work is capable of ensuring the safety of the workers is guaranteed in this step before normal work can resume.
The most basic eight pieces of information required to document an incident report are:
Description and Details: The details of the incident to be reported must be included in the incident report. A hierarchical event description is needed to reflect the nature of the accident properly.
Only Facts: The report must only enclose the facts and be devoid of any emotion or unnecessary accounts of events (Vaultintel 2019). The facts help to present the event in a much more concise manner which is desired for the identification of the real problem
Objective and Organized Report: The report must be organized in the order of the events which provide a considerably vivid picture necessary for the assessment and the pointing of the events which has caused the problem or the hazard.
Statement of the witnesses: The account of the witnesses and the occurrence of the events involved in the accident provide the best proof to the sequence of the events which has occurred. Thus, the inclusion of the statement of the witnesses is necessary for the preparation of the report.
Avoid Confidential Details: The report must be devoid of any detail which may be confidential. The report may have to be presented to the legal authorities, and the confidential information should not be included in it for the safety of the company.
Accuracy of Information: The accuracy of the information must be decided by the assessor, and if he is not sure of the authenticity of the information, the information must be reviewed before being included in the incident report. The integrity of the prepared report relies on the accuracy of the available information.
Diagrams and Photos: The report can be enriched and backed up by the addition of photos and diagrams to explain the event successfully.
Signoff from the Supervisor: At the end of the report, it must be signed off by the supervisor (Vaultintel 2019). However, it must be kept in mind that the accuracy of the information provided in the report must be cross-checked by the supervisor.
The reporting of any potential hazards is important by the employees of the organization so that the necessary authorities are aware of the existing problems in their business. The reporting is also necessary to take the preventive measures which can be taken by the management of the company (Dmp 2019). The necessity of the reporting can also be attributed to the mitigation strategies adopted by the company, and the analysis provides the necessary importance to the problem at hand. The identification of the problem at an early stage of a hazard may also result in inadequate safety for the workers, and significant loss of life and property may be made.