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HOS803 Sustainable Tourism Development: Challenges and Issues Assessment Answer

Subject TitleSustainable Tourism Development
Subject CodeHOS803
Assessment TitleIndividual Assignment - Report
Learning Outcome/s2, 3 & 5
Assessment type (group or individual)Individual
Weighting50%
Word count3000 words excluding references and appendices
Format / Layout of Assessment 

Report:
ICMS Cover Page    
Table of Contents
Synopsis / Executive Summary
Introduction
Findings
Conclusion
Recommendations
Reference List
Appendices
Assessment instructions

Based on your Assessment 2 Annotated Bibliography and also utilising other research, you are required to prepare an extended literature review addressing how contemporary issues are affecting the nature of sustainable tourism development and subsequently how this impacts on different stakeholders and management approaches. 



Answer

DEVELOPMENT of SUSTAINABLE TOURISM


Executive summary

It is essential to develop an extended literature review in order to increase the depth of understanding of the research article. In the topic concerning the sustainable development of tourism, the challenges and the issues need to be identified in order to implement strategic develops to improve the business culture. The effectiveness of the articles selected for the bibliography as academic literature is considered in the report. The responsible practices that facilitate the tourism development within the industry, issues regarding the adventure tourism and the environmental sustainability, discussion with the stakeholders in prioritising the tourism assets and lastly the perspective of the local inhabitants in mitigating the influx of tourists. The governmental and governmental stakeholders, as well as the local inhabitants, are the identified stakeholders within the tourism industry. In this portion of the report, the discussion of the articles and the authenticity of the academic reference is included. 

Introduction

The World Tourism organisation defines the sustainable tourism development as the practices under the industry that is accountable for the social, economic, and environmental implications and takes into considerations the needs of the consumers along with the protection of the community within the host country. It is important to manage the tourism need to utilise the environmental resources and to maintain the ecological process n helping the conservation of biodiversity and heritage of the host country. The management of the tourism enterprises in maintaining the authenticity of the cultural and social impacts are important in an inter-cultural alliance. The economic output of the business needs to be returned to the host country's communities for improvement and development. The challenges of tourism practices as a by-product of the industry that causes environmental issues are the emission of harmful gases in the atmosphere. The increase in transport, traffic and development of international travelling are disrupting the environment in many aspects. The increment of the energy consumption due to daily activities and the increment of waste disposal as an aftermath of the human events are also environmentally dangerous. The scarcity of employment due to commercialisation and compartmentalisation within large multinational corporations are destroying the local economy. All these influence the sustainability of the environment, which needs to be taken care of within the tourism industry. The report will discuss in detail about the articles selected in the annotated bibliography.

Research strategy 

It is important to have a determined strategy while conducting research in a given topic. In this case, the previously selected peer-reviewed journals will be used to develop an extended literature review. This will ensure that a more in-depth understanding of the topic is achieved. Literature review provides accurate information regarding a particular given topic that is generally evaluated by established academic researchers. The collection of academic literature is stored in online databases, which can be accessed at any time. The literature evidence can be searched in electronic databases like Google Scholar, Ebsco, Science Direct etc. The search engines within the databases provide the researchers with the most relevant articles against keywords and other filtration options. In the given report, Google Scholar was selected as the article database. The keywords used were ‘sustainable tourism development’, ‘tourism sustainability’ and ‘tourism’ to obtain the results for the literature review. The restriction of the year of publication was determined within 2014- present year to ensure that only current peer-reviewed journals would be displayed in the search results. 

Literature review of Article 1: 

1. Brief analysis:

This paper has addressed a literature review on the assessment of some needful tourism practices, which is required for sustainability in the development of the tourism sector. The main motto of the research study is examining the responsible management approaches of Tamil Nadu tourism, which could determine a sustainable development in tourism (Rajamanicam et al., 2018). The themes that are included for the paper are sustainable development in tourism, responsible tourism, stakeholders’ benefits, protection and host community of the environment. This study is about the development approaches that are fit for a responsible tourism irrespective of the stakeholders. In this paper, there is a brief and precise discussion in the practices to the tourism industry of the state of India named Tamil Nadu in order to evaluate the responsible tourism for assessing its sustainability of development capability in tourism sector (Mathew & Sreejesh2017). Here it should be mentioned that the demand for the hill stations has been seen to be increased day-by-day.  

2. Abstract examination: 

In the abstract, brief information, purpose and aim of the learning, research methods and the activities that are introduced and elaborated in this research have been provided in a reliable and easy manner. As opined by Moscardo & Murphy, (2014), in order to gather the relevant information and data for the research, some analytical tools like SPSS tools and Microsoft Excel have been used in order to extract the information better.

3. Introduction examination: 

The introducing data and information have been introduced in the introduction to information. The significance of responsible tourism with respect to the tourism practices that are carried out has also been discussed. After that, the introductory area of the research article has summarised and described the aim, purpose and objectives of the research and the article has demonstrated an investigation on the topic of Tamil Nadu's responsible tourism and the sustainable and development of it.

4. Analysing literature review

The literature review of the article has rightly presented the idea that in the case of responsible tourism, there is a basic and primary connection with services and quality of the tourism product in order to meet the concept of sustainable tourism. In the article, the precise analysis of the responsible aspects of Tamil Nadu tourism of India in order to assess the capability of determining a sustainable development in the tourism business is clearly justifying and significant.

5. Selection of methodology

For this research article, two types of data collection methods have been used- quantitative data collection method and qualitative data collection method. Again, the survey interview with the participants as well as addressed the data collection process (Lee & Hsieh2016). In addition, it has used participatory research process for the purpose of collecting information regarding the responsible tourism of Tamil Nadu. For research, two groups are there that include external and internal groups. For the research paper, five governmental and 15 local communities selected in the internal group and around 80 tourists of Tamil Nadu have been selected in the external group. 

6. Results selection

As per the results selection is concerned it can be stated that in order to introduce a better understanding redounding the research topic, thematic analysis has been developed by the research articles based on excel software and SPSS for addressing better examination of the importation gathered from the tourists and a community member from Tamil Nadu. According to the findings of the research, the Indian economic factor positively affects the tourism of the country. Again, on the other hand, social and cultural factors have affected negatively in the sustainable development in tourism and responsible tourism of Tamil Nadu (Mathew & Sreejesh2017).

7. Conclusion

A systematic discussion and analysis have been presented in the concluding part. The required activities for maintaining sustainable development in tourism, have been described in the conclusion. However, it should be stated that activities of operating management and potential regulations are required in the tourism industry in order to enhance the aspect of responsible tourism and sustainable development in tourism. 

8. Personal reflection

I feel that with a detailed observation analysis the article has been elaborated in the sustainable development of Indian tourism. I learnt that the research has successfully met its objectives, aims and justification by the help of reliable data collation and research. I feel that managers, leaders and the other professional individuals require proper management approaches to learn in this regard.

Literature review of Article 2: ‘

1.Brief Analysis:

According to Böhmer-Bauer, (2012this article has evaluated whether trekking tourism has sustainability or not and it is done based on the trekking service of Nepal. The purpose is to analyse the quality of service and the conception of trekking with respect to the sustainable development of tourism.

2. Abstract examination:

The abstract has given summarised and informative content on the operations of Nepal trekking and German tour that could be effective in establishing sustainable tourism. Again, the promises and commitment if trekking tourism made by the tourism agencies have also been elaborated in the abstract.

3. Introduction examination

In the introduction, the research article has given a relevant and clear justification in trekking tourism and the practices based on the investigation of Germany and Nepal as well. The introduction has analysed the potentiality and reliability of the practices of Nepal trekking tourism and German tourism (Anup & Parajuli2014).  The aim of the research has focussed whether the promises and the commitment of German and Nepal tour operators on the trekking are supportive of the sustainable development approach in trekking tourism.

4. Analysing Literature review

The literature review that has been addressed by the author has clearly met the criteria that are required for the sustainable growth of development of Nepal trekking and German tour (Regmi & Walter2017). The review has covered all sort of recommendations from fair business to local developments that are highly effective in order to meet the purpose of the article.

5. Selection of methodology

Based on the information extracted from the survey analysis and interviewing different tour guides, general managers, and product managers of German and Nepal Tourism, the research method as bend developed. The data has been gathered in a formal and narrative conversation that is based on open-ended questions.

6. Results selection

A better underrating of the findings has been provided in the results of the research. It shows that the preservation of cultural and natural resources helps to develop sustainability in tourism (Anup & Parajuli2014). As per the findings, CSR activities play a significant role in planning, designing and implementing the activities in order to increase the Trekking service to determine the sustainable development. 

7. Conclusion

The conclusion has given summarised and clear findings of the research article. As opined by Nyaupane et al., (2014the learning of basic promises and commitments and the activities that German and Nepal tour operators have introduced in order to enhance the sustainability of the tourism development have been addressed here.

8. Personal reflection

I have found in that article that the entire research has been analysed, evaluated and presented in order to address its basic objectives. I learnt that by applying the research tools it helps the entire article in extracting the detailed information on trekking tourism and the collaboration it has with sustainable development in tourism. As per I think CSR commitments is significant to be elaborated in this regard.

Literature review of Article 3: 

Holladay et al., (2018) has opined that in the research article the operation and management of the sustainable development in tourism and its contribution as well as relationship with different stakeholders of private and public tourism that operate from Da Nang. 

2. Abstract examination

The abstract of the content has stated that am efficient management is required in order to increase the number of domestic and international tourism in Vietnam. It has focused on tourism development in order to observe the required activities of the management for the sustainability of tourism development. Along with that different research questions as well, were designed in order to conduct a proper form of an interview for extracting different information.

3. Introduction examination 

 In the introduction, there is a brief description of Da Nang's backgrounds with figures and facts. From the gathered information, it has been noticed that tourist's visits have increased 9% in Da Nang in the year 2016 compared to the previous year.

4. Analysing Literature review 

A literature review has been conducted by the author on the stakeholder perceptions of sustainable tourism development and tourism assets in Da Nang and Vietnam. It has been addressed nicely. Still, it should be mentioned that there is no hypothesis statement addressed in the article that should be there. Again, it has been seen that the local invariants have not been considered in the article.

5. Selection of methodology 

In order to develop an in-depth understanding of the critical issues within the emerging destination, the authors' adopted a case study approach. The data collected regarding the issues of a destination is addressed in the case study approach, followed by a literature review (Holladay et al., 2018). The authors also conducted interviews with the governmental as well as non-governmental stakeholders within the selected regions. However, the sample size for the research was very small, which did not seem adequate for the research (Dolnicar & Ring, 2017). The digital voice recorders were used to records the responses of the participants. The transcriptions of the data were then recorded to identify the topics and subtopics in an iterative process. The analysis of the stakeholder perspectives was done using the coded framework established in the literature review. Comparisons of the responses were conducted to exclude the validity measurement in delineating causality. The preparation of the question by reducing the bias was considered to maximise the research validity by the authors. 

6. Results selection 

The results revealed that three assets were most prioritised within the governmental and non-governmental stakeholders. Tourism, including the beach resorts, corporate trips, cultural and heritage destinations were considered most important as indicated by the responses. In solution the areas in developing sustainable tourism were identified to be shorter spans for development, lack of human resource management and the increase of real estate within the tourism destination were majorly considered (Rasoolimanesh & Jaafar, 2017). This was effective in understanding the important areas of the stakeholders within the tourism business. This can be used to derive how it might affect sustainability in future.

7. Conclusion 

The conclusion did not properly address the findings with that of the hypothesis, which would have made it easier to develop an in-depth understanding of the topic. The indication of the literature within the article itself, however, is a positive point in favour of the authors (Holladay et al., 2018). The limitation was not considering the perspectives of the stakeholders, which would have provided an important aspect of sustainability development. There was no explorative study within the region to identify the suspending tourism development needs over a span of time.  

8. Personal reflection 

Personally, I felt that the approach of the authors was not satisfactory in identifying the research query. The consideration of the stakeholder perspective was important in assessing the current needs of the emerging destination, but the sample size needed to be larger to derive better data extraction.  The explorative study needed to be conducted separately for the local communities, as they are the stakeholders of the tourism industry. The sustainability within the region would be widely impacted by the overconsumption of the business enterprise in future. 

Literature review of Article 4: 

The article was used in the bibliography to establish the perceptions of the local population on the prevalence of the tourism carrying capacity within the region.  

1. Brief Analysis

The authors in this article have researched about the activity of the tourists and its implications in the local community and their perceptions regarding the carrying capacity. The issue is important is tourism sustainability since the increase in the allowed number of people in the region might disrupt the social, cultural, economic and environmental balance within the region (Muler Gonzalez, Coromina, & Galí, 2018)

2. Abstract examination 

The abstract of the article explains clearly the purpose of the authors, research design, research methodology, findings and the implications. This makes it easier for the readers to understand in brief the issue that is covered in the article. The authors clearly mentioned their perspective in understanding the social carrying capacity of a heritage destination with that of the socio-demographic variables (Muler Gonzalez, Coromina, & Galí, 2018). The description of the research design depicted the intention of the authors to address the research question. The clear statements regarding the findings developed the overall conclusion of the research.

3. Introduction examination 

The article presented a good representation of the role of residents or local communities in adding to the heritage of a destination. This, in turn, was established a key motivator of the tourists to be attracted to that destination. However, the authors also identified the consideration of the goodwill of the local residents in the tourism business. The social carrying capacity was also introduced as a concept for the understanding of the readers. The authors identified three variables; the pressure of tourism, tourist function and the willingness to accept tourism within a given location.

4. Analysing Literature review 

The authors have conducted a literature review from various secondary sources to develop an understanding of the research topic. The literature review successfully determined the different concepts of the terms carrying capacity within the tourism industry throughout history (Schröter et al., 2014). It was evident that the perceptions regarding the issues were determined within the study. The theoretical constructs and the idea of the topic helped the authors develop the hypothesis statements within the article. The authors developed the relationship between social carrying capacity with that of the social exchange theory, tourism impacts on the attitude of the residents. 

5. Selection of methodology 

The authors decided to test their hypotheses with a constructed questionnaire within the region. The authors conducted a location study to determine the population density within the location in developing a sustainable model of balance. The authors’ implemented the Likert scale to analyse data from a sample size of 420 people within the study location (Muler Gonzalez, Coromina, & Galí, 2018). The authors followed the data analysis by the development of consensus within the study, considering the independent and dependent variables. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to conclude the findings of the data.  

6. Results selection 

The results of the article were numerically represented with charts and tables to increase the understanding of the readers. This represents the work of the authors in a more systematic and reliable manner where the statistical information is available (Betran et al., 2015). This would be helpful for future researchers to replicate the research in order to conduct exploratory research. The themes of the literature review and the hypothesis statements were justified with respect to the findings. 

7. Conclusion 

The authors provided clear conclusions of the hypothesis statements, which will help in the development of further research.  The authors concluded that in order to develop a more sustainable model of business within a heritage destination, it is essential to take into consideration the perceptions of the local inhabitants. The conflict of interest between the local inhabitants and the tourism business providers would be mitigated if such issues were addressed. This provided the pathway of developing future strategies in addressing tourism sustainability. The various policy implementations would also be possible in considering the resident perceptions as important literature evidence.

8. Personal reflection 

I feel that this article is an important literature asset to develop future studies and assessing the issues of tourism sustainability. The social, economic and cultural disruption of the residents will increase if tourism policymakers do not understand the needs and perceptions of carrying capacity. I would consider this my future and consider the engagement of the local population to establish welfare and preservation of the local heritage.

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