Hospital Management System Assessment Answer

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Question :

Overview of Assessment

This coursework elements assess the following module learning outcomes: 

  1. Critically understand the needs of stakeholders involved in the requirements engineering process for cancer care;
  2. Apply different methods and tools to elicit, analyse, specify, validate and manage requirements for cancer care problems;
  3. Model cancer care process architecture and associated process models/workflows using industry standard business process modelling languages and notations such BPMN and others, to provide better understanding of cancer care problems;
  4. Applying legal, social, ethical, and professional requirements in cancer care informatics context, for a given cancer care problem;
  5. Distinguish between functional and non-functional requirements for cancer care and show how to specify them for cancer care related problems using appropriate techniques; and
  6. Critically reflect on bridging the gap between cancer care problems and cancer care computer-based systems. 

You should use related requirements modelling notations to document your requirements models. You are not constrained to use specific requirements modelling tools. You may use Visual Paradigm, or any other requirements modelling tool to specify your business process and UML models. Please use Riva BPA Visio stencils for the relevant Riva modelling parts. Use MS-Word to specify user requirements and use-cases following the MammoGrid use-case template (I will share it later). 

Task Specification: 

The questions in this section are with reference to applying key requirements engineering methods introduced in this module with reference to the management of pediatric oncology using multidisciplinary teams. Use the following article to guide you in answering the questions below:

Mary Ann Cantrell and  Kathy Ruble. Multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 2011; 4: 171–181

doi: 10.2147/JMDH.S7108, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3141835/

Q1. (50 points)

Following the Riva Process Architecture (RPA) modelling method, answer the following:

  1. Identify candidate essential business entities in relation to the management of pediatrics oncology using multidisciplinary teams. (10 points) 
  2. Identify the Units of Work (UoWs) as per your answer to Q1 (a) and develop UoW diagram for pediatrics oncology management using multidisciplinary teams. (20 points)
  3. Choose one relationship (options: either task force or service) between two UoWs from your answer to Q1 (b) and develop a 1st cut process architecture. (10 points). 
  4. Refine the 1st cut process architecture in Q1(c) to generate a respective 2nd cut process architecture. (10 points)

Q2. (28 points)

Identify one Riva Case Process from your answer in Q1 (d). Describe the workflow in this case process textually and then model it using either RAD or BPMN.  You may consult domain experts in the field of pediatrics oncology while in the process of developing the textual description of your selected case process.

Q3. (24 points)

Following the algorithm described in Odeh M and Kamm R paper “Bridging the Gap between Business Process Models and Systems Models” (it's in attachment), suggest how would you map the above modelled case process in Q2 into a use-case model in an attempt to bridge the gap between this selected case process and a respectively derived use-case model. Accordingly, draw a use-case view of this case process model. 

Q4: (10 points)

Produce a use-case view of the business area of the case process in Q2 using only the textual description you provided in the same question. This use-case view should show interactions with respective actor(s) and relationships (such as <<extend>>, and <<include>>) with other use-cases.

Q5: (10 points)

Contrast the derived use-case in Q3 to the one modelled in Q4. In particular, comment on the relative comprehensiveness and correctness of derived model to use-case modelled using the textual interpretations only. 

Q6: (18 points)

Suggest and specify six Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs) for the selected process in Q2 with 2 NFRs for each type i.e. product, process and externally related with particular emphasis on legal, social, ethical, and professional issues.  

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Answer :

Hospital Management System

Q1. Following the Riva Process Architecture (RPA) modelling method, answer the following:

a. Identify candidate essential business entities in relation to the management of pediatrics oncology using multidisciplinary teams. 

The multidisciplinary care team is a broad sphere where an integrated collaborative approach is followed in terms of health care (clinical as well as nonclinical allied care) considering all relevant methods of treatment and the system also provides post-treatment follow-up and develop a new treatment process targeting individual child patients (Cantrell, 2011).  Cancer treatment and post-treatment care are very critical and complex that also need huge attention. The most common pediatric malignancies are leukemia or white blood cell cancer, lymphomas, Wilms’ tumor and brain tumor cancer (gliomas). Here the patients are candidates who are the subject to receive the service and hold the full system if this kind of multidisciplinary healthcare institute. Riva is a process for designing, modeling and analyzing this kind of business model and system. Every element of the modeling process shows a commutative nature and the elements like process, role, interaction are well connected (Odeh, 2003). Here the elements for multidisciplinary health care systems are cancer prevention treatment, strategy, their various campaign programs, and research on cancer, cost-effective treatment policy. The dynamic function of a business system can be established in this way(Ahmad, , 2018).  All beneficial partnerships needed for this management area also subpart under these multidisciplinary teams. Moreover, patient counseling, data protection act, ethical protocol, field and disease-specific surgeon and doctors, nurses, all diagnostic tools and measures are also included.


 Functional relationship diagram

Figure 1: Functional relationship diagram

(Source: Green, 2020)

b. Identify the Units of Work (UoWs) as per your answer to Q1 (a) and develop UoWdiagram for pediatrics oncology management using multidisciplinary teams. 

The unit of work is the full system backbone of business infrastructure. the integral part of the whole system mainly depends on lots of factors and components, The essential part comprise of so many features like the diagnostic unit, the treatment unit, post-treatment care unit, the theory unit, the medicine unit to hold the system and make it a better platform to provide different kinds of service . not only these but also for children there should be some segments. Emergency units are the utmost important part and need special attention to maintain. Any emergency service will be the center of the whole system . many legal factors also can be a part of this system .  reception to the treatment chair, isolated ICU room to cytotoxic room and their proper maintenance should be counted under this section. Not only the children but there also will be facilities for their parents.

UoW diagram of the pediatric oncology department.


Figure 2: UoW diagram of the pediatric oncology department.

(Source: Green, 2020)

A neonatal care unit is also important for the support system.  A proper functional laboratory and ambulance are also very crucial.  convenient access for car parking and ambulance also should be their c. Management and proper monitoring of all the segments need a good team and good performance(Sabri et al., 2019). In the medical system, a minute late if any working system results in a severe fatal accident. Every unit will be properly segmented and easily accessible for the patient team and also a map of each unit should be provided to easily find out the unit. There are so many units in an oncology health center and they work for 24 x 7 w. Their duties should be divided regularly for work accuracy management. Handling a staff member providing the appropriate service to the patient, maintaining a curriculum element, organize a proper time and labor management are the vital department of the health system.

c. Choose one relationship (options: either task force or service) between two UoWs from your answer to Q1 (b) and develop a 1st cut process architecture. 

Handling staff, their duties toward patients and the following treatment process are addressed in this process. the following architecture model represents the relationship between those vital elements of the healthcare system. By providing the model it is easy to understand how other elements of the system are connected with others(Gottschalk et al., 2017). One part of the care system id fails to provide required service the other segment also be no use. So monitoring irregularly is the major activity for a good healthcare system . Delivering the service and starting the unit are the two main parts of the model. One unit is linked in series with another.


1st cut architecture model


Figure3: 1st cut architecture model

(Source: Green, 2020)

d. Refine the 1st cut process architecture in Q1(c) to generate a respective 2nd cut process architecture. 

Cut process architecture model the second phase is generally generated to refine the fine one. The close relationship between any two elements shows the process in a detailed way. The process is very relevant in case the unit of work respects. the unit of a multidisciplinary system is framed in a model structure and makes it easy to understand the whole system. Here the different types of phase-cut models are provided to represent the model and show their representation as based on activities. But the elements are different for different organizations. The healthcare system deals with different sets of units and business entities(Mossialos et al., 2019). so the element is different in the model but the purpose is similar and relevant. the patients and their treatment are included in this part. The whole process is considered in terms of long respective activities such as detection of the diseases here cancer, treatment, surgery, post-treatment follow up all are connected depending on the different unit system .  proper diagnosis, then proper treatment, a successful surgery, proper care all matter in this regard. Emergency service also has multiple distributions from ICU to the operation theatre. Every aspect of the system should be handled with an efficient team.

2nd cut architecture model


Figure 5: 2nd cut architecture model

(Source : Green, 2020)

2nd cut architecture model


Figure 6: 2nd  cut architecture model

(Source: Green, 2020)

Q2. Identify one Riva Case Process from your answer in Q1 (d). Describe the workflow in this case process textually and then model it using either RAD or BPMN.  You may consult domain experts in the field of pediatrics oncology while in the process of developing the textual description of your selected case process.

RIVA case process could be described as a certain model, which helps in the process of business process architecture modeling. The Riva based method tends to lack the integration of the business goals for the purpose of deriving the process of the business process architecture. This develops or aligns various business goals to a certain business process architecture model (Zhang and Wang, 2018). There are various approaches that are used for the purpose of business process architecture modeling. The major model that is used in this case includes the ones that are based on Riva. The minimum rate of integration of the goal of business to derive the overall process of the business processes architecture development and align of the goals to a certain model of business process architecture that already exists within the architecture is a vital step. A certain novel approach could be used including i*-based for the purpose of aligning Riva business process architecture with various goals of the business (Bharatula and Meenakshi, 2016). This is further done with the help of complete traceability in the directions for tackling various shortcomings. 

Riva based business process architecture

Figure 1: Riva based business process architecture

(Source: Created by the learner)

The website RIVA case had been designed such that an organization is able to deliver maximum purposeful data to its visitors along with various customers to their brand. This does not include any danger of the organization is subjected to various ineligible as well as unwanted data collection that is personal in nature (Ren and Zhang, 2017). This particular privacy policy is generally compiled according to the European data privacy law, which is newly introduced; this is because generally professionals are concerned regarding how their personally identifiable data could be used through online mediums. PII could be stated as data that could be used on its own as well as with other data for identification, contacting and locate a particular person. It could further be used for the purpose of identifying a certain individual in various contexts. For the purpose of security as well as technical reasons, a certain operator automatically processes data that is communicated to the users with the help of processes data that is communicated to the users. This is done through the browser of the customer in their system protocols (Srivastava and Soman, 2017). To be specific, this means the collection of IP addresses, name of the file that is retrieved, volume of the information that is transferred, reports to weather retrieval had been successful, reports regarding why a certain retrieval had failed, the name of provider of the internet service, browsing data, operating system and website using which the website had been visited. 

Q3. Following the algorithm described in Odeh M and Kamm R paper “Bridging the Gap between Business Process Models and Systems Models” suggest how would you map the above-modeled case process in Q2 into a use-case model in an attempt to bridge the gap between this selected case process and a respectively derived use-case model. Accordingly, draw a use-case view of this case process model.

The use case in the case had been produced with the help of transactions and various states that have been obtained from RAD. The case process model that had been presented above could be used and a use case diagram could be derived based on the requirements of the organization (Si and You, 2017). The use case models generally serve a similar purpose but they are designed using various methods, which could make the model even more effective for the organization and hence improve their business processes. The use case model that would be provided for this particular case is providing below (Ghasemi and Nejad, 2017). This model would define a reception system for the X hospital. 


use case


Figure 2: use case

(Source: Created by the learner)

The use case diagram that is provided above has numerous attributes. The use case describes the functions of the reception department of the hospital (Ghasemi and Nejad, 2017). This process includes a receptionist. The receptionist is directly linked with various tasks including the scheduling of appointments for patients, scheduling the hospital admission for the service receiver, patient registration, and hospital admission of the patients, insurance of files, claims and forms. It further includes some additional functions including the file medical reports. The middle activity naming patient registration further includes various activities such as the admission of outpatients in the hospital and admission of inpatient in the hospital. This further includes an allotment of beds (Ghasemi and Nejad, 2017).  These functions are the ones that are compulsory in a hospital; management system. The reception use case would be used for the purpose of managing the reception system within the hospital management system. 

use case

Figure 3: use case

(Source: Created by the learner)

The use case provided above is a description of the functions that would be undertaken within the hospital system. Some of the attributes in this system include the patients, the doctors, the receptionist and some more (Ghasemi and Nejad, 2017). This is similar to the one that had been presented above. In this case, the functions of some of the attributes have also been mentioned. For example, it mentions the functions that are supposed to be carried out within the hospital management system. Apart from this, the internal functions that are carried out within the system had also been represented. Some of the functions including maintaining the health records of the patients.

Q4: Produce a use-case view of the business area of the case process in Q2 using only the textual description you provided in the same question. This use-case view should show interactions with respective actor(s) and relationships (such as <<extend>>, and <<include>>) with other use-cases.

Use case view generally a diagram model where all the elements are considered to represent their similarities and connection link. relationship and the connection between the provider and the recipient are addressed in this model.  This kind of model depicts the sequences of interactions between the object and the working processes.  It is very useful to illustrate and describe the architecture model and also analyze each element of that architecture design.  They also maintain a starting point if any operational process as well as a prototype. various scenarios of a system can be depicted from this view model. Besides this, this view model explains the target of the system that the users, as well as the other systems, want to achieve from interacting with the system.  The various significant technical subset of the models are the use case model, the level package, actors, use cases, etc . generic model of workflow like activity, sequence, collaboration, statechart are an integral part of this model(Díaz-Díaz et al., 2017). This represents the actions that direct to enable it to abandon a goal for a fully functional system and also help to decide to visualize the concept(Caetano et al., 2017). The three main integral parts of this model are initiators, steps performed or the activities, and the last conditions, assumptions or the relevant questions.

 use case model


Figure 7:  use case model

(Source: Green, 2020)


use case model

Figure 8:  use case model

(Source: Green, 2020)

Q5: Contrast the derived use-case in Q3 to the one modelled in Q4. In particular, comment on the relative comprehensiveness and correctness of derived model to use-case modelled using the textual interpretations only. 

Here the difference lies in the model design. the first one shows the reception management use case model which provided a simple use case model having a basic element of the model system such as actor, use case, associations, links, etc. But the second one represents the advanced model which also provides extra information and thus helps to improve visualization of the whole system . the key elements of these advanced models have additional elements like a  common subject, use case package, generic form, dependencies of the element. The first one mainly provides the reception as a business use case view but the second one provides the visual representation of the whole business system .  Reaching out for a particular purpose is the ultimate way for this view model. Therefore it can be considered as the methodology for system analysis, identification of proper framework for the business system, clarification of the activities and help to organize the system requirements

Q6: Suggest and specify six Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs) for the selected process in Q2 with 2 NFRs for each type i.e. product, process and externally related with particular emphasis on legal, social, ethical, and professional issues.

There are several nonfunctional requirements for the Riva process architecture software-based multidisciplinary healthcare system . the specification for all those requirements includes hospital management systems which mainly concern security, the performance of the system, maintainability, monitoring, reliability regarding any privacy issue.  A proper security system needs several factors like patient identification with valid id proof, proper log in id for using a system with a strong password, modifications  ( insert, delete, update, etc) for the database so that the system can be synced quickly and can be executed only by administers(Lombardi and Schwabe , 2017).  Rights for staff, peoents, and administration systems are needed with a proper rule and regulation guide. Performance and maintainability are also important in this measure so that response time, capacity of the system, conformity with proper software guidelines, a proper efficient backup system and error management help the system to provide better service.  reliability of the system depends on several factors for privacy management to availability of  a system for all the time especially for emergency purpose